Aug 022017
 
The digital flyer for my CODI 2017 show - huge thanks to the CODI interns for creating this.

As we reach the end of the academic year, and I begin gearing up for the delightful chaos of the Edinburgh Fringe and my show, Is Your Online Reputation Hurting You?, I thought this would be a good time to look back on a busy recent few months of talks and projects (inspired partly by Lorna Campbell’s post along the same lines!).

This year the Managing Your Digital Footprint work has been continuing at a pace…

We began the year with funding from the Principal’s Teaching Award Scheme for a new project, led by Prof. Sian Bayne: “A Live Pulse”: Yik Yak for Teaching, Learning and Research at Edinburgh. Sian, Louise Connelly (PI for the original Digital Footprint research), and I have been working with the School of Informatics and a small team of fantastic undergraduate student research associates to look at Yik Yak and anonymity online. Yik Yak closed down this spring which has made this even more interesting as a cutting edge research project. You can find out more on the project blog – including my recent post on addressing ethics of research in anonymous social media spaces; student RA Lilinaz’s excellent post giving her take on the project; and Sian’s fantastic keynote from#CALRG2017, giving an overview of the challenges and emerging findings from this work. Expect more presentations and publications to follow over the coming months.

Over the last year or so Louise Connelly and I have been busy developing a Digital Footprint MOOC building on our previous research, training and best practice work and share this with the world. We designed a three week MOOC (Massive Open Online Course) that runs on a rolling basis on Coursera – a new session kicks off every month. The course launched this April and we were delighted to see it get some fantastic participant feedback and some fantastic press coverage (including a really positive experience of being interviewed by The Sun).

The MOOC has been going well and building interest in the consultancy and training work around our Digital Footprint research. Last year I received ISG Innovation Fund support to pilot this service and the last few months have included great opportunities to share research-informed expertise and best practices through commissioned and invited presentations and sessions including those for Abertay University, University of Stirling/Peer Review Project Academic Publishing Routes to Success event, Edinburgh Napier University, Asthma UK’s Patient Involvement Fair, CILIPS Annual Conference, CIGS Web 2.0 & Metadata seminar, and ReCon 2017. You can find more details of all of these, and other presentations and workshops on the Presentations & Publications page.

In June an unexpected short notice invitation came my way to do a mini version of my Digital Footprint Cabaret of Dangerous Ideas show as part of the Edinburgh International Film Festival. I’ve always attended EIFF films but also spent years reviewing films there so it was lovely to perform as part of the official programme, working with our brilliant CODI compare Susan Morrison and my fellow mini-CODI performer, mental health specialist Professor Steven Lawrie. We had a really engaged audience with loads of questions – an excellent way to try out ideas ahead of this August’s show.

Also in June, Louise and I were absolutely delighted to find out that our article (in Vol. 11, No. 1, October 2015) for ALISS Quarterly, the journal of the Association of Librarians and Information Professionals in the Social Sciences, had been awarded Best Article of the Year. Huge thanks to the lovely folks at ALISS – this was lovely recognition for our article, which can read in full in the ALISS Quarterly archive.

In July I attended the European Conference on Social Media (#ecsm17) in Vilnius, Lithuania. In addition to co-chairing the Education Mini Track with the lovely Stephania Manca (Italian National Research Council), I was also there to present Louise and my Digital Footprint paper, “Exploring Risk, Privacy and the Impact of Social Media Usage with Undergraduates“, and to present a case study of the EDINA Digital Footprint consultancy and training service for the Social Media in Practice Excellence Awards 2017. I am delighted to say that our service was awarded 2nd place in those awards!

Social Media in Practice Excellence Award 2017 - 2nd place - certificate

My Social Media in Practice Excellence Award 2017 2nd place certificate (still awaiting a frame).

You can read more about the awards – and my fab fellow finalists Adam and Lisa – in this EDINA news piece.

On my way back from Lithuania I had another exciting stop to make at the Palace of Westminster. The lovely folk at the Parliamentary Digital Service invited me to give a talk, “If I Googled you, what would I find? Managing your digital footprint” for their Cyber Security Week which is open to members, peers, and parliamentary staff. I’ll have a longer post on that presentation coming very soon here. For now I’d like to thank Salim and the PDS team for the invitation and an excellent experience.

The digital flyer for my CODI 2017 show - huge thanks to the CODI interns for creating this.

The digital flyer for my CODI 2017 show (click to view a larger version) – huge thanks to the CODI interns for creating this.

The final big Digital Footprint project of the year is my forthcoming Edinburgh Fringe show, Is Your Online Reputation Hurting You? (book tickets here!). This year the Cabaret of Dangerous Ideas has a new venue – the New Town Theatre – and two strands of events: afternoon shows; and “Cabaret of Dangerous Ideas by Candlelight”. It’s a fantastic programme across the Fringe and I’m delighted to be part of the latter strand with a thrilling but challengingly competitive Friday night slot during peak fringe! However, that evening slot also means we can address some edgier questions so I will be talking about how an online reputation can contribute to fun, scary, weird, interesting experiences, risks, and opportunities – and what you can do about it.

QR code for CODI17 Facebook Event

Help spread the word about my CODI show by tweeting with #codi17 or sharing the associated Facebook event.

To promote the show I will be doing a live Q&A on YouTube on Saturday 5th August 2017, 10am. Please do add your questions via Twitter (#codi17digifoot) or via this anonymous survey and/or tune in on Saturday (the video below will be available on the day and after the event).

So, that’s been the Digital Footprint work this spring/summer… What else is there to share?

Well, throughout this year I’ve been working on a number of EDINA’s ISG Innovation Fund projects…

The Reference Rot in Theses: a HiberActive Pilot project has been looking at how to develop the fantastic prior work undertaken during the Andrew W. Mellon-funded Hiberlink project (a collaboration between EDINA, Los Alamos National Laboratory, and the University of Edinburgh School of Informatics), which investigated “reference rot” (where URLs cease to work) and “content drift” (where URLs work but the content changes over time) in scientific scholarly publishing.

For our follow up work the focus has shifted to web citations – websites, reports, etc. – something which has become a far more visible challenge for many web users since January. I’ve been managing this project, working with developer, design and user experience colleagues to develop a practical solution around the needs of PhD students, shaped by advice from Library and University Collections colleagues.

If you are familiar with the Memento standard, and/or follow Herbert von de Sompel and Martin Klein’s work you’ll be well aware of how widespread the challenge of web citations changing over time can be, and the seriousness of the implications. The Internet Archive might be preserving all the (non-R-rated) gifs from Geocities but without preserving government reports, ephemeral content, social media etc. we would be missing a great deal of the cultural record and, in terms of where our project comes in, crucial resources and artefacts in many modern scholarly works. If you are new the issue of web archiving I would recommend a browse of my notes from the IIPC Web Archiving Week 2017 and papers from the co-located RESAW 2017 conference.

A huge part of the HiberActive project has been working with five postgraduate student interns to undertake interviews and usability work with PhD students across the University. My personal and huge thanks to Clarissa, Juliet, Irene, Luke and Shiva!

Still from the HiberActive gif featuring Library Cat.

A preview of the HiberActive gif featuring Library Cat.

You can see the results of this work at our demo site, http://hiberactive.edina.ac.uk/, and we would love your feedback on what we’ve done. You’ll find an introductory page on the project as well as three tools for archiving websites and obtaining the appropriate information to cite – hence adopting the name one our interviewees suggested, Site2Cite. We are particularly excited to have a tool which enables you to upload a Word or PDF document, have all URLs detected, and which then returns a list of URLs and the archived citable versions (as a csv file).

Now that the project is complete, we are looking at what the next steps may be so if you’d find these tools useful for your own publications or teaching materials, we’d love to hear from you.  I’ll also be presenting this work at Repository Fringe 2017 later this week so, if you are there, I’ll see you in the 10×10 session on Thursday!

To bring the HiberActive to life our students suggested something fun and my colleague Jackie created a fun and informative gif featuring Library Cat, Edinburgh’s world famous sociable on-campus feline. Library Cat has also popped up in another EDINA ISG Innovation-Funded project, Pixel This, which my colleagues James Reid and Tom Armitage have been working on. This project has been exploring how Pixel Sticks could be used around the University. To try them out properly I joined the team for fun photography night in George Square with Pixel Stick loaded with images of notable University of Edinburgh figures. One of my photos from that night, featuring the ghostly image of the much missed Library Cat (1.0) went a wee bit viral over on Facebook:

James Reid and I have also been experimenting with Tango-capable phone handsets in the (admittedly daftly named) Strictly Come Tango project. Tango creates impressive 3D scans of rooms and objects and we have been keen to find out what one might do with that data, how it could be used in buildings and georeferenced spaces. This was a small exploratory project but you can see a wee video on what we’ve been up to here.

In addition to these projects I’ve also been busy with continuing involvement in the Edinburgh Cityscope project, which I sit on the steering group for. Cityscope provided one of our busiest events for this spring’s excellent Data Festread more about EDINA’s participation in this new exciting event around big data, data analytics and data driven innovation, here.

I have also been working on two rather awesome Edinburgh-centric projects. Curious Edinburgh officially launched for Android, and released an updated iOS app, for this year’s Edinburgh International Science Festival in April. The app includes History of Science; Medicine; Geosciences; Physics; and a brand new Biotechnology tours that led you explore Edinburgh’s fantastic scientific legacy. The current PTAS-funded project is led by Dr Niki Vermeulen (Science, Technology & Innovation Studies), with tours written by Dr Bill Jenkins, and will see the app used in teaching around 600 undergraduate students this autumn. If you are curious about the app (pun entirely intended!), visiting Edinburgh – or just want to take a long distance virtual tour – do download the app, rate and review it, and let us know what you think!

Image of the Curious Edinburgh History of Biotechnology and Genetics Tour.

A preview of the new Curious Edinburgh History of Biotechnology and Genetics Tour.

The other Edinburgh project which has been progressing at a pace this year is LitLong: Word on the Street, an AHRC-funded project which builds on the prior LitLong project to develop new ways to engage with Edinburgh’s rich literary heritage. Edinburgh was the first city in the world to be awarded UNESCO City of Literature status (in 2008) and there are huge resources to draw upon. Prof. James Loxley (English Literature) is leading this project, which will be showcased in some fun and interesting ways at the Edinburgh International Book Festival this August. Keep an eye on litlong.org for updates or follow @litlong.

And finally… Regular readers here will be aware that I’m Convener for eLearning@ed (though my term is up and I’ll be passing the role onto a successor later this year – nominations welcomed!), a community of learning technologists and academic and support staff working with technologies in teaching and learning contexts. We held our big annual conference, eLearning@ed 2017: Playful Learning this June and I was invited to write about it on the ALTC Blog. You can explore a preview and click through to my full article below.

Playful Learning: the eLearning@ed Conference 2017

Phew! So, it has been a rather busy few months for me, which is why you may have seen slightly fewer blog posts and tweets from me of late…

In terms of the months ahead there are some exciting things brewing… But I’d also love to hear any ideas you may have for possible collaborations as my EDINA colleagues and I are always interested to work on new projects, develop joint proposals, and work in new innovative areas. Do get in touch!

And in the meantime, remember to book those tickets for my CODI 2017 show if you can make it along on 11th August!

Aug 102016
 
Nicola Osborne presenting the Digital Footprint poster at ECSM2016

It has been a while since I’ve posted something other than a liveblog here but it has been a busy summer so it seems like a good time to share some updates…

A Growing Digital Footprint

Last September I was awarded some University of Edinburgh IS Innovation Fund support to develop a pilot training and consultancy service to build upon the approaches and findings of our recent PTAS-funded Managing Your Digital Footprint research project.

During that University of Edinburgh-wide research and parallel awareness-raising campaign we (my colleague – and Digital Footprint research project PI – Louise Connelly of IAD/Vet School, myself, and colleagues across the University) sought to inform students of the importance of digital tracks and traces in general, particularly around employment and “eProfessionalism”. This included best practice advice around use of social media, personal safety and information security choices, and thoughtful approaches to digital identity and online presences. Throughout the project we were approached by organisations outside of the University for similar training, advice, and consulting around social media best practices and that is how the idea for this pilot service began to take shape.

Over the last few months I have been busy developing the pilot, which has involved getting out and about delivering social media training sessions for clients including NHS Greater Glasgow and Clyde (with Jennifer Jones); for the British HIV Association (BHIVA) with the British Association for Sexual Health and HIV (BASHH) (also with Jennifer Jones); developing a “Making an Impact with your Blog” Know How session for the lovely members of Culture Republic; leading a public engagement session for the very international gang at EuroStemCell, and an “Engaging with the Real World” session for the inspiring postgrads attending the Scottish Graduate School of Social Science Summer School 2016. I have also been commissioned by colleagues in the College of Arts, Humanities and Social Sciences to create an Impact of Social Media session and accompanying resources (the latter of which will continue to develop over time). You can find resources and information from most of these sessions over on my presentations and publications page.

These have been really interesting opportunities and I’m excited to see how this work progresses. If you do have an interest in social media best practice, including advice for your organisation’s social media practice, developing your online profile, or managing your digital footprint, please do get in touch and/or pass on my contact details. I am in the process of writing up the pilot and looking at ways myself and my colleagues can share our expertise and advice in this area.

Adventures in MOOCs and Yik Yak

So, what next?

Well, the Managing Your Digital Footprint team have joined up with colleagues in the Language Technology Group in the School of Informatics for a new project looking at Yik Yak. You can read more about the project, “A Live Pulse: Yik Yak for Understanding Teaching, Learning and Assessment at Edinburgh“, on the Digital Education Research Centre website. We are really excited to explore Yik Yak’s use in more depth as it is one of a range of “anonymous” social networking spaces that appear to be emerging as important alternative spaces for discussion as mainstream social media spaces lose favour/become too well inhabited by extended families, older contacts, etc.

Our core Managing Your Digital Footprint research also continues… I presented a paper, co-written with Louise Connelly, at the European Conference on Social Media 2016 this July on “Students’ Digital Footprints: curation of online presences, privacy and peer support”. This summer we also hosted visiting scholar Rachel Buchanan of University of Newcastle, Australia who has been leading some very interesting work into digital footprints across Australia. We are very much looking forward to collaborating with Rachel in the future – watch this space!

And, more exciting news: my lovely colleague Louise Connelly (University of Edinburgh Vet School) and I have been developing a Digital Footprint MOOC which will go live later this year. The MOOC will complement our ongoing University of Edinburgh service (run by IAD) and external consultancy word (led by us in EDINA) and You can find out much more about that in this poster, presented at the European Conference on Social Media 2016, earlier this month…

Preview of Digital Footprint MOOC Poster

Alternatively, you could join me for my Cabaret of Dangerous Ideas 2016 show….

Cabaret of Dangerous Ideas 2016 - If I Googled You, What Would I Find? Poster

The Cabaret of Dangerous Ideas runs throughout the Edinburgh Fringe Festival but every performance is different! Each day academics and researchers share their work by proposing a dangerous idea, a provocative question, or a challenge, and the audience are invited to respond, discuss, ask difficult questions, etc. It’s a really fun show to see and to be part of – I’ve now been fortunate enough to be involved each year since it started in 2013. You can see a short video on #codi2016 here:

In this year’s show I’ll be talking about some of those core ideas around managing your digital footprint, understanding your online tracks and traces, and reflecting on the type of identity you want to portray online. You can find out more about my show, If I Googled You What Would I Find, in my recent “25 Days of CODI” blog post:

25 Days of CoDI: Day 18

You’ll also find a short promo film for the series of data, identity, and surveillance shows at #codi2016 here:

So… A very busy summer of social media, digital footprints, and exciting new opportunities. Do look out for more news on the MOOC, the YikYak work and the Digital Footprint Training and Consultancy service over the coming weeks and months. And, if you are in Edinburgh this summer, I hope to see you on the 21st at the Stand in the Square!

 

Jul 122016
 

This week I am at the European Conference on Social Media 2016. I’m presenting later today, and have a poster tomorrow, but will also be liveblogging here. As usual the blog is live so there may be small errors or typos – all corrections and additions are very much welcomed!

We are starting with an introduction to EM Normandie, which has 4 campuses and 3000 students.

Introduction from Sue Nugus, ACPI, welcoming us to the event and the various important indexing etc.

Christine Bernadas, ECSM is co-chair and from EM Normandie, is introducing our opening keynote Abi Ouni, Co-founder and CEO of Spectrum Group. [http://www.spectrumgroupe.fr/]

Keynote Address:Ali Ouni,Spectrum Group, France – Researchers in Social Media, Businesses Need You!!!

My talk today is about why businesses need social media. And that, although we have been using social media for the last 10-15 years, we still need some approaches and frameworks to make better use of it.

My own personal background is in Knowledge Manageent, with a PhD from the Ecole Centrale Paris and Renault. Then moved to KAP IT as Head of Enterprise 2.0, helping companies to integrate new technologies, social media, in their businesses. I belive this is a hard question – the issue of how we integrate social media in our businesses. And then in 2011 I co-founded Spectrum Groupe, a consulting firm of 25 people who work closely with researchers to define new approaches to content management, knowledge management, to define new approaches. And our approach is to design end to end approaches, from diagnostic, to strategy development through to technologies, knowledge management, etc.

When Christine asked me to speak today I said “OK, but I am no longer a researcher”, I did that 12-15 years ago, I am now a practitioner. So I have insights but we need you to define the good research questions based on them.

I looked back at what has been said about social media in the last 10-15 years: “Organisationz cannot afford not to be listening to what is being said about them or interacting with their customers in the space where they are spending their time and, increasingly, their money too” (Malcolm Alder, KPMG, 2011).

And I agree with that. This space has high potential for enterprises… So, lets start with two slides with some statistics. So, these statistics are from We Are Social’s work on digital trends. They find internet activity increasing by 10% every year; 10% growth in social media users; and growth of 4% in social media users accessing via mobile; which takes us to 17% of the total population actively engaging in social media on mobile.

So, in terms of organisations going to social media, it is clearly important. Ut it is also a confusion question. We can see that in 2010 70%+ of big international organisations were actively using social media, but of these 80% have not achieved the intended businesses. So, businesses are expending time and energy on social media but they are not accruing all of the benefits that they have targeted.

So, for me social media are new ways of working, new business models, new opportunities, but also bringing new risks and challenges. And there are questions to be answered that we face every day in an organisational context.

The Social Media Landscape today is very very diverse, there is a high density… There are many platforms, sites, medias… Organisationsa re confused by this landscape and they require help to navigate this space. The choice they have is usually to go to the biggest social media in terms of total users – but is that a good strategy? They need to choose sites with good business value. There are some challenges when considering external sites versus internal sites – should they replicate functionality themselves? And where are the values and risks of integrating social media platforms with enterprise IT systems? For instance listening to social media and making connecting back to CRMs (Customer Relationship Management System(s)).

What about using social media for communications? You can experiement, and learn from those… But that makes more sense when these tools are new, and they are not anymore. Is experimenting always the best approach? How ca we move faster? Clients often ask if they can copy/adopt the digital strategies of their competitors but I think generally not, that these approaches have to be specific to the context and audience.

Social media has a fast evolution speed, so agility is required… Organisations can struggle with that in terms of their own speed of organizational change. A lot of agility is requires to address new technologies, new use cases, new skills. And decisions over skills and whether to own the digital transformation process, or to delegate to others.

The issue of Return on Investment (ROI) is long standing but still important. Existing models do not work well with social media – we are in a new space, new technology, a new domain. There is a need to justify the value of these kinds of projects, but I think a good approach is to work on new social constructs, such as engagement, sentiment, retention, “ROR” – Return on Relationship, collective intelligence… But how does one measure these?

And organisations face challenges of governance… Understanding rules and policies of engagement on social media, on understanding issues of privacy and data protection. And thought around who can engage on social media.

So, I have presented some key challenges… Just a few. There are many more on culture, change, etc. that need to be addressed. I think that it is important that businesses and researchers work together on social media.

Q&A

Q1) Could you tell me something on Return on Relationships… ?

A1) This is a new approach. Sometimes the measure of Return on Investment is to measure every conversation and all time spent… ROR is about long term relationships with customers, partners, suppliers… and it is about having benefits after a longer period of time, rather than immediate Return on Investment. So some examples include turning some customers into advocates –so they become your best salespeople. That isn’t easy, but organisations are really very aware about these social constructs.

Q1) And how would you calculate that?

Comment) That is surely ROI still?

Comment) So, if I have a LinkedIn contact, and they buy my software, then that is a return on investment, and value from social capital… There is a time and quality gain too – you identify key contact and context here. Qualitative but eventually quantitative.

A1) There absolutely is a relationship between ROR and ROI.

Q2) It was interesing to hear your take on research. What you said reminded me of 20 years ago when we talked about “Quality Management” and there was a tension between whether that should be its own role, or part of everyone’s role.

A2) Yes, so we have clients that do want “community management” and ask us to do that for them – but they are the experts in their own work and relationships. The quality of content is key, and they have that expertise. Our expertise is around how to use social media as part of that. The good approach is to think about new ways to work with customers, and to define with our consulting customers what they need to do that. We have a coaching role, helping them to design a good approach.

Q3) Thank you for your presentation. I would like to ask you if you could think of a competency framework for good community management, and how you would implement that.

A3) I couldn’t define that framework, but I think rom what I see there are some key skills in community management are about expertise – people from the business who understands their own structure, needs, knowledge. I think that communication skills need to be good – writing skills, identifying good questions, an ability to spot and transform key questions. From our experience, knowing the enterprise, communication skills and coordinating skills are all key.

Q3) What about emotional engagement?

A3) I think emotional engagement is both good and dangerous. It is good to be invested in the role, but if they are too invested there is a clear line to draw beteen professional engagement and personal engagement. And that can make it dangerous.

Stream B – Mini Track on Empowering Women Through Social Media (Chair – Danilo Piaggesi)

Danilo: I proposed this mini track as I saw that the issues facing women in social media were different, but that women were self-organising and addressing these issues, so that is the genesis of this strand. My own background is in ICT in development and developing countries – which is why I am interested in this area of social media… The UN Sustainable Development Goals (SDG), which include ICT, have been defined as needing to apply to developing and developed countries. And there is a specific goal dedicated to Women and ICT, which has a deadline of 2030 to achieve this SDG.

Sexting & Intimate Relations Online: Identifying How People Construct Emotional Relationships Online & Intimacies Offline
Spurling – Esme, Coventry University, West Midlands, UK

Sexting and intimate relations online have accelerated with the use of phones and smart phones, particularly platforms such as SnapChat and Whats App… Sexting for the purpose of this paper is about the sharing of intimate texts through digital information. But this raises complexity for real life relationships, and how the online experience relates to that, and how heterosexual relationships are mediated. My work is based on interviewees.

I will be talking about “sex selfies”, which are distributed to a global audience online. These selfies (Ellie is showing examples on the “sexselfie” hashtags) purport to be intimate, despite their global sharing and nature. The hashtags here (established around 2014) show heterosexual couples… There is (by comparison to non-heterosexual selfies) a real focus on womens bodies, which is somewhat at odds with the expectations of girls and women showing an interest in sex. Are we losing our memory of what is intimate? Are sexselfies a way to share and retain that memory?

I spoke to women in the UK and US for my research. All men approached refused to be interviewed. We have adapted to the way we communicate face to face through the way we connect online. My participants reflect social media trends already reported in the media, of the blurring of different spheres of public and private. And that is feeding into our intimate lives too. Prensky (2001) refers to this generation as “Digital Natives” (I insert my usual disclaimer that this is the speaker not me!), and it seems that this group are unable to engage in that intimacy without sharing that experience. And my work focuses on shairng online, and how intimacy is formed offline. I took an ethnographic approach, and my participants are very much of a similar age to me, which helped me to connect as I spoke to them about their intimate relationships.

There becomes a dependency on mobile technologies, of demand and expectation… And that is leading to a “leisure for pleasure” mentality (Cruise?)… You need that reward and return for sharing, and that applies to sexting. Amy Hassenhof notes that sexting can be considered a broadcast media. And mainstream media has also been scrutinising sexting and technology, and giving coverage to issues such as “Revenge Porn” – which was made a criminal offence in 2014. This made texting more taboo and changed public perceptions – with judgement online of images of bodies shared on Twitter. When men participate they sidestep a label, being treated in the highly gendered “boys will be boys” casualness. By contrast women showing their own agency may be subject to “slut shaming” (2014 onwards), but sexting continues. And I was curious to find out why this continues, and how the women in my studies relate to comments that may be made about them. Although there is a feeling of safety (and facelessness) about posting online, versus real world practices.

An expert interview with Amy Hassenhof raised the issue of expectations of privacy – that most of those sexting expect their image to be private to the recipient. Intimate information shared through technology becomes tangled with surveillance culture that is bound up with mobile technologies. Smartphones have cameras, microphone… This contributes to a way of imagining the self that is formed only by how we present ourselves online.

The ability to sext online continues despite Butler noting the freedom of expression online, but also the way in which others comment and make a real impact on the lives of those sharing.

In conclusion it is not clear the extent to which digital natives are sharing deliberately – perceptions seemed to change as a result of the experience encountered. One of my participants felt less in control after reflective interviews about her practice, than she had before. We demand communication instantly… But this form of sharing enables emotional reliving of the experience.

Q&A

Q1) Really interesting research. Do you have any insights in why no men wanted to take part?

A1) The first thing is that I didn’t want to interview anyone that I knew. When I did the research I was a student, I managed to find fellow student participants but the male participants cancelled… But I have learned a lot about research since I undertook my evidence gathering. Women were happy to talk about – perhaps because they felt judged online. There is a lot I’d do differently in terms of the methodology now.

Q2) What is the psychological rationale for sharing details like the sex selfies… Or even what they are eating. Why is that relevant for these people?

A2) I think that the reason for posting such explicit sexual images was to reinforce their heterosexual relationships and that they are part of the norm, as part of their identity online. They want others to know what they are doing… As their identity online. But we don’t know if they have that identity offline. When I interviewed Amy Hassenhof she suggested it’s a “faceless identity” – that we adopt a mask online, and feel able to say something really explicit…

A Social Network Game for Encouraging Girls to Engage in ICT and Entrepreneurship: Findings of the Project MIT-MUT
–  Natalie Denk, Alexander Pfeiffer and Thomas Wernbacher, Donau Universität Krems, Ulli Rohsner, MAKAM Research Gmbh, Wien, Austria and Bernhard Ertl,Universität der Bundeswehr, Munich, Germany

This work is based on a mixture of literature review, qualitative analysis of interviews with students and teachers, and the development of the MIT-MUT game, with input and reflection from students and teachers. We are testing the game, and will be sharing it with schools in Austria later this year.

Our intent was to broaden career perspectives of girls at the age of 12-14 – this is younger than is usually targeted but it is the age at which they have to start making decisions and steps in their academic life that will impact on their career. Their decisions are impacted by family, school, peer groups. But the issue is that a lot of girls don’t even see a career in ICT as an option. We want them to show that that is a possibility, to show them the skills they already have, and that this offers a wide range of opportunities, possible career pathways. We also want to provide a route to mentors who are role models, as this is still a male dominated field especially when it comes to entrepreneurship.

Children and young people today grow up as “digital natives” (Prensky 2001) (again, my usual critical caveat), they have a strong affinity towards digital media, they frequently use internet, they use social media networks – primarily WhatsApp, but also Facebook and Instagram. Girls also play games – it’s not just boys that enjoy online gaming – and they do that on their phones. So we wanted to bring this all together.

The MIT-MUT game takes the form of a 7 week long live challenge. We piloted this in Oct/Nov 2015 with 6 schools and 65 actie players in 17 teams. The main tasks in the game are essentially role playing ICT entrepreneurship… Founding small start up companies, creating a company logo, and find an idea for an app for the target group of youth. They needed to then turn their game into a paper prototype – drawing screens and ideas on paper to demonstrate basic functionality and ideas. The girls had to make a video of this paper prototype, and also present their company on video. We deliberately put few technological barriers in place, but the focus was on technology, and the creative aspects of ICT. We wanted the girls to use their skills, to try different roles, to have opportunity to experiment and be creative.

To bring the schools and the project team we needed a central connecting point… We set up a SeN (Social Enterprise ?? Network), and we did that with Gemma – a Microsoft social networking tool for use within companies, that are closed to outside organisations. This was very important for us, given the young age and need for safety in our target user group. They had many of the risks and opportunities of any social network but in this safe bounded space. And, to make this more interesting for the girls, we created a fictional mentor character, “Rachel Lovelace” (named for Ada Lovelace), who is a Silicon Valley entrepreneur, coming to Austria to invest. And the students see a video introduction – we had an actress record about 15 video messages. So everything from the team was through the character of Rachel, whether video or in her network.

A social network like Gemma is perfect for gamification aspects – we did have winners and prizes – but we also had achievements throughout the challenge for finishing a face, making a key contribution, etc. And if course there is a “like” button, the ability to share or praise someone in the space, etc. We also created some mini games, based on favourite genres of the girls – the main goal of these were as starting points for discussing competencies in ICT and Entrepreneurship contexts. With the idea that if you play this game you have these competencies, and why not considering doing more with that.

So, within Gemma, the interface looks a lot like Facebook… And I’ll show you one of these paper prototypes in action (it’s very nicely done!), see all of the winning videos: http://www.mitmut.at/?page_id=940.

To evaluate this work we had a quantitative approach – part of the game presented by Rachel – as well as a quantitative approach based on feedback from teachers and some parents. We had 65 girls, 17 teams, 78% completed the challenge at least to phase 4 (the video presentation – all the main tasks completed). 26% participated in the voting phase (phase 5). Of our participants 30 girls would recommend the game to others, 10 were uncertain, and 4 would not recommend the game. They did enjoy the creativity, design, the paper prototyping. They didn’t like the information/the way the game was structured. The communication within the game was rated in quite a mixed way – some didn’t like it, some liked it. The girls interested in ICT rated the structure and communication more highly than others. The girls stayed motivated but didn’t like the long time line of the game. And we saw a significant increase in knowledgeability of ICT professions, they reported increase in feeling talented, and they had a higher estimation of their own presentation skills.

In the qualitative approach students commented on the teamwork, the independence, the organisational skills, the presentation capabilities. They liked having a steady contact person (the Rachel Lovelace character), the chance of winning, and the feeling of being part of a specialist project.

So now we have a beta version, we have added a scoring system for contributions with points and stars. We had a voting process but didn’t punish girls for not delivering on time, wanted to be very open… But girls thought that we should have done this and given more objective, more strict feedback. And they wanted more honest and less enthusiastic feedback from “Rachel”. They felt she was too enthusiastic. We also restructured the information a bit…

For future development we’d like to make a parallel programme for boys. The girls appreciated the single sex nature of the network. And I would personally really like to develop a custom made social media network for better gamifiation integration, etc. And I’d like

Q&A

Q1) I was interested that you didn’t bring in direct technical skills – coding, e.g. on Raspberry PIs etc. Why was that?

A1) Intentionally skipped programming part… They have lessons and work on programming… But a lack of that idea of creative ways to use ICT, the logical and strategic skills you would need… But they already do informatics as part of their teaching.

Q2) You set this up because girls and women are less attracted to ICT careers… But what is the reason?

A2) I think they can’t imagine to have a career in ICT… I think that is mainly about gender stereotypes. They don’t really know women in ICT… And they can’t imagine what that is as a career, what it means, what that career looks like… And to act out their interests…

And with that I’ve switched to the Education track for the final part of this session… 

Social Media and Theatre Pedagogy for the 21C: Arts-Based Inquiry in Drama Education – Amy Roberts and Wendy Barber, University of Ontario, Canada

Amy is starting her presentation with a video on social media and performance pedagogy, the blurring of boundaries and direct connection that it affords. The video notes that “We have become a Dramaturgical Community” and that we decide how we present ourselves.

Theatre does not exist without the audience, and theatre pedagogy exists at the intersection between performance and audience. Cue another video – this time more of a co-presentation video – on the experience of the audience being watched… Blau in The Audience (1990) talks about the audience “not so much as a mere congregation of people as a body of thought and desire”.  Being an audience member is now a standard part of everyday life – through YouTube, Twitter, Facebook, Vine… We see ourselves every day. The song “Digital Witness” by Saint Vincent sums this up pretty well.

YouTube Preview Image

Richard Allen in 2013 asked whether audience actually wants conclusive endings in their theatre, instead showing preference for more videogame open ended type experiences. When considering what modern audiences want… Liveness is prioritised in all areas of life and that that does speak to immediacy of theatre. Originally “live” was about co-presence but digital spaces are changing that. The feeling of liveness comes from our engagement with technology – if we engage with machines, like we do with humans, and there is a response, then that feels live and immediate. Real time experiences gives a feeling of liveness… One way to integrate that with theatre is through direct digital engagement across the audience, and with performance. Both Baker and Auslander agree that liveness is about immediate human contact.

The audience is demanding for live work that engages them in its creation and consumption through the social media spaces they use all the time. And that means educators have to be part of connecting the need for art and tech… So I want to share some of my experiences in attempting “drama tech” research. I’m calling this: “Publicly funded social board presents… Much ado about nothing”. I had been teaching dramatic arts for many years, looking at new technologies and the potential for new tools to enable students to produce “web theatre” around the “theatre of the oppressed” for their peers, with collaboration with audience as creator and viewer. I was curious to see how students would use the 6 second restriction of Vine, and that using familiar tools students could create tools familiar to the students.

The project had ethics approval… All was set but a board member blocked the project as Twitter and Vine “are not approved learning tools”… I was told I’d have to use Moodle… Now I’ve used Moodle before… And it’s great but NOT for theatre (see Nicholls and Phillip 2012). Eisner (2009) talks about “Education can learn from the arts that form and content cannot be separated.How something is said or done shapes the content of experience.”. The reason for this blocking was that there was potential that students might encounter risks and issues that they shouldn’t access… But surely that is true of television, of life, everything. We have to teach students to manage risks… Instead we have a culture of blocking of content, e.g. anything with “games” in the name – even if educational tools. How can you teach media literacy if you don’t have the support to do that, to open up. And this seems to be the case across publicly funded Ontario schools. I am still hoping to do this research in the future though…

Q&A

Q1) How do you plan to overcome those concerns?

A1) I’m trying to work with those in power… We had loads of safeguards in place… I was going to upload the content myself… It was really silly. The social media policy is just so strict.

Q1) They’ll have reasons, you have to engage with those to make that case…

Q2) Can I just ask what age this work was to take place with?

A2) I work with Grade 9-12… But this work specifically was going to focus on 17 and 18 year olds.

Q3) I think that many arts teachers are quite scared by technology – and you made that case well. You focus on technology as a key tool at the end there… And that has to be part of that argument.

A3) It’s both… You don’t teach hammer, you teach how you use the hammer… My presentation is part of a much bigger paper which does address both the traditional and that affordances of technology.

Having had a lovely chat with Amy over lunch, I have now joined Stream B – Monitoring and Privacy on Social media – Chair – Andree Roy

Monitoring Public Opinion by Measuring the Sentiment of Re-tweets on Twitter – LashariIntzar Ali and Uffe KockWiil,University of Southern Denmark, Denmark

I have just completed my PhD at the University of Southern Denmark, and I’ll be talking about some work I’ve been doing on measuring public opinion using social media. I have used Twitter to collect data – this is partly as Twitter is most readibly accessible and it is structured in a way that suits this type of analysis – it operates in real time, people use hashtags, and there are frequent actors and influencers in this space. And there are lots of tools available for analysis such as Tweetreach, Google Analytics, Cytoscope. My project, CBTA, is combining monitoring and analysis of Tweets…

I have been looking for dictation on geographical location based tweets, using a trend based data analyser, with data collection of a specific date and using network detection on negative comments. I also limited my analysis to tweets which have been retweeted – to show they have some impact. In terms of related studies supporting this approach: Steiglitx (2012) found that retweets is a simple powerful mechanism for information diffusion; Shen (2015) found re-tweeting behaviour is an influencing behaviour from the post of influential user. The sentiment analysis – a really useful quick assessment of content – looks at “positive”, “negative” and “neutral” content. I then used topic base monitoring an overview of the wider public. The intent was to move towards real-time monitoring and analysis capabilities.

So, the CBTA Tool display shows you trending topics, which you can pick from, and then you can view tweets and filter by positive, negative, or neutral posts. The tool is working and the code will be shared shortly. In this system there is a keyword search of tweets which collects tweets, these are then filtered. Once filtered (for spam etc), tweets are classified using NLTK which categorises into “Endorse RT”, “Oppose RT” and “Report RT”, the weighted retweets are then put through a process to compute net influence.

So for my work has looked at data from Pakistan around terms: Zarb-e-Azb; #OpZarbeAzb; #Zerb-e-asb etc. And I gathered tweets and retweets, and deduplicated those tweets with more than one hashtag. Once collected the algorithm for measuring re-tweets influence used follower counts, onward retweets etc. And looking at the influence here, most of the influential tweets were those with a positive/endorsing tone.

But we now have case studies for Twitter, but also for other social media sites. We will be making case studies available online. And looking at other factors, for instance we are interested in the location of tweets as a marker for accuracy/authenticity and to understand how other areas are influencing/influenced by global events.

Q&A

Q1) I have a question about the small amount of negative sentiment… What about sarcasm?

A1) When you look at data you will see I found many things… There was some sarcasm there… I have used NLTK but I added my own analysis to help deal with that.

Q2) So it registers all tweets right across Twitter? So can you store that data and re-parse it again if you change the sentiment analysis?

A2) Yes, I can reprocess it. In Twitter there is limited availability of Tweets for 7 days only so my work captures a bigger pool of tweets that can then be analysed.

Q3) Do you look at confidence scores here? Sentiment is one thing…

A3) Yes, this processing needs some human input to train it… But in this approach it is trained by data that is collected each week.

Social Media and the European Fundamental Rights to Privacy and Data Protection – BeyversEva, University of Passau and TilmanHerbrich, University of Leipzig, Germany

Tilman: Today we will be talking about Data Protection and particularly potential use in commercial contexts, particularly marketing. This is a real area of conflict in social media. We are going to talk about those fundamental rights to privacy and data protection in the EU, the interaction with other fundamental rights, and things like profiling etc. The Treaties and the Charter of Fundamental Rights (CFR) are primary law based on EU law. There is also secondary law including Directives (requiring transposition into national law, but are not binding until then), and Regulations (binding in entirity on all member states, they are automatically law in all member states).

In 2018 the CFR will become legally binding across the piece. In this change private entities and public bodies will all be impacted by the CFR. But how does one enforce those? They could institute a proceeding before a national court, then the National Court must refer questions to the European Court of Human Rights who will answer and provide clarifications, that will then enable the National Courts to take a judgement on the specific case at hand.

When we look across the stakeholders, we see that they all have different rights under the law. And that means there is a requirement to balance those rights. The European Court of Justice (ECJ) has always upheld that concerned rights and interests must be considered, evaluated and weighed in order to find an adequate balance between colliding fundamental rights – as an example the Google Spain Data Protection case in Spain where their commercial rights were deemed secondary to the inidividual rights to privacy.

Eva: Most social media sites are free to use, but this is made possible by highly profiled advertising. Profiling is articulated in Article 4 in the CFR as including aspects of behaviours, personality, etc. Profiling is already seen as an issue that is a threat to Data Protection. We would argue that it poses an even greater threat: users are frequently comfortable to give their real name in order to find others which means they are easily identifiable; users private lives are explicity part of the individual’s profile and may include sensitive data; further this broad and comprehensive data set has very wide scope.

So, on the one hand the users individual privacy is threatened, but so is the freedom to conduct a business (Art 16 CFR). The right to data protection (Article 8, CFR) rests on the idea of consent – and the way that consent is articulated in the law – that consent must be freely given, informed and specific – is incompatible with social networking services and the heavy level of data processing associated with them. These spaces adopt excessive processing, there is dynamic evolution of these platforms, and their concept is networking. Providers make changes in platform, affordances, advertising, etc. create continued changes of the use and collection of data – at odds with specific requirements for consent. The concept of networking means that individuals manage information that is not just about themselves but also others – their image, their location, etc. European Data Protection law does nothing to accommodate the privacy of others in this way. There has been no specific ruling on the interaction of business and personal rights here, but given previous trends it seems likely that business will win.

These data collections by social networking sites also has commercialisation potential to exploit users data. It is not clear how this will evolve – perhaps through greater national law in the changing or terms and conditions?

This is a real tension, with rights of businesses on one side, the individual on the other. The European legislator has upheld fundamental data protection law, but there is still much to examine here. We wanted to give you an overview of relevant concepts and rights in social media contexts and we hope that we’ve done this.

Q&A

Q1) How do these things change when Europe is outwith the legislative jurisdiction of most social media companies are – they are global
A1) General Data Protection Law 2018 will target companies in the EU, if they profile there. It was unclear until now… Previously you had to have a company here in Europe (usually Ireland), but in 2018 it will be very clear and very strict.

Q2) How has the European Court of Human rights fared so far in judgements?

A2) In Google Spain case, in another Digital Rights case the ECHR has upheld personal rights. And we see this also on the storage and retention of data… But the regulation is quite open, right now there are ways to circumvent.

Q3) What are the consequences of non-compliance? Maybe the profit I make is greater than that risk?

A3) That has been an issue until now. Fines have been small. From 2018 it will be up to 5% of worldwide revenue – that’s a serious fine!

Q4) Is private agreement… Is the law stronger than private agreement? Many agree without reading, or without understanding, are they protected if they agree to something illegal.

A4) Of course you are able to contract and agree to data use. But you have to be informed… So if you don’t understand, and don’t care… The legislator cannot change this. This is a problem we don’t have an approach for. You have to be informed, have to understand purpose, and understand means and methods, so without that information the consent is invalid.

Q5) There has been this Safe Harbour agreement breakdown. What impact is that having on regulations and practices?

A5) The regulations, probably not? But the effect is that data processing activities cannot be based on Safe Harbour agreement… So companies have to work around or work illegally etc. So now you can choose a Data Protection agreement – standardised contracts to cover this… But that is insecure too.

Digital Friendship on Facebook and Analog Friendship Skills – KordoutisPanagiotis, Panteion University of Social and Political Sciences, Athens and EvangeliaKourti,University of Athens, Greece

Panagiotis: My colleague and I were keen to look at friendship on Facebook. There is a lot of work on this topic of course, but very little work connecting Facebook and real life friendship from a psychological perspective. But lets start by seeing how Facebook describes itself and friendship… Facebook talk about “building, strengthening and enriching friendships”. Operationally they define friendship through digital “Facebook acts” such as “like”, “comment”, “chat” etc. But this creates a paradox… You can have friends you have never met and will never meet – we call them “unknown friends” and they can have real consequences for life.

People perceive friendship in Facebook in different ways. In Greece (Savrami 2009, Kourti, Kourdoutis, Madaglou 2016) young people see Facebook friendship as a “phony” space, due to “unknown friends” and the possibility of manipulating self presentation. As a tool for popularity, public relations, useful acquaintances; a doubtful and risky mode of dating; the resort of people with a limited nnumber of friends and lack of “real” social live; and the resort of people who lack friendship skills (Buotte, wood and pratt 2009). BUT it is widely used and most are happy with their usage…

So, how about psychological definitions of analog friendship? Baron-Cohen and Wheelright (2003) talk about friendship as survival supporting social interdependence based on attachment and instrumentality skills.

Attachment involves high interdependence, commitment, systematic support, responsiveness, communication, investment in joint outcomes, high potential for developing the friendship – it is not static but dynamic. It is being satisfied by the interaction with each other, with the company of each other. They are happy to just be with someone else.

Instrumentality is also part of friendship though and it involves low interdependence, low commitment, non-systematic support, low responsiveness, superficial communication, expectations for specific benefits and personal outomes, little potential for developing the relationship – a more static arrangements. And they are satisfied by interacting with others for a specific goal or activity.

Now the way that I have presented this can perhaps look like the good and the bad side… But we need both sides of that equation, we need both sets of skills. What we perceive as friendship in analog life usually has a prevalence of attachement over instrumentality…

So, why are we looking at this? We wanted to look into whether those common negative attitudes about Facebook and friendship were accurate. Will FB users with low friendship skills have more Fb friends? Engage in more Fb “friendship acts”; will they use Fb more intensely; will they have more “unknown” friends than users with stronger friendship skills”. And when I say stronger friendship skills – I mean those with more attachment skills versus those with more instrumental skills.

In our method here we had 201 participants, most were women (139) from Universities and technological Institutes in metropolitan areas of Greece. All had profiles in Fb. median age was 20, all had used Facebook for 2 hours the day before, and many reported being online at least 8 hours a day, some on a permanent ongoing basis. We asked them how many friends they have… Then we asked them for an estimate of how many they know in-person. Then we asked them how many of these friends they have never met or will never meet – they provided an estimation. There were other questions about interactions in Facebook. We used a scale called the Facebook Insensity Scale (Ellison, Steinfield and Lampe 2007) which looks at importance of Facebook in the persons life (this is a 12 pt Likert scale). We also used an Active Digital Sociability Scale which we came up with – this was a 12 pt likert scale on Fb Friendship acts etc. And we used a Friendship Questionnaire (Baron-Cohen and Wainwright 2003). This was a paper exercise, for less than 30 minutes.

When we looked at stronger and weaker friendship skills groups – we had 44.3% of participants in the stronger friendship skills group, 52% in the weaker friendship skills group. More women had stronger friendship skills – consistent with the general population across countries.

So, firstly do people with weaker friendship skills have more friends? No, there was no difference. But we found a gender result – men had more friends in facebook, and also had weaker friendship skills.

Do people with weaker friendships skills engage more frequently in Fb friendship operations of friendship acts? No. No difference. Chatting wa smost popular, browsing adn liking were most frequet acts regardless of skills. Less frequent were participating in groups, check in and gaming. BUT a very telling difference: Men were more likely to comment than women, and that’s significant for me.

Do people with weaker friendship skills engage in Fb use it more intensively? Yes and No. There was a difference… But those with stronger friendship skills showed high Fb intensity, compared to those with weaker friendship. Men with stronger skills were more intensive in their use than women with strong skills.

Do people with weaker friendship skills have more friends on facebook? No. Do they have more unknown friends? No. But there was a gender effect. 16% of men have unknown friends, ony 9% of women do. Do those with weaker friendship skills interact more with unknown friends? No, opposite. Those with stroger skills, interact more with unknown friends. And so on.

And do those with weaker friendship skills actually meet unknown friends from Fb in real life? Yes, but opposite to expected. If they have stronger skills I’m more likely to meet you in real life… If I am a man… The percentages are small (3% of men, 1% of women).

So, what do I make of all this? Facebook is not the resort of people with weak friendship skills. Our data suggests it may be advantageous space for those with higher friendship skills, it is a socail space regulated by lots of social norms – it is an extension of what happens in real life. And what is the norm at play? It is the famous idea that men are encouraged to be bold, women to be cautious and apprehensive. Women have stronger social skills, but Facebook and the dynamics suppresses them, and enhances men with weaker skills… So, that’s my conclusion here!

Q&A

Q1) Very interesting. When men start to see someone they haven’t met before… Wouldn’t it be women? To hit on them?

A1) Actually yes, often it is dating. But men are eager to go on about it… to interact and go on to meet. Women are very cautious. We have complimented this work with qualitative work that shows women need much longer interaction – they need to interact for maybe 3 years before meeting. Men are not so concerned.

Q2) You haven’t talked about quality etc. of your quantitative data?

A2) I haven’t mentioned it here, but it’s in the paper (in the Proceedings). The Friendship questionnaire is based on established work, saw similar distribution ratios as seen elsewhere. We haven’t tried it (but are about to) with those with clinical status, Aspergers, etc. The Facebook Intensity questionnaire had a high reliability alpha.

Q3) Did you do any comparison of this data with any questions on trolling, cyber bullying, etc. as the consequences for sharing opinion or engaging with strangers for women is usually harsher than for men.

A3) Yes, some came up in the qualitative study where individuals were able to explain their reasons.

Q4) Did your work look at perceptions by employers etc. And how that made a difference to selecting friends?

A4) We didn’t look at this, but others have. Some are keen not to make friends in specific groups – they use Facebook to sell a specific identity to a specific audience.

Q5) The statistics you produced are particularly interesting… What is your theoretical conjecture as a result of this work?

A5) My feeling is that we have to see looking at Facebook as an alternative mode of socialising. It has been normalised so the same social rules functioning in the rest of society do function in Facebook. This was an example. It sounds commonplace but it is important.

The Net Generation’s Perceptions of Digital Activism –  StochLouise and SumarieRoodt, University of Cape Town, South Africa

Sumarie: I will be talking about how the Net Generation view digital activism. And the reason this is of interest to me is because of the many examples of digital activism we see around us. I’ll talk a bit about activism in South Africa, and particularly a recent campaign called “Fees Must Fall”.

There are various synonyms for Digital Activism but that’s the term I’ll use. So what is this? It’s origins start with the internet, with connection and mobilisation. We saw the rise of social media and the huge increase in people using it. We saw economies and societies coming online and using these spaces over the last 10 years. What does this mean for us? Well it enables quick and far-reaching information sharing. And there is a video that goes with this too.

Joyce 2013 defines Digital Activism as being about “the use of digital media in collective efforts to bring about social or political change, using methods outside of routine decision-making processes”. “It is non-violent and civil but can involve hacking (Edwards et al. 2013). We see digital activism across a range of approaches: from Slacktivism (things that are easy to participate in); online activism; internet activism; cyber activism; hacktivism. That’s a broad range, there are subtleties that divide into these and other terms, and the different characteristics of these types of activism.

Some examples…

In 2011 we saw revolutions in Egypt, Tunisia, Occupy Wall Street;

2012-14 we saw BringBackOurGirls, and numerous others;

2015 onwards we have:

  • RhodesMustFall – on how Cecil John Rhodes took resources from the indigenous communities, and recent removals of statues etc. and naming of buildings, highly sensitive.
  • FeesMustFall  – about providing free education to everybody, particularly university – less than 10% of South Africans go to University and they tend to be those from the more privileged background – as a result of that we weren’t allowed to raise our fees for now, and we are encouraged to find other funders to subsidise education and we cannot exclude anyone because of lack of economic access, the government will help but…. a lot of conflict there particularly around corruption, but government also classified universities as advantaged or non advantaged university and distributes funds much more to non advantaged university.
  • ZumaMustFall – our president is also famous for causing havoc politically and economically for what many see as very poor decisions, particularly under public scrutiny in the last 12 months.

In the room we are having a discussion about other activist activities, including an Israeli campaign against internet censorship law targeted at pornography etc. but including political and cultural aspects. Others mention 38 degrees etc. and successful campaigns to get issues debated. 

Now, digital activism can be on any platform – not necessarily Facebook or Twitter.

When we look at who our students are today – the “Net Generation”, “Millennials”, “Digital Natives” – and characteristics (Oblinger and Oblinger) associated this group include: confidence with technologu, always connected, immediate, social and team orientated, diverse, visual, education driven, emotionally open. But this isn’t homogenous, not all students will have these qualities.

So, what did we do with our students to assess students view? We looks at 230 students, and targeted those looked at in the literature: those born in any year from 1983 to 2003, and they needed to be those with some form of online identit(ies). We had an online questionnare that ran over 5 days. We analysed with Qualtrics, and thematic analysis. There are limitations here – all students were registered in the Comms department – business etc.

In terms of the demographics: Male participants were 38%, female were 62%; Average age was 22, minimum was 17, maximum was 33. We asked about the various characteristics, using a Likert scale questions… Showing that all qualify suffiently to be this “Net Generation”. We asked if they paid attention to digital activism… Most did, but it’s not definitive. Now this is the beginning of a much bigger project…

We asked if the participants had ever signed an online petition – 145 had; and 144 believed online petitions made a difference. We also asked if the internet and social media have a positive effect on an activism campaign – 92% do, and that has huge interest to companies and advertisers. And 89% of participants felt the use of social media in these causes has contributed to creating a society that is more aware of important issues.

What did we learn? Well we did see that this generation are inclined to participate in slacktivism. They believe digital activism mades a difference. They pay attention to online campaigns and are aware of which ones have been successful – at least in terms of having some form of impact or engagement.

Now, if you’d like access to the surveys, etc. do get in touch.

Q&A

Q1) How does UCT engage with the student body around local activism?

A1) Mostly that has been digitally, with the UCT Facebook page. There were also official statements from the University… But individual staff were discouraged from reacting. But freedom of speech for the students. It increased conflict in some way, but it also made students feel heard. Hard to call which side it fell on. Policy change is being made as a result of this work… They had a chance to be heard. We wanted free speech (unless totally inappropriate).

Q2) I see that you use a lot of “yes” and “no” questions… I like that but did you then also get other data?

A2) Yes. I present that work here. This paper doesn’t show the thematic analysis – we are still working on submitting that somewhere. We have that data, so once the full piece is in a journal we can let you know.

Q3) Do you know any successful campaigns in your context?

A3) Yes, FeesMustFall started in individual universities, and turned then to the government. It actually got quite serious, quite violent, but that definitely has changed their approach. And that campaign continues and will continue for now.

At this point of the day my laptop lost juice, the internet connection dropped, and there was a momentary power outage just as my presentation was about to go ahead! All notes from my strand are therefore from those taken on my mobile – apologies for more typos than usual!

Stream C – Teaching and Supporting Students – Chair – Ted Clark

Students’ Digital Footprints: Curation of Online Presences, Privacy and Peer Support – Nicola Osborne and Louise Connelly,University of Edinburgh, UK

That was me!

My slides are available on Prezi herehttps://prezi.com/hpphwg6u-f6b/students-digital-footprints-curation-of-online-presences-privacy-and-peer-support/

The paper can be found in the ECSM 2016 Proceedings, and will also be shared on the University of Edinburgh Research Explorer along with others on the Managing Your Digital Footprint (research strand) researchhttp://www.research.ed.ac.uk/portal/en/publications/students-digital-footprints(5f3dffda-f1b4-470f-abd4-24fd6081ab98).html 

Please note that the remaining notes are very partial as taken on my smartphone and, unfortunately, somewhat eaten by the phone in the process… 

How do you Choose a Friend? Greek Students’ Friendships in Facebook – KourtiEvangelia, University of Athens and PanagiotisKordoutisand AnnaMadoglou,Panteion University of Social and Political Sciences, Greece

This work, relating to Panagiotis’ paper earlier (see above) looked at how individuals make friends on Facebook. You can find out more about the methodology in this paper and Panagiotis’ paper on Analog and Facebook friends.

We asked our cohort of students to tell us specifically about their criteria for making new friends, whether they were making the approach for friendship or responding to others’ requests. We also wanted to find out how they interacted with people who were not (yet) their friends in Facebook, and what factors played a part. The data was collected in a paper questionnaire with the same cohort as reported in Panagiotis’ paper earlier today.

Criteria for interacting with a friend, never met before within Facebook. The most frequent answer was “I never do” but the next most popular responses were common interests and interest in getting to know others better. physical appearance seems to play a factor, more so than previous interactions but less so than positive personality traits. 

Criteria for deciding to meet a previously unknown friend. Most popular response here was “I never do so”, followed by sufficient previous FB interaction, common acquaintances, positive personality etc. less so.

Correspondence Analysis – I won’t go into here, very interesting in terms of gender. Have a look at the Proceedings. 

Conclusion is that Facebook operated as social identity tool. And supporting offline relationships. self involvement with the medium seems to define selection criteria compatible with different social goals reinforcing one real-life social network.

Q&A

Q1) I’m very interested in how FB suggests new friends. Did students comment on that. 

A1) We didn’t ask about that.

Q2) isn’t your data gender biased in some way – most of your participants are female.

A2) Yes. But we continue this… With qualitative data it’s a problem, but means and standard deviation cover that. 

Q2) Reasons for sending a request to who you don’t know. First work by Ellison etc. showed people connecting with already known people… I wonder if it is still true? 

A2) Interesting questions. We must say that students answer to their professor in a uni context, that means maybe this is an explanation… 

Comment) Facebook gives you status for numbers and types of friends etc. 

A2) it’s about social identity and identity construction. Many have different presences with different goals. 

Comment) there is a bit of showing off in social. For status. 

Professional Development of Academic Staff in the use of Social Media for Teaching and Learning – Julie Willems, Deakin University, Burwood, Australia

This work has roots in 2012. from then to 2015 I ran classes for staff on using social media. This follows conversations I’ve heard around the place about expecting staff to use social media without training. 

Now I use a very broad definition of social media – from mainstream sites to mobile apps to gaming etc. Media that accesses digital means for communication in various forms. 

Why do we need staff development for social media? To deal with concerns of staff, students move there, also super enthusiasm.. 

My own experience is of colleagues who have run with it, which has raised all sorts of concerns. Some would say that an academic should be doing teaching, research, service and development can end up being the missing leg on the chair there. And staff development is not just about development on social media but also within social media. 

We ran some webinars within Zoom webinar, showing Twitter use with support online, offline and on Twitter – particularly important  for a distributed campus like we have. 

When we train staff we have to think about the pedagogy, we have to think about learning outcomes. We need to align the course structure with LOs, and also to consider staff workload in how we do that training. What will our modes of delivery be? What types of technology will they meet and use – and what prep/overhead is involved in that? We also need to consider privacy issues. And then how do you fill that time. 

So the handout I’ve shared here was work for one days course, to be delivered in a flipped classroom – prep first, in person, then online follow up. Could be completed quickly but many spent more time on these.

This PPT from a module I developed for staff at Monash university, with social media at the intersection of formal and informal learning, and the interaction of teacher-directed learning and student-centred learning. That quadrant model is useful to be aware of: Willem Blakemore(?): 4QF.

Q&A

Q1) What was the object among staff at your university?

A1) First three years were optional. This last year Monash require staff to do 3 one day courses per year. One can be a conference with a full report. Social Media is one of 8 options. Wanted to give an encouragement for folk to attend. 

Q2) How many classes use your social media as a result?

A2) I’ve just moved institution. One of our architecture lecturers was using FB in preference to LMS: students love it, faculty concerned. Complex. At my current university social media isn’t encouraged but it is use. Regardless of attitude social media is in use… And we at least have to be aware of that. 

Q3) I was starting to think that you were encouraging faculty staff to use Social media alone, rather than with LMS.

A3) At Monash reality was using social alongside LMS. That connection discouraged in my new faculty. 

Q4) I loved that you brought up that pressure from teaching staff – as so many academics in social media now, they are min more active and a real pressure to integrate.

A4) I think that gap is growing too… Between resisters and those keen to use. Students are aware of what they share – a Demi formal space… Have to be aware.

Q5) do you have a range of social media tools or just Facebook?

A5) mainly Facebook, sometimes Twitter and Linked In. I’m in engineering and architecture. 

Q5) Are they approved for use by faculty?

A5) Yes, the structure you have there had been. 

Q6) also encourage academic staff to use academic networking sites?

A6) depends on context. Depends… ResearchGate good for pubs, Academic.edu like bus card. 

Q7) Reward and recognition

A7) Stuff on sheet was for GCAP… Came out of that… 

Q8) Will we still have these requirements to train in, say, 5 years time? Surely they’ll be like pen and pencil now?

A8) Maybe. Universities are keen for good profiles though, which means this stuff matters in this competitive academic marketplace. 

And with that Day One has drawn to a close. I’m off to charge a lot of devices and replace my memory sticks! More tomorrow in a new liveblog post. 

 July 12, 2016  Posted by at 9:22 am Events Attended, LiveBlogs Tagged with: , ,  No Responses »
Oct 202015
 
Digital Footprint campaign logo

I am involved in organising, and very much looking forward to, two events this week which I think will be of interest to Edinburgh-based readers of this blog. Both are taking place on Thursday and I’ll try to either liveblog or summarise them here.

If you are are based at Edinburgh University do consider booking these events or sharing the details with your colleagues or contacts at the University. If you are based further afield you might still be interested in taking a look at these and following up some of the links etc.

Firstly we have the fourth seminar of the new(ish) University of Edinburgh Crowd Sourcing and Citizen Science network:

Citizen Science and the Mass Media

Thursday, 22nd October 2015, 12 – 1.30 pm, Paterson’s Land 1.21, Old Moray House, Holyrood Road, Edinburgh.

“This session will be an opportunity to look at how media and communications can be used to promote a CSCS project and to engage and develop the community around a project.

The kinds of issues that we hope will be covered will include aspects such as understanding the purpose and audience for your project; gaining exposure from a project; communicating these types of projects effectively; engaging the press; expectation management;  practical issues such as timing, use of interviewees and quotes, etc.

We will have two guest presenters, Dave Kilbey from Natural Apptitude Ltd, and Ally Tibbitt from STV, followed by plenty of time for questions and discussion. The session will be chaired by Nicola Osborne (EDINA), drawing on her experience working on the COBWEB project.”

I am really excited about this session as both Dave and Ally have really interesting backgrounds: Dave runs his own app company and has worked on a range of high profile projects so has some great insights into what makes a project appealing to the media, what makes the difference to that project’s success, etc; Ally works as STV and has a background in journalism but also in community engagement, particularly around social and environmental projects. I think the combination will make for an excellent lunchtime session. UoE staff and students can register for the event via Eventbright, here.

On the same day we have our Principal’s Teaching Award Scheme seminar for the Managing Your Digital Footprints project:

Social media, students and digital footprints (PTAS research findings)

Thursday, 22nd October 2015, 2 – 3.30pm, IAD Resources Room, 7 Bristo Square, George Square, Edinburgh.

“This short information and interactive session will present findings from the PTAS Digital Footprint research http://edin.ac/1d1qY4K

In order to understand how students are curating their digital presence, key findings from two student surveys (1457 responses) as well as data from 16 in-depth interviews with six students will be presented. This unique dataset provides an opportunity for us to critically reflect on the changing internet landscape and take stock of how students are currently using social media; how they are presenting themselves online; and what challenges they face, such as cyberbullying, viewing inappropriate content or whether they have the digital skills to successfully navigate in online spaces.

The session will also introduce the next phase of the Digital Footprint research: social media in a learning & teaching context.  There will be an opportunity to discuss e-professionalism and social media guidelines for inclusion in handbooks/VLEs, as well as other areas.”

I am also really excited about this event, at which Louise Connelly, Sian Bayne, and I will be talking about the early findings from our Managing Your Digital Footprints project, and some of the outputs from the research and campaign (find these at: www.ed.ac.uk/iad/digitalfootprint).

Although this event is open to University staff and students only (register via the Online Bookings system, here), we are disseminating this work at a variety of events, publications etc. Our recent ECSM 2015 paper is the best overview of the work to date but expect to see more here in the near future about how we are taking forward this work. Do also get in touch with Louise or I if you have any questions about the project or would be interested in hearing more about the project, some of the associated training, or the research findings as they emerge.

Jul 092015
 

Today and tomorrow I am at the European Conference on Social Media 2015, in Porto, Portugal. Throughout the conference I will be liveblogging here and later this morning (in Stream B, for those looking for a session!) I will be presenting on the University of Edinburgh’s Managing Your Digital Footprint campaign and research work.

As this is a live blog so corrections, comments etc. are welcomed – and please be aware there may be errors and typos though I’ll tidy those as they are spotted!

We are starting off with a welcome from Sue Nugus the conference organiser, reminding us that the hashtag for today is #ECSM2015. She is also encouraging us to share and disseminate our papers and presentations – so do keep an eye out for these in the following weeks (I’ll link to my full paper once approved by the University of Edinburgh Pure team).

Welcome from the conference Chair: Dr Anabela Mesquita, School of Accounting and Administration at the Polytechnic Institute of Porto

The scope of this conference is to encourage participation form a range of disciplines undertaking social media research. There were 202 abstracts, of which 59 academic papers, 11 PhD papers, 3 masters papers, 11 work in progress papers and 1 non-academic paper – with speakers from 30 countries.

Yesterday we had a Social Media Student Showcase including a seminar on Social Media and Employability, as well as a Qualitative Research Methods seminar.

And I just want to take the opportunity to say thank you to all of you for coming, to my colleagues and all of the organisers.

Anabela’s colleague is also providing an official welcome to the Institute:

I am very proud to welcome you all to the second European Conference on Social Media. Throughout it’s 128 years of existance ISCAP has been making a remarkable economic and social impact on the surrounding community but we are also looking more internationally, working with universities and organisations around the world, but particularly in Europe.

Anabela is introducing our opening keynote speaker, Luis Borges Guveia, who has been working on social media since 1996, as the internet was just getting started. He has been working on digital cities and social media and he is going to share his experience with us today.

Keynote presentation: Dr Luis Borges Gouveia, University Fernando Pessoa, Portugal – Where is the Wisdom we lost in knowledge: security issues and human relationships in social media

This presentation represents an opportunity to reflect upon changing times. The main idea is that nowadays we are in a time of crisis and change. How can we explore social media in a business context? This is a need not a possibility… I’ll start with a bit of poetry, then my take on what an information society is, what social media is and has been, some of the challenges social media raises and then some final remarks.

So, first of all.. to T.S. Eliot.. Eliot is a worldwide poet – the Brazilian people love him even more than the Portuguese! His university career was in the UK, in France, and also in the US. He was a very keen social critic, through humour. I very much like his poem “The Rock”, which many say predict the Information Society… That we are running for what we can get, what we can capture. It is all about perspective. This is something that I would like to say: maybe in these changed times and changes economic times, we need to change our own perspective and maybe social media is one of the ways we can do that.

One may say that there is value in meaning, but we are very focused at the moment on value creation. We are in a time of value destruction (drawing on Peters’ (1934) notion of creative destruction).

The information society is a society where information and communication technology are the primary resource to exchance digital information and to support interaction between individuals using practices and ethods in permanent change (Gouveia and Gaio, 2004) but to some extent this is an intermediary change… If we move to a place where we pay for interactions we may make money but we may also kill relationships. So our business models have to change and move on…

So in the information society we see heavy use of ICT (compyuters and networks) and growing use of digital, towards a network organisation – which is why social media is interesting to deal with. We are already in a world where if something is not Google-able then it may as well not exist, such is our use of these tools.

We have ideas of a world that is highly networked, fast paced, with ongoing change, mutating workplace – and perhaps also leisure, do it now, everywhere society, highly collaborative, etc. These are not new ideas but they are now central ideas to what we do. We are already in an information society – information is not powerful anymore, access to information is the value now.

There are two many aspects here: issues of sustainability and sovereignty. These are the issues we are fighting for, that we are facing now. Sustainability – how can I generate the value to be myself, to have my freedom, for social, political, satisfaction or any other type. Sovereignty. And the information society is threatening and eroding both of these. We also see issues of availability of time – increasingly limited, and space – what does it mean to be present?

Now, I’m an optimist! My background is in computer science and we are seeing machine learning, mobile, ubiquitous connections. The computer is hidden, the network is hidden, but data is at the heart of everything – it is all transaction related. There is an almost religious quality to this. And it is not so much about the internet. We are at a place where we don’t need to learn or pay for our computers in some ways. There are therefore things we need to do…

1. From the analogue to the digital world:

  • We used to memorise to learn, in the digital world we forget to learn as we have to discard to learn, relearn, we unlearn! (read Gibson’s New Powers from 1994, you will get shivers – but that’s a diagnosis not a way to solve this).
  • Work used to be about taking time, in a digital worls it is about work without taking time.
  • And teaching was about organising, structuring and transmitting. In a digital world it is about curation, storytelling, creative aspects, and critical and analytical skills.

2. Mechanical Turk

This concept originates in the 20th century, with the concept of getting robots to play chess. The first machine learning work, Turing test experiments etc. But we have moved on from that… Looking to how we can get cheap labour based on micro tasks. So we make complex added value tasks into smaller units that have less added value, which means we can pay less for them, and make bigger margins and more profit. For years we said this isn’t possible for creative and intellectual work – but Wikipedia shows that it really is possible, that there is available free time of people. Getting simpler, direct, formats, work is done cheaper. And the mechanical turk model is really changing the valuing of creativity and work and that is a really important change.

3. Information Overload

In countries already engaged in information societies the main disearse is stress and overload, because we have to deal with information in quantity, in complexity… This means we have to filter and are forever ignoring, reading, discarding and discussing to manage that wide availability of information and our own limited time.

To revisit some ideas from 2009: The emergence and rise of mass social media we have seen a move away from traditional media towards social media, to client side focus. With organisations we now see marketing but also customer services etc. in widespread adoption – away from selling the concept to just using it. And we have seen the move away from the Social Media Guru to a mind shift towards adoption, usage, collaboration. So, six years on from some of those trends some of the issues and needs are still valid, though social media is already in wide adopting.

And it is still a challenge to engage people, in how to get not just the number but the real value. For instance I can have 600 friends on Facebook, but the value sits in a much smaller network of those connections. Actually our convergence of contacts and overlaps of networks seems like a timebomb machine!

And in social media we need to share value to get people’s time, attention, data. Towards getting some sort of money, satisfaction, something that rewards our effort.

I think that the “old days” matter because younger people, the millennials, are starting to be in the workplace and that will mean huge change… They can do somethings faster, better… They are used to using mobile devices, less TV, gaming, streaming music, online video, online reading and generally hours on the net every day.

The issue is content, context and experience. The drive is no longer to make content, but to make meaning, value and experience.

So I want to move onto some of the challenges for business… Negotiating the “old” and the new times – there has to be a relationship between the two, so that those who provide funding, backing, etc. for business can understand the new world on their terms. So we can start with the platforms – that’s a concept that can be grasped. Whether that is our own platform or our own cloud/cloudlet that we control.

Most of my personal research is the idea of networks and business networks, and that networks are a way to provide added value, joining the organisation on one side to individuals on the other side. For social businesses there is less distinction between those spheres though. Do we still need enterprise or companies anymore? Can we just work directly now? This is a new set of ideas we are engaging in now. The credit driven economy, the idea of currency backed by loans is game over. Even if organisations matter, power of governments, use of taxes etc. do not work as well, we need other ways to conceive of value and business.

Using social media to promote change. The global market is in an alarming transition. We don’t know how to implement, engage in that situation but the network is definitely part of it. Organisations moving to new digital models as cornerstones of their business – around market share, network effects, digital ecosystems, community centric, stakeholder experience. Stakeholders are not a juridic concept, but they are everywhere. It is a sustainability problem.

Now, I cannot talk on this without referencing email… If I was a terrorist I would put them to work on email. Email is such an issue for time, for information overload… Smart people could push me forward by taking advantage of my entropy. Email is a great notification system though and still central to business… But for businesses we see a scale from email, to website, to ecommerce tools, ebusiness tools, environments for networked organisations, to digital ecosystems.

The idea is not to use A platform… But to impose MY platform… In portuga one of the most popular platforms is for collecting taxes, very efficient. As a big enterprise I can say “no no no, use another platform for logical reasons” – but this is a power fight. As we move to digital systems, to digital platforms… for a long time now we have the idea of “if you want to play with us, you have to play on our terms, in our way”. And those tend not to be in the enterprise context but higher. So for instance learning environments have to be more interactive – from SAKAI type systems, to common tools Mediate in Spain, Coursera and EdX in the US. That is an issue of power, not an issue of service.

So, social media in terms of business can provide a position to change, as in system analysis we can have with agile systems. Agile systems provides a useful framework and context to understand social media… There are a lot of similarities… But there are also issues to consider… gaining power means that all the ideas of the network – the good ideas of openness, interaction, alternatives, changed costs, response etc… can be there but all are dependent on those with the power to enable that – Facebook, YouTube, Twitter, etc. has the power to shape that, to say what appears in your timeline. It looks like the network has power, but that isn’t actually the case – it is not peer to peer or an open network anymore.

We need to remember that data is the new capital. If you read the big five Gartner predictions etc. you will see that we are in the big data era.  So we need to not just have data everywhere, know where it is, having it available and controlled, but we also need to have a holistic view of our data to know how we can spend/negotiate etc. We need to use our resources wisely, making best use of others’ data first.

So we are evolving from social media to social business. I see the future as being “smart” in terms of how we do information analysis. So we have social media enabling extension of space, time is a scarce resource but more reach can mean spending less time. For people in organisations we need less government, but more governance. When we perform digital it is not just related with computers and networks. We are still analogue, but our interactions are more digital than ever…

“Privacy is for rich people” – for security reasons our data is not private on the whole… Do you know where genuinely important people take their coffee? Have their meetings? Send their kids to school? No. And that’s the issue, that’s the change. The powerful have privacy, whilst the rest of us are public figures in some sense.

And the meme is not organised. One can expect to get data, information and knowledge from diverse non traditional sources. We have to rely on others. And that means we have to stay free, to have available time to actually engage, to visit etc. But there are pressures on time and how we use it already.

And we need skills to be smart… We need to deal with information overload and critical information skills.And alongside all of the practical skills we need to be unique and interesting and fun, and a brand, to create value.

To finish I want to quickly show the project management triangle – the choices across Good / Cheap / Fast… You can have any two parts of that, but not all at once… I like the idea that you can – I work in a University and yet I think we should be free – but I know that that just isn’t the case.

And we have project management monsters – people want everything that we do to be Faster, More, Cheaper and Beautiful!

Q&A

Q1) You mentioned personal cloudlets in your talk, can you explain that.

A1) The cloud comes from providers like Amazon… It comes from the idea that you can provide services and products to others… Like the idea of building bridges. The idea of internet as a free space, sits with clouds for me. The clouds keeps those monsters alive – faster, cheaper, more – as they scale without limits. Data wise we cannot store all we need on our own machines now, and that is increasingly the case. The cloud is other people’s computers…. but that has some issues too. So cloudlets mean we have a data centre and services… But as a cloud provider I have the power. So a cloudlet is a personal version of that. That’s a way to make things easy and scalable but retain power over that data.

Q2) I would like to hear your opinion about internet.org – a new initiative from Facebook to bring internet and access to areas of the world without issue. They are working with phone companies. So whoever has the phone has internet access, but that access is limited to what Facebook provides access to. What is your opinion on that access which is restricted, and coming to areas where there are big inequalities.

A2) That is a good thing. It extends markets. Those markets are more challenging to reach… Media controllers already have a lot of power to filter information… The Portuguese media owners are being brought by someone – Chinese or American buyers… This is part of that power grab for space. But the internet is a little different… It is harder to control the space. All the ideas really are about conquering the people… People are central here, not the platforms and that makes these spaces work in a different way. So, for instance in Angola, where there are 24-6 million people, and most are in their twenties – they are a growing population and economy. You can invest in schools, but at present there is little power connectivity, no phone connectivity for most. But they do have some mobile digital devices – more empowering. Next year they will have their own satellite. They have a 150€ data centre. Those countries are moving direct to this new digital world. But maybe Facebook’s model is an old 20th Century solution to the problem…

And on that slightly enigmatic verdict on the ethics of Facebook deciding what is, and is not appropriate content, we move into parallel streams. I am presenting in Stream B:

Reputation and the Digital Footprint (chaired by Athanasios Mazarakis)

Understanding Digital Reputation on Instagram: A case study of social media mavens – Eman Alshawaf

I will be talking about a project which has been 2 years in the making and required lots of human coders, and the complex nature of Instagram data.

So, what was the scope of the study? Well Instagram is a social media based platform around images and business, creative, and personal activities of all natures. And we wanted to look at who influences others, predicts and leads trends, etc. And those are our “Maven” – this is based on Rogers (1983) work on opinion leaders/mavens who are experts in certain fields. In the modern world the tech community (see Janssen, n.d.) we have individuals who become influential by what they share, by their presences and networks, etc.

Instragram is image based, very popular… there are 300 million users across the globe. You need an email account and phone to get started, but that’s it. And we wanted to see how once contructs their presence on a social media platform to become influential, and what is it that makes them influential.

So we started with observation and a model looking at different flavours of promotion on Instagram – personal promotion, brand promotion (ambiguous as can be your desire to be associated with the brand or your own brand), and sponsored promotion (where you are paid to promote).

Our hypothoseis is that these three types of promotion as part of a self-promotion cycle, is what makes for influence.

Now, when we began this work little was published on Instragram, but there is a lot more published already. Suler (2008) found that  Khosla et al (2014). Silva 2014 enable observations of actions of hundres of millions of people in near real time. Hochman & Manovich (2013) found that information is no longer just produced by professionals. Kietzman, Hermkens, McCarthy and Silvestre (2011) looked at marketers realising that the publicity of brands in image based social media. Fiolet (2014) found that there is a strong connection between the number of follows and the number of likes, and images are value depending on the context they are shared in.

So our second and third phase of research was a content analysis process, of social media mavens on Instagram. We selected several mavens:

  • Camila Coelho – brazilian fashion and beauty blogger, based in the US, with huge popularity (2 m followers), and she is the face of many brands.
  • Chiara Ferragni – well over 2 m followers, a team that follow her everywhere, several brands and areas of influence.

For these mavens we did a content analysis of thousands of posts from each person, using the three levels of promotion as a variable. We sampled every 4th image from September 2012 to September 2013 . And then in the third phase of research we looked at every 1st picture of the month was analysed for comments.

So returning to those variables – an image of the person might be personal promotion, brand promotion may include an image of an item, and sponsored promotion are where they are clearly paid to do that promotion.

Doing that research we found a fairly consistent picture in terms of the mix of those promotion types… But there would be some variance when they were travelling, for instance. But over the year the balance was fairly even. And to track global reputation, we used language as a proxy. So for Coelho we could see Portuguese as an influential language for her, which is also her native language… But actually we saw that expand over time, to 12(?) different languages by the end of our research. Similarly Ferragni saw a real growth of recognition, to 19 different languages at the end of our research.

We saw a lot of change over time, but we found something interesting… We found that mix of promotions mattered… Personal content created authenticity and interest, but that promotion of brands and sponsorship was also important to building profile. There is a strategy one could adopt to become a maven…

In terms of future opportunities we would like to test this on a larger scale, and also to look at audience perspective.

Q&A

Q1) Did you contact your mavens, to let them know about the study, the outcomes… If they are managing reputations they may be concerned about how they are presented in this way.

A1) We did try to contact them but they didn’t reply. And we have found that Harvard have also don a study on Ferragni. But I am sure they are aware of the strategic nature of their pro

Q2) Were there any non promotional variables or were all images classified as personal if not “brand” or “sponsored”?

A2) For brand promotion, had to be image, hashtagged etc. Had to be very clear. Similarly sponsorship had to be very clearly signalled. Some posts were ambiguous unless you understood the data – e.g. a selfie from a promotional event.

Q3) How did that issue of brands work?

A3) Just using brand name, even if self promoting in tone, that’s a brand promotion… Potential confusion…

Q4) Comments and the findings from that…?

A4) It was mainly about global nature of comments. Always recognising influence of that maven… even if negative in tone, discursive in tone. And our comments were sampled once a month

Q5) Even though it wasn’t the focus, when you looked at comments made… Was there any relationship between comments made, and category of posts…

A5) Interesting question. Our reaction was that personal promotion was more engaging, but brand promotion were quite exciting. Sponsored promotion was much more mixed – because some were not happy that mavens got special opportunities. But personal promotion was the most popular type of post.

Q6) How did you code comments?

A6) Just by language, from which we could estimate the location of the follower – but of course languages are used in multiple

Q7) Where did those types of promotions come from – that classification?

A7) For the comments we had a focus group around those categories… We saw a linear progression from personal promotion to brand and sponsored promotion. We did not allow overlaps between those categories in terms of our definition.

Q8) What is the definition of maven here?

A8) Varies but for us we selected fashion mavens here, people who are influential here. That area was selected because it is such a fast moving field, with changing influence and trends.

And now onto our second presentation:

Assessing Influence on Social Media: Reputation Risk in Networks – Nathalie de Marcelis-Warin

I am going to present research with my PhD students Willias Sanger and Thierry Warin. It looks at Twitter in particular…

To start with, lets think about what happens when a flight is cancelled… we’ve all been there. You used to worry and stress… and make phone calls… That’s for the last 30 years or so. But now what do you do? You tweet! So for instance a year ago a person I follow tweeted KLM to complain about a cancelled flight… The conversation began there on Twitter. KLM actively advertise that they will respond to queries within 10 minutes. So, do they do that in practice. Well they do, they respond with a personal greeting… And the complainent responds to explain the inconvenience. And they respond with an option of flights to rebook. He selects one… they book it. And say: look out for an email! But… Then he finds that flight is rerouted/has a stopover… so Tweets again… And they look again… And he thanks them but also explains the personal context – that he is travelling to a funeral. And KLM respond with condolences. And again more flight options… They reissue ticket etc. Everything is perfect. A happy ending…

When I saw this on my Twitter – tracking that conversation evolving… And wondering why they were so good. So I looked at my friend’s account… He has 21,5K followers… so he has influence. And he tweets a lot (59K tweets). I am trying to think about influence on Twitter… And I look further and see he is the Chief Washington Correspondent for Yahoo! News [and he has the verified tick]. Which got me thinking… how do you measure influence on Twitter?

For Twitter organisations those responses are a risk. If they didn’t have an alternative flight, what would the impact have been? We tried to look at how we measure and value reputation in a networked society… Reputation is ones greatest asset in a networked society (de Marcellis-Warin and Teoderesco, 2012) but also a real source of potential risk.

Looking at our literature review and research question we were thinking about the Democratisation of the Internet – and the fact that firms are more exposed to general opinion in that space (Leavitt 2009). There is importance in monitoring and measuring reputation through social media (Warin et al 2015?).

In Twitter discussions Cha et al (2010) studied how users were connected in Twitter discussions. They found that the number of followers does not ensure effective transmission of message. And that focus on specific topics had a big impact. Influence in networks is often about where information that is useful has been previously shared.

We also see literature on Twitter content as signals for trading strategy – Sentiment analysis (Bollen et al 2011, Brown 2012, Sprenger and Welpe 2010), and volume based strategies – regardless of sentiment (Ruiz et al, 2012). And we also see that there is a real need for the structuring and analysis of big data.

So. we looked at influence in financial messages on Twitter and influence around financial information. We acquiried data from the streaming API from Twitter with R packages (Barbera 2014, Gentry 2013). We looked at 400 firms, sampled 3 times a day – just after market opened, lunch time, and at end of day. We looked at use of hashtags, @names, use of Retweets, URLs, etc. In our data we found that 75% of the time a URL is shared, but just 6% mentioned a user (with @name).

We looked at testing four measures. Firstly Number of followers… Out of my 64,000 users, I checked the most popular users and these were all media companies, posting less frequently. They do not participate in debate. They don’t use $name to indicate stock listing.

Looking at number of messages sent… We had users tweeting most frequently, all of whom were stock news sites or automated feeds. The volume of messages suggests spam… Unusually access. This tells us that the power-law distribution is here – a few loud ones vs an important silent crowd.

Next we looked at different users retweeting someone. So the most retweeting account we see another stock website. But in this table we see our first individuals – two individuals receiving lots of retweets in amongst the popular media and website users. And those individuals are more engaged in conversation.

And, having done this, we next mapped the network of our 64000 users. We could identify our key users in this data. In terms of influence we see influencers associated with the media, and they are genuinely enmeshed in the wider network. But there was another group of influential people who were quite isolated – if they disappeared their impact on the network would be minimal but no one would take up that conversation.

We also looked at betweenness centrality – the probability of being on the shortest path between 2 nodes…. And our most influential individual is neither in the conversational/outsider group, or in the media group, they were in the middle of the much bigger network. So if we use network analysis we see apparition of individuals – traders, analysts, managers, journalists. They are really important in the network. And they are not widely followed on Twitter. And they capture information is not shared by or provided to all users – versus the accounts of the financial media.

Influence measure is more complicated to obtain than just considering the number of followers of a user. There is a real importance of key users in the network. And we see the importance and influence of the retweeter in the network.

That most influential person was a financial journalist… But the idea of many tweets, many followers, is a poor signifier for influence on the financial markets – everyone else already has that information.

Q1) Is the new Retweet style on Twitter a recognition of this type of influence? Or might it change it?

A1) Yes, a recognition.

Q2) So how do you find influential individuals?

A2) It’s not easy to find these people… You start with $, then hashtag… but if you then assess by number of followers or tweets that isn’t helpful. They really are quite hard to find, but valuable to follow when you do find them.

Q3) Did you look at relationship between stock market price and Twitter content?

A3) It is part of my PhD student’s work… He is looking at content analysis. In some cases you see correlation between negative comments on stock price. So, for instance Apple Watch all very positive… little impact. But a negative comment here didn’t have a significant impact. But for Nestle, Greenpeace attacked them on Twitter… Had bad and negative comments and there the number of negative tweets and comments had an impact on the stock! Greenpeace did a lot to do that but it had a definite impact.

Q4) You also mentioned effectiveness of forcasting and credibility of forecasting… I am cynical about that, having worked in various brockeridges.

A4) We know we can have a bad forecast, and thats ok perhaps. But with social media it is difficult. But experts and financial experts have credibility and it is interesting that what they forecast often includes what they put on social media and Twitter now.

Q5) Are financial houses using individuals on social media to influence the market?

A5) We found some publication on fake accounts… For companies and politicians you see that a lot.. It is a good point and we want to think about that too. But for our work, number of tweets as a proxy for influence is not useful from what we have seen. Influence and retweeting path is much more important. More important to be in the middle of the network, than to be a busy Twitterer.

Managing your Digital Footprint: Possible implications for teaching and learning – Me!

And then it was me! My prezi can be found here: https://prezi.com/owkosbca4bio/ecsm-2015/. My full paper, coauthored (as was the presentation) with Louise Connelly, will shortly be available to read here: http://www.research.ed.ac.uk/portal/en/persons/nicola-osborne(31541751-0108-4687-af50-bc01e043567b).html

And now, to lunch…

And we are back for our second keynote…

Keynote Presentation: Dr Piet Kommers, University of Twente, The Netherlands – Vicarious Identity in the Networked Mind

I am very pleased to be here. Portugal has a place in my heart, I feel it is a place where you see a really interesting connection between rural, historical, even colonial aspects.

I will be talking about vicarious identity. And identity is about who we are but also about who we want to be and how we wish to present ourselves to the world. So my title indicates my intrigue in this topic. I will make some small steps to come to the thesis…

In general in terms of media we are very much intrigued by the potetial of what the media can do. We have two aspects… the Media have the cultural side – there is our ettiquette of what we should and should not to. But we also have our nature, things which are hard to change, aspects we have inherited and don’t change as quickly as the media does. And those aspects raise challenges for social media company. But many of those less appealing or problematic aspects are also parts of our survival mechanism – learning is a fairly modern concept really. Th emedia is a catalyst for our minds, for doing more than our minds might have done before, and before a multicolutural society, and we have to learn from that.

And we now have the mobile phone almost as prothesis… 50 years back we had no idea how the propogation of mobile devices would go… I gave a talk a while back called “before the lecture starts, please turn on your mobile phone” for teachers – and that was an important provocation for them – so many ways mobile can enhance the classroom with links, QR codes, associated information etc. And we also now see these tools as a way to bring people closer to government, to EU government. The technology helps us to be human… but also exposes us. If we do a naughty thing, it will be tweeted!

We have for a long time in history had two sides to media… So an image here has three lessons for life. If we have learning in mind, we have the idea that nature is good. And we have to build the programmes… and coach each other, to help each other to become good citizens. And we also have the idea of the Panopticon, and the fact that it doesn’t work (Bentham’s Panopticon by Kenneth Wain). Seeing is not the same as knowing. But having information available enables us… it is not just the commitment, but also the connection to our neighbours.

The early social media was 17th century- magic lightshows…. You could see spectacle but the people also gathered and shared ideas. That gathering is part of what makes this a fascinating thing to be part of. We do have risks of social isolation… But a snapshot of commuters reading their papers tells us this is not wholly new as a concern. Access, knowledge, awareness is improving and that is good. But that’s not everything… To trigger that we have an image to analyse… of farmers apparently growing or digging up sky scrapers in a field… Cue a wonderful bit of audience interaction… some really different perspectives…

So, there is a lot of ambguity. In learning we say “be clear” but in education being clear is not neccassarily what we do. Ambiguity is useful… And now another one…. an image of  a train going in circles… about a proposal to lay a second high speed track… So this picture – which we have interpretted many ways – is making a case for safety.

So, my first thesis is that identity is between rather than within the persons… What is identity in a small community… identity is really informed by comparison to others’ identities,to different cultures… So to think about: what is it about identity that matters for you.

So, kooking at Engestrom, Miettinen and Punamaki (199) an dtheir perspective on activity theory work (see slide from Sheve Wheller University of Plymouth 2013) frames this as being about rules and division of labour, and the role of technology, identity, learning and community… With perspectives on the role of tools of thinking, tools etc. (Vygotsky, McLuhan, Cooper quotes here to illustrate).

If we talk about privacy, and privacy we have lost on the internet is nothing compared to the Internet of Things. If we don’t change things, the next generate will be so transparant – big brother has nothing on this. There are marketing elements but also government, political and ideological discussion to be had here. But where is the moment of design? In design, egovernment etc… When the technology is here it is already decided and done… But we have decisions we can make. Not all devices/ideas are to serve a purpose… We try things out and these things become part of our life. So where is the moment of design here? What are the conceptual stages in design? This is a messy process, not top down… It’s about who we want to be, what do we like, what are our values…

The problem we have is that we have a lot of tools, a lot of production design, we have some detailed design, but we don’t have conceptual design tools – some like concept mapping maybe – but we need special sessions to think ahead of the technology, of the new ways to live together. This is a discrepancy. It’s not just the learning, the participation in society… but until recently we had the idea of “learning by heart”… this came from the idea of the heart as the soul…. whilst our thinking has moved on… learning by heart is not the actual process. Instead we have learnt to look through the material… It is about a critical mindset and understanding information from that perspective. We have a fisheye lens if you like – we nknw a lot… about EU matters, about earthquakes in the himalayas, all of the news from across the world… But the issue is what are you interested in… People don’t buy a second car now, they save for children’s education, or for international travel… We are thinking avot the future of life, as part of our identity…

If you look at a map of Finland from FinAir, you’d think it was the central to the world. If you see a postcard from Sofia, again it’s the centre. None of that information is wrong, but the context, the centre isn’t right.

We see cognitive styels that vary… You have the serialist – staying in depth in one area, and holists – picking from all sorts of different areas. We did some research and found that holists have a less good memory.. that’s a disadvantage at first but that means making connections, it becomes an advantage as the learning may be deeper.

Seeing a diagram showing the process of buying and selling a house in Netherlands (150 transactions involved!) – here we have procedural knowledge, episodic knowledge, epistemic knowledge (e.g. is Bistro a French word? No, it’s a Russian word dating back to th eNapoleonic wars and wanting food faster and faster), conceptual knowloedge…  So anyway this drawing is a helping assistant. There is a Jeudaic ideas of Portaelvcis of dinformation being brought down and organised. Schematic diagrams are useful but only if they reach the balance between comlexity and simplicity… For example a concept mapping diagram, based on a graph computation… That’s a computation for social networks. So you might think of social networks in epistemic terms, or in network terms.

We know from the London Underground map that position isn’t important = this is not an accurate scale map… The global view is correct… But in KM it is not corect at all. Schematics are a reduction, a simplification. Similar diagrams of travel infrastrcture give the same idea.

In terms of vicarious learning – another diagram. Here we have intersecting circles: learning obuzhenia (how do we change ourselves); working robot; playing igrat. We know there is connection between playing and learning. Playing is a way to open up thinking… A space to experiment. What is the link between playing and working? Or are they opposites? [cue lots of interesting discussion which in our wee group brought in elearning and playing, gamification, the idea of work and play as being very interlinked, and the fact that not everyone works in such a way where they have the privilege of play] And again we are hearing from the audience…

Maybe playing is a new ingrediant for working? Play can be rewarding.. that is lucky to have in your work. Playing is an ice breaker, a way to not know the outcome or what will happen… And about playing as fun. One member of the audience: “I read recently that humans will do everything they can to avoid work!” to which our speaker says “people trying to have fun successed? “Well I think that Bill Gates is having a great time, so I think the people who are playing are more successful.

Looking at Bhattacharya’s diagram we see a variety of learning styles…

So,  I have been able to be a visiting professor in Japan. There, after an exam, they have fun, cook food, hav ea party. One of the places I visited, the Future Univerity in Hannuken has an environment without lecture theatres, with collaborative spaces… already preparing students for the professional world.

We have a change in our model here… from research then filtered through media to others. Right now we have empowered consumers and much more diversity, which means they are the lab… That is good in terms of saving costs for corporate players… I am a violin player… That is my corner… finding new material, interests, opportunities, wouldn’t have been possible 50 years ago, but now we can each find our niche….

Q&A

Q1) It is a very interesting topic… but early on you showed the vicarious identity… Can you build the bridge between that and this model, this changed model…

A1) Let me do it in terms of this picture (Japanese students having their post exam party). I see this as two elements. Social as being aware of common needs, and also keeping our identity too. Common needs is difficult for identitity – since that is about change for conformity. But this image is about allowing students to escape. Many teachers see social media as being separate from teaching ad learning… That’s partly about identity of teachers, and of students. Do we have to sacrifice identity in education? OR do we have to rethink identity.

In those changing diagrams in my later slides we see the community describing their needs, rather than industry deciding their needs for them…

Q2) In those diagrams you are showing a new way to communicate… are we moving from identity to new ways to communicate.

A2) I think that when we look at the mechanism her, we see a process of co-creation emerging. HP designing copiers, printers etc… They can’t do full ethnographic study. Customers only know their needs when they have a tool. I brought a scanner for book pages… but when I did that, I found my phone camera works best… I kept it as a souvenir of this failed/changing laboratory… And being aware of that change we see a whole new view of life… Patients define end of life care and descide choices, healthcare providers no longer do that for them. And we have manufacturers creating devices that fit into that elderly care etc. too.

And we are now back to parallel sessions… I am in the Social Media in Teacher Education – chaired by Anabele

Building Connections: professional online presence and learning networks – Dianne Forbes, University of Waikato, Hamilton, New Zealand

I wanted to plant a few seeds, share a few aspects that are discussed in more depth in the paper… and do follow up for collaboration etc. I am from a small city in New Zealand in Hamilton, Waikato is the University, and also the name of the area – we are a cow town essentially! I work in the faculty of education – I teach people who are teachers or who want to be teachers.

I’ve been teaching online for 13 years and I love that, that’s my favourite way to teach. But I wrote this paper after several years of thinking about online learning and professional learning. I have called this Professional Online Presence – but I’ve also heard reference to identity, to eprofessionalism etc. today. And I am also very interested in online networks and personal networks.

What I’m interested in is these teachers who we are training, and how we can encourage them to create a professional online presence that will develop their own learning, at university, but also life long professional learning. I have been carrying out a few experiments. We started with Twitter – to broaden undergraduate social media tools… But we have branched out into Instagram, eportfolios, and we have tweet chats and tweet meets. And we collate information to encourage students to think about the world beyond the course and the learning space (we use Moodle). Twitter is interesting because most of us use it as a public space… One of the most successful parts is the following, sharing, replying ad so forth.

From looking at teacher education I have been working with colleagues to look at professional online presence, and how that might apply in other professions and disciplines. So I am curious about engineers, scientists, business administration, leadership etc. So I have started a new project across all 8 faculties within our university… That work is still in progress!

According to the literature social media is useful for sharing content. But I think the other affordances of discussion and collaboration that are really important to learning networks and personal learning. The collaboration and communication is as important if not more so than the information.

The challenges and risks of social media include the time required to make good use of these channels, to make them valuabl; the privacy risks; and the integrity. From the literature my own explorations have shown me that it is nice to have the choice of asynchronous and synchronous discussion and collaboration. For student support syncronous channels can be hugely important – a tweet chat or tweetorial can really help for instance. Additional challenges and risks that I have encountered: just getting started can be a huge thing, putting yourself out there for the first time… And knowing what to do, who to follow… And students now saying they are struggling to move beyond habitual use of Facebook for strictly personal use. They aren’t comfortable doing that but I explain that learning shouldn’t always be comfortable, it needs to be challenging too. Those discussions enable us to discuss what the difference between personal and professional behaviours are, but of course effective teaching and learning is a sociable process too.

In Mauri we have the word “Apo” and that means to learn AND to teach and that idea that every teacher is a learner, and every learner is a teacher is important. One of my students commented on this, and her desire to be an open minded teacher, just as she had been an open minded leaner.

The other aspect here is that students will need to participate in learning networks to stay on top of their fields of interest and to advance their careers (Richardson & Mancabelli, 2011, p. 135). There is a lot of demand for PD/CPD but you can’t always send everyone on a course, nor can you run courses all the time. That sharing, discussion, personal development should just be part of what we do all the time. You google, you follow the trail… For instance my ICT support colleagues tell me 80-90% of queries they get could be answered by Googling – because you either find a solution or a community that has already encountered that problem.

So the idea of POP (Professional Online Presence) is that students think about the goal of their presence, the ethics of that, their identity, and ways to be visible and be visible in positive ways – particularly as para professionals looking for placements and posts. There is a code of ethics for teaching staff – there have been some bad behaviours so that will be replaced with a code of conduct very soon. Some of us are trying to change that – partly through that positive visibility. And this is about reputation – not what we shouldn’t do, but what we should be doing too. And it is also about harnessing power.

Then the idea of LN (Learning Networks) are about using the community, about adaptive help-seeking, pro-active, mentors, and new learning environments.

So for my traineers I set them a POPLN challenge, which requires them to select a tool to begin with, any free online social networking tool will do. They need to find that tool, establish a profile, explore the use for professional networking ad learning, find out how others use it, reflect on the potential for future learning and help seeking, share some of those thoughts on Moodle forum, responding to peers in the Moodle forum. This was optional and open, now more structured including writing a proposal, having a chat, and reporting back at the end. I have tried to make sure it is tied to marked work.

Seeing a student’s response to this challenge we see her identifying the expansion of her community of practice and the importance of that – all of our students spend one day in a placement.

And finally, on a related note, I am editing a special issue of elearning and digital technology on Twitter in education. And also a forthcoming book. Digital Smarts is a free CC licensed eBooks which is a collection of 10 chapters on how people in my institution are using digital technologies in their learning and teaching – including library and elearning support staff.

Q&A

Q1) I don’t teach myself but I think that this is a really interesting aspect. But I was really interested in your use of the “affordance” of twitter to discuss. And that interests me… because research on Twitter finds that it is not useful for fruitful rich discussion, it enables it through links… But not for discussion.

A1) My doctoral work was about asynchronous online discussion in Moodle and how to enrich that, what students expect of each other and how students and staff talk past each other… Some of that work has leaked out to Twitter. I was talking about something controversial last week, someone had shared a newspaper column… and we had a chat.. And someone else hopped in and it was hard to argue… We agreed to go away and blog about that… then share. Twitter isn’t a panacea for discussion, but a way to alert people to discussion in other spaces. For some undergraduates, who need some pastoral support, it is useful to be there for them on Twitter… We can video cast etc. as well but Skype for instance is no good for 200 students. We have an asynchronous hashtag that continues… This year I kept last years hashtag… and students have used that to look back again… That’s cool – a legacy approach to what is happening…

Q2) A couple of the things you said intrigued me… On Pop and lifelong learning. My research focuses on professional service firms and the development of professionals, and young professionals in particular. And in many cases that is about formal professional mentoring/certifications and accreditation. I was curious about your lifelong learning take on that… Are you aware of recent research on using social media

A2) Will Richardson and Macabelli work for instance. But sometimes people treat professional learning like schooling – you go because you have to. But when there is something they really want to know, when real motivation in real life they find other ways… How can we apply those to professional learning. Some of the most successful, in computer programming and gaming etc… they are self taught, “self-made” – people who can figure it out, rather than waiting for someone to teach it. Teaching is more than knowledge transmission these days – the successful people are the ones that proactively figure that stuff out.

Q3) This call for papers… There was an issue in The Learning Organisation and Workplace Learning… In organisation science some of these issues are already being looked at.

Examining the influence of social media-infused teacher education courses on pre-service teachers first teaching practices – Paula Charbonneau-Gowdy, Universidad Andrew Bello, Santiago, Chile

We are all here because we believe that knowledge is power. Historically there were real barriers to accessing information and knowledge, that hasn’t totally disappeared but increasingly that information is being made more available. Increasingly knowledge and learning is about social construction of learning (see Vygotsky 1981).

From a socio-cultural perspective we are seeing that social media provides one of the most efficient ways to enable this. And we also see the practice of “mass socialisation” and activism (Clay Shirky, date?). But whilst we see that happening, we are not seeing education changing so quickly. So what is missed when education doesn’t change quickly enough. And we see people asking whether institutions have any value (Hon 2015). Wetzel et al (2014) compares this to being like “waiting for the ocean liner to turn”.

So we are looking for sustainable and relevant chance. Social media has the power to do that (O’Donnell, 2011). But many teachers have personal experiences and beliefs that makes change hard (He and Cooper 2011). Now I work in Chile, and we are quite isolated from the rest of the world in many ways. We have a huge economic divide – 10% have access to good quality education and that means there are regular education protests, demanding better. And Chile also has one of the lowest productivity levels of OECD countries.

We based our study on Bourdieu (1991) Social Reproduction Theory, and Social Identity as Dynamic (Nyordic 2011?). And Weeners Identity Theory is also important to my work in Chile. There is also a TPAG (technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge) model that suggests that there must be connections between technology, content and pedagogical knowledge. Earlier studies found stand alone training isn’t adequate for sustainable change. So how can a four year pedagogic programme impact on the teachers practice. So I wanted to see those teachers in context, taking qualitatitive research approach in order to enable us to explore a complex context.

So this work was undertaken with 16 pre-service EFL teachers in their final semester. At Private university in Santiago Chile. and these students had has social media training and exposure as part of their training. Full details of the research are included in my full paper.

Several things occured… There are power structures in learning with social media. Even if teachers wanted to use it for learning, wifi and internet can be a limiting factor. And there are also tight deadlines and transportation issues that limited access and time. Cellphones are banned in the classroom in Chile – but students do use these spaces for information, facebook, as a distraction from boring classes). But students also use it to practice English.

There were also challenges in the teaching practice context. The mentors’ teachers views meant limited opportunities for learning through model – they feared loss of control over the learners. These teachers didn’t want trainees to use technology, nor did they want to use it themselves. That included videos, songs, etc.

And there was also a teacher education context here – participants spoke disparagingly about the use of social media tools by instructors. TEchnology use was limited to information transfer, Facebook for information management. Blogs were used for submissions but comments were not encouraged. One participant commented that that modelling was only from a few teachers, mainly from peers/friends.  And we also saw teaching students keen to use technology but not enough initiative to change their practice around that…

So a new teacher might use a video, but not in a constructivist way, just to present information. And novice teachers also spoke about their marginalised position as outsiders in the mentor teachers classroom in terms of change, pedagogy etc. They were not able or willing to take risks of any kind.

So there were power structures in the education process but also in their practice teaching sessions that disadvantaged and did not support or incentivise use of social media. SO we can’t fix this issue with a training course… we need the education faculty, the teacher mentors, those in decision making and leadership roles to support that. We see social media as a valuable tool in helping to make those changes.

Q&A

Q1) I have been connected with education for a long time… There is journey from computers to web to web 2.0. Perhaps going from very little, jumping onto social media is maybe too big a step all at once? Societies putting lots of money in IT and education still not ahead despite that, so interested in that. Would introducing students to that history be useful?

A1) I’ve been working on social media type tools in education since 2000. Chile seemed so behind the times… Still very traditional, didactic, teacher fronted structures. But we can’t afford not to jump those steps! I think the technology infused model works. My students used all sorts of social media tools over three semesters – there was a mark involved, it was a safe space… They were very open to do that. The class is very learner driven… But they would use the social media tools to teach. But as soon as they went back to the classroom they would fall back to the textbook teaching… And this country has to change.. But it’s all about identity. Mentor teachers make them feel they will be judged and marked.

Q2) For teachers unhappy with using social media, are there special suggestions or examples etc. to use that…

A2) This is very context specific but… My students live in a very narrow world because of their geographic location, my message to them is to reach out, to be global citizens… We talk about global issues and use social media in that… But then the rest of the course students are responsible for doing their own global issue – they have a theme because of the university’s role… They have a lot of flexibility, and a model to use… At the same time that that is going on they have to discuss, share, engage beyond the classroom, connecting constantly via social media. I get them using it!

Q3) Your limitation is about the structure… If they don’t follow the plan and don’t follow the book they fear failing evaluation – a problem that I see as well… Those structures and standard models means that those innovative practices cannot be used in practice, even when teachers are keen.

A3) I’m not alone, right! But I was invited to be there at the university, but they do listen to me so I have opportunities there… But they do say the mentor teacher won’t let me do this. My research suggests we have to work as a community to change that… But I think there is a possibility for change. They have asked me in another campus to come and start a dialogue to connect with social media too, to share that experience, those practices etc… to share this… The other thing we have done is that I saw a resistance by teacher educators to change, so I decided to do this by changing the assessment – moving into something different. I ran some workshops, sent around articles, technology etc… They were a few weeks but that built interest and collaborative assessment writing in a new way. And when testing time came I could see that teaching had changed dramatically to reflect that new assessment.

Q4) Those mentor teachers who are risk averse – it sounds like that may not just be about technology but much bigger, and perhaps that is partly also about historical experience in Chile?

A4) Teachers in Chile are very poorly paid. They work 45 hour a week, teach 42 hours. No prep time, not well respected… They just want to get the job done… I have worked with teachers, and masters teachers… Some do take that step but there is such resistance in that class to what I’m talking about… I get horrible resistance from teachers who are working in this system… Until they have more support it will be a long road to change. But I will finish with this comment: I work with maybe 25 teachers in one course… But in their first year teaching they will teach 150-200 students… So any impact there that’s huge! But it’s one step at a time…

And now I am heading to the Adoption and Influences of Social Media (chaired by Stephen Burgess)

Social Media as New Arenas for Intangible Cultural Heritage – Severo Marta, University of Lille 3, France

So, what is intangible cultural heritage? Well it is a terminology defined by UNESCO, which covers everything from craft and busilding processes, falconrya also, carnivales and cultural events, etc. Many linked to dance, craft, languages… the common points are that there are people who recognise these objects as part of their cultural. So we can use this idea only if that community is there, and recognising that practice.

There are three inventories – the Representative list of intangible cultural heritage; the list of intangible cultural heritage at risk and ?

Countries can put forward an object for recognition, but it must have the support of the community. And we can look at the mapping of the communities and networks – for the ICH in France for example. So, having recognised these practics how do we preserve these objects? Tools that are suitable for transcribing oral history have some relevance but there is huge potential of new technologies. So you have for instance the i-treasures.eu prohect, using advanced technologies to capture movement of dancers, craftspeople, technician. We have motion bank as well… For transmission they are perfect… But how can they facilitate community? Are they just a new way to freeze the data? So we need a new approach suitable for this sort of engagement.

We want a decentralise networked, collaborative, adaptive, ephemeral and dynamic space – and social media provides opportunities for this (Urecchio 2012).  Indeed there are soe important similiarities between social media and ICH. Even its basic definition (boyd and ellison 2007) has parallels with the way that one must articulate the comunicate and describe it in order to register an ICH.

The second example to highlight is the interactive and shared structure of social media is expeceted to match the living and continisly evolving nation of ICH (Benkler 2006) – social media are empoweremnt tools for communities.

So we proposose two types of intervention with social media….

1) An external authority provides community members with a way to preserve ICH

ichscotland.wiki.org – Scotland is not a state so cannot propose ICH to UNESCO. The project started in 2009… And it captures living culture, and there are campaigns, fpcus groups, and a wiki is created. Another example is the official wiki for the republic of Korea (ichpedia.org) so you can use the content but specific people update.

2) You go to a platofrm that communities already use to preserve ICH

So for example YouTube captures dance practices – but how you distinguish what is officially recignised, and what is not or is not authentic. There is no way to limit to an official inventory.

So, we undertook a case study, implementing both strategies. We did this for the Luminara Feast in Pisa, which takes place on 16th June and people put small lights in their window so the whole city lights up – various traditions. So the major wants to put this forward… But how do you define the community? And what are the shared practices? The city isn’t specific enough… So we set up a website (Candidiama La Luminara), a simple website which allowed people to express what Luminara is for them, the history, the practices, the people participating, a Google Map that people can add to. This is deliberately a simple approach so that it is accessible to all. And we set up a Wiki for sharing the nomination information. We had some focus groups and also a Facebook page which is also generated some interaction.

So, as a conclusion social media is a new arena for ICH – there is real complementarily between oral cultures and social media. There are two types of areas for this: ad hoc platforms (official inventories) vs popular platforms (informal inventories). And as there is a real issue for cultural heritage to engage young people, we also think these spaces have real opportunities to engage them.

Q&A

Q1) Veery interesting. I was curious that you mentioned this semi official UNESCO inventories… I can see the benefit of recording this stuff, but how does UNESCO see this sort of activity – this use of social media

A1) I worked at UNESCO a few years back. I think they didn’t forecast this type of use so they have no policy on this… UNESCO is overloaded by nomination process, see this as a problem at the moment so no policy yet… They first went for official presences rather than YouTube, but they cannot go back… But this stuff is positive…

Q2) Can I just ask about the difference betwen the wiki and Facebook – before the talks we talked about librarianship and records management and the care for cultures these days… You had some interest at the start, and on Facebook… Would you then take that and put it on the wiki later on?

A2) No, we cannot be integrated but can suggest to people to post in both places. But we don’t do it.. The big problem between the two is that wikis are difficult for many people to use… Facebook are very user friendly to do…

Q3) I’d just like to comment that I’m shocked that UNESCO doesn’t recognise what is happening in 2015, and the research and impact that these spaces are having… Are there ways of raising this issue.

A3) My PhD is on cultural heritage… the problem is about money, not about resistance. If you look at decisions website is mentioned all the time – it is the official provider of information since 2006… But they are overloaded. But we have a conference coming up, an annual one, on ICH, and this year it will be on use of digital tools.

Q4) Has there been work to apply crowdsourcing tactics to this issue. Particularly thinking about some of the communities that you want to reach – traditional/older people passing on knowledge?

A4) Yes, there are established crowd sourcing approaches that work for cultural heritage – offline as well as online. But I’m also not saying social media works for all kinds of ICH preservation of course.

 

Predicting Influence of User’s Twitter Activity – Instzar Ali Lashari, The Mersk Mc-Kinney Moller Institute, University of Southern Denmark

I will be talking about a case stufy from Pakistan, and that was data collected with API, then a process with an analytics app, and a tool I developed myself. And also talking about data based on hashtags from the data.

So I started by focusing on helping investigators looking at and processing information about political demonstration, terrorist or criminal activities. The objective is to analyse open data collected from online social networks where users post. We were concerned about ethical issues which is why we chose to focus on publicly available data, via the open Twitter API. We analysed 24,000 tweets on PTI anti-government mass protests in Pakistan. And from that I extracted the most important hashtags and performing sentiment analysis on the tweets associated with them.

Some of the issues and challenges that arose in analysing this data is that most NLP (Natural Language Processing) tools are for English language text, but this was not going to be a set of tweets in English, or not primarily in English. So I identified some tools and adapted some tools. I created a simple CBTA data model that drew Twitter data via the Streaming API, the Search API (the easiest and most accessible API), and the Current Trend API (woeid). Then I did the text processing (NLTK) which assigned the text either positive, negative, and neutral ratings… Also extracting the Tweets count/retweeting counts, the Twitter user (profile information).

So my tools make the user/tweet id available… And the NLTK using Indian has been used to do this analysis… Collecting data is easy… Around the hashtags from the data I captured were various cities/areas/placenames etc. Some were mentioning other countries – UK, UAE, USA etc. And also I got a snapshot of positive, negative, or neutral status.

From this work, I identified search keywords and hashtags for PTI Protests – a cluster of the most common terms. And those hashtags can then be looked at in terms of sentiment, and visualised. And from this work I have developed my own simple algorithm for measuring influence on Twitter. This is capturing the net effect of users’ Twitter activity – looking at sentiment in particular.

There are lots of ways to undrestand influenc eon Twitter. Yang and Counts (2010) found that mention @username in th etweets is more influential on the twitter network than the follower of the tweets. So they say that influence can be measured by mentions – and that is based on marketing strategies.

Korean 2012 presidential election found that twitter can be effective tool for the changes around social issues.

There has been a tremendous explosion in the aount of data generated, and often different groups exploit social media reports to suite their vested interests (Best 2011) – including product makers, politicians, etc. This is another persective for the use and implications for Twitter influence and how it may be used..

So, the API is very easy to use for data collection. I have learned in this project the colletion, processing, and R Studio for presentation all helpful.

So, in my analusis we found that a large majority of the tweets collected on the subject expressed positive sentiment followed by a section of neutral tweets and a large number of the most popular tweets as indicated by their favourite and retweet counts were positive. That indicates a particular cross section of political views were being represented on Twitter.

In future I would like to do some work on authentication of users Twitter accounts. And also to categoraise the Twitter tweets – from Media people, politicians, and fake accounts. Differentiating about that.

Q&A

Q1) My understanding is that the Twitter API is a partial snapshot/ a version of Top Tweets, so is there perhaps a potential that your data and finding of positive sentiment is related to how Twitter prioritises interesting content?

A1) I used the search API and that gives 7 days so it is the best coverage of tweets as possible…

Q2) How do you determine sentimant here?

A2) That is through natural language processing, and that is largely a reasonable assesment of the content. But using other algorithms and approaches could be done. My work is my use of some of the (many) available approaches.

Q3) You are measuring influence – but how you define influence?

A3) My take is to see who are being supported, retweeted, positive tweets etc.

Q3) There is a lot of work in psychology on influence that could be used with your work – working with someone in psychology and social science to better interpret context… I think that’s what may be missing at the moment.

A3) You are absolutely right…

Q4) I was wondering the NLTK – presumably a list approach of positive and negative terms?

A4) There is a database there of indian terms. These are text mining tools already in place. There are different models here…

Q4) I also wanted to connect that to how you define positive, negative, neutral – normally you would annotate that, check that, and use things like sentistrength, ways to benchmark that data etc. See if similar or different… Wondering about validity of positive/negative approaches.

Comment from chair/Q5) I probably learned a lot from the questions! So I will probably bring the quality of questions down… Your paper is called predicting influence, this seems to be describing…

A5) Well it is a model… But these comments are right, I should have psychological and social science aspects.

Q6) I liked how you decribed how you pulled the data together, using your own algorithm… But my comment would also be on your methodology – what is your theoretical context?

A6) I am only working on collection of data, methodology is only based on API… Influence is using that but my research is on the data collection.

And, as there is no third speaker in this strand I have hopped over to the  Mini track on Social Media Technologies for Learning and Teaching (Chairs: Johannes Konert and John Knight) for…

Lessons Learned From Four Years of Using Social Media to Support Transition to Higher Education – John Knight, Rebecca Rochon and Becci Hailey, Bucks New University, High Wycombe, UK

John: Why use social media? Well many of our students are transitioning into higher education from less traditional backgrounds, perhaps lower socio-economic groups… Social media seemed like an ideal tool to help address this, particularly as many of our students are already keen users of these spaces. But they enable interaction, peer support, community building.

So, we created our own social media community using Ning. There were lots of communication tools – very rich, very lovely. Students set up profiles. And they did what you would expect – some customised their profiles, presenting themselves in different ways… We ran it like that for about 3 years. But we have just switched approach from bespoke platform to existing tools, and a whole range of them: Facebook, Instagram, Twitter, Pinterest. We wanted to try Google+ but that was more of interest to staff than students as it turned out!

This work is integrated into other transition initiatives – our main programme is called “Bucks Welcome” and this will be “Bucks Welcome Online”.

So I wanted to reflect on what we have done over the last few years… About connect (social, practical and academic), staff use, barriers, privacy and issues around that, management.

If we are going to use social media in educational contexts, it is easy to forget we are using social media, and focus on what we want to give students. But in order to do that we have to be social, and exploiting the affordance of the social media spaces we are using. We forget that at our peril. The key thing we have learned is that if we are using social media tools. you actually have to use them for social networking. We forgot initially… We set these things up but not one student engaged as they were nothing to do with social interaction – we were in transmission mode. When we refocused on interactions, that was hugely successful.

So the main thing students are interested in as they come to university is finding friends. The social aspect is absolutely fundamental. Many of our initial conversations were about social interactions and enabling those in a multitude of ways. Almost nothing to do with learning at all, about making friends… But that is fundamental and important.

The next thing was dealing with practical issues… How to cook meals, how the university works, who to talk to about money issues, what they should bring with them… And we had an interesting theme emerge in our latest incarnation – about Toga parties!

Becci: When I first joined it was as a student. We don’t have a Freshers week, we have a Freshers fortnight! The toga party is a major draw and we had Facebook page, updates, count downs and, because of the increased number of dyslexic students we also promoted it via more visual platforms – Instagram, Pinterest etc.

John: Interestingly the use of multiple platforms means you can connect between those platforms – e.g. tweeting a photo that has been shared on Instagram.

So for us as academics we set up things we thought would be great but students didn’t seem keen. But there were other areas where students were very proactive – preparations for class, softwares, equipment, etc. But it was very subject related and dependent on tutor/academic presence from that environment. Where there was real interaction around teaching and learning that required presence from the tutor but also genuine engagement there, including the use of pictures and appropriate informal staff presentations.

Being authentically available and present, enabled genuine engagement and interest from students. Those who were not there, or who presented themselves poorly (no picture, “blue face of doom”/info/availability) that engagement was a non starter. So a finding for us was around staff using these spaces appropriately in order to actually make this useful for the students.

In terms of barriers… All the staff we talked to were very keen, very enthusiastic… But despite that they also stayed away in droves. Relatively little staff engagement and interactions. We went back to ask about that. They cited time, they talked about a form of initiative fatigue – there is lots of interest in transition in our institution and people saw it as another thing they needed to do. They didn’t know what to do – despite available support etc. And there was also the issue that transition work occurs in the summer – when staff are less engaged due to holidays etc. Birnback and Friedman (2009) identified some of the issues in organisational change and they identified the idea of piggy backing – not making a new initiative but adding to usual processes/familiar work.

I did want to talk about privacy issues. The literature talks about the importance, to students, of universities not intruding in their private lives. To avoid that we set up that bespoke environment, when students could choose what to share. But students seemed rather unconcerned – either they managed their concerns through settings… or they were not bothered. There were issues about staff using. And that student disinterest in those issues was part of why we are moving to mainstream tools. Bespoke spaces seen to be burdensome – another space to be.

Students are quite happy to share… But they are really resistant to being forced to do that. In Bucks we don’t manage email at all – students have an alias that directs to their personal accounts etc. Students perceive those emails as spam… They either complain or move email account… That sort of response has to be considered when you are talking about these sorts of spaces and how you do/do not encourage participation.

In terms of managing social networking projects we ran out of staff time, so we recruited students to manage that bespoke space… They had brilliant social media skills, but not as strong organisational skills. That organisation, systematic and reliable approach is central and we have learned that lesson now – which is why Becci has been doing that for us lately.

Q&A

Q1)

A1) John: One of the things I’ve learnt today is that we do lots of outreach to schools, physical outreach to students, to bring people in… But there is much more we can do with social media as well. Because we now use existing tools we can now reach students more easily, through their existing accounts etc. A very useful thing to be aware of.

Q2) Do you know if the work you have done has had impact in terms of preventing early exit from courses/retention. There was a handbook in 2013 about preventing school leaving was about working with students.

A2) John: Anecdotally I’d say yes, but evidence is trickier. But interactions online have translated to real friendships and relationships when they get to University. I know that had an impact. And it also increased interactions between staff and students – and in the literature that is linked to retention and learning. My sense is yes. We do know in our work in learning development we know the transition to HE and within HE… We see how that feeds into all of those areas.

A2) Becci: I had a student messaging on Facebook about a choice of course, providing guidance on fit for what she wanted meant I could advise her of which one was best fit, and she said that she may not have finished the course had she not made that choice.

Q3) Did you encounter any issues with social media around narcissm, lack of collaboration, deviant behaviour?

A3) John: No. But it’s worth being aware of what you do, when using existing environments, how do you deliver on your duty of care to the students in your institution… If someone is behaving inappropriately how do you police and respond to that? We didn’t have the experience, we would have found that problematic.

Q4) On the issue of privacy concerns – do you think this is because of a genuine lack of concern or a lack of awareness of implications of what could be shared? Might that opinion change by the time of graduation, say? So a picture of a toga party – it’s not that risky as a student but, for instance for a trainer teacher can find employment issues just for being photographed drinking – there have been some cases of that. So I’m wondering if students are genuinely not concerned, or if they are not aware enough in order to be appropriately concerned – in which case how do you handle that?

A4) Increasingly students are switched on about this… We have had one of two issues of inappropriate postings, not related to this work. Students are developing their understanding of that, particularly with employability agenda. Increasingly in the UK university is seen as preparation for work, for better or worse, and that does mean that they are increasingly aware. But that is a serious consideration: whether we should worry for our students even if they are not worried.

A4) Becci: I was interviewing students last week and a student looked at my Twitter presence and read things back to me! Nothing untoward there but it was scary in a way!

And with that, we are done for the day. I’m off for a walk in the Porto sunshine before our conference dinner, but I will be back liveblogging all day tomorrow! And keep an eye on the #ECSM2015 tweets for more from the conference.

 July 9, 2015  Posted by at 9:04 am Events Attended, LiveBlogs Tagged with: , , ,  No Responses »
Mar 102015
 

Today I am live from Birmingham again for Jisc Digifest 2015. Again, do keep an eye on those tweets though – all sessions will be covered on the #digifest15 hashtag. There is also some live streaming here. For those attending the event you can find me presenting in the following slot today (Hall 3):

My first session of the day is in one in the pods…

Transnational education: conversations for success – Dr Esther Wilkinson, Jisc TNE

Transnational education (TNE) is the provision of education qualifications from institutions in one country to students in another, plays an essential role in the delivery of international strategy in UK educational institutions.

There is huge interest within the sector on transnational education, and the policy around that. And here’s why. According to 2011/12 data transnational education was one of the UK’s major exports. The UK TNE Census 2014 (for HE) found the value to the UK economy at around £496m per annum. Average annual remittance per student of around £1530. We see relative stability in TNE host countries – many are around asia and the middle east. Subjects vary greatly but a real increase in engineering and STEM subjects. And TNE is growing.

So, it is growing… but what are the benefits? Traditionally TNE has grown up around partnerships at universities and relationships between universities, but we see it becoming increasingly strategically planned. Different institutions have different motivations for engaging. There are financial benefits but that’s not the motivation for many institutions. The cost of living in the UK is increasing, and visa clampdowns mean that delivery overseas increasingly makes sense. And there is a Taylor effect – when a UK presence in another country, a significant draw back to that country after graduation – estimated to be around £40m per year. The student also benefits as well. And all of these drivers are part of why Jisc has kicked off this work stream.

When we look at the UK providers of TNE (2011-12) we have to note that Oxford Brookes is so active in this space that they wholly skew the picture. But missing from that list is Nottingham… So, on that note, it’s over to Lisa Burrow, Director of global IT service delivery, University of Nottingham.

Lisa: Nottingham have had two campuses overseas for 10 years now, in China and Malaysia. We’ve been developing our 2020 strategy. Our vision within IS is for the majority of IT services to be available globally and provided on a global basis by one central team – that’s actually quite a challenge  for China in particular. So I have a team in Nottingham, and smaller connected teams in China and Malaysia. I have a team manager based with me dedicated to those campuses – we also have a business manager who is also dedicated to those campuses so both of those people spend around 2/3rds of their time at those campuses.

So, where does Jisc come in? Our current infrastructure in China and Malaysia was installed 10 years ago, but it is starting to show it’s age, especially with students coming in with all of their devices. So Jisc are supporting us to continuously improve, particularly to address issues of traffic. How do we meet those needs on an ongoing basis. So one area is Network Links – we currently use very expensive commercial links, and we are trialling possibilities from Jisc that are looking really promising, also CERNET and VPN. The other area is licensing. There are lots of opportunities for improvement there. And lots of challenges too. For instance in Malaysia a 10% charge is imposed by the government on some purchases. Lots of import and export issues. Some things are wholly banned in China. And we struggle on an ongoing basis with Google/Google Apps and some other services because of the “Great Firewall”. And there are also challenges around reseller rights. So I have been trying to negotiate a Microsoft licence, we have a global contract but the Chinese end has to be invoiced and paid in China, in yen. That is not acceptable to me, I want one global invoice, sent to Nottingham and paid there. Also reseller rights are often sold to different people, we had one provider say that unless we had a minimum spend of £1 million they wouldn’t even talk to us.

So, in summary, we think there is huge potential for working with Jisc, and we are really looking forward to that.

Esther: This is where Jisc comes in. A recent quote from Martin Hall, Jisc Chair, highlights this focus on transnational education. This area of work is not without challenges, some of which Lisa has already spoken about. Hidden costs can be a real issue in TNE. And the focus has too often been on curriculum design, academic quality, but not how we actually deliver. So when we want to deliver online courses, deliver seminars, then we start to see issues. And when things go wrong students are starting to be disappointed. We sell ourselves, the UK education sector, heavily overseas and so that student dissatisfaction can have a really problematic effect.

We have set up our Jisc TNE support strategy, to explore different models of delivery overseas, to support you in the spectrum of those services. Ideally we want to deliver you whatever we do in the UK, for use overseas. We know that may be too ambitious, but we want to aim at that… We are focusing on delivering the JANET network and connectivity overseas, that’s fundamental to getting everything else right. And we are focusing on China and Malaysia – where there is a prevalence of TNE activity.

We commissioned OBHE to run a series of research for us with UK HE providers. They ran focus groups in Scotland, Manchester and London. We ran a survey in July 2014 (38% response rate -84 universities). We did something interesting in commissioning this research. We did focus on IT staff but we also asked the international offices at institutions as well. So, we asked both types of staff what they are currently doing at the moment. A large number provising online, blended or MOOCs, many working in partnership, around 10% had overseas branch campuses. Growth likely to be online, joint working etc, likely 10% growth around branch campuses. We asked IT directors who works on the IT for overseas branches, many did not.

So, there is planned expansion fo TNE activities in the next 5 years. Branch campuses remain a minority, online/blended growing and a desire to shift to real time teaching delivery. Locations include Australia, Botswana, China, Hong Kong, India, Indonesia… etc. Network use was around email, browsing, access to library, registration systems and online courses hosted in the UK. And network issues encountered including poor network performance, protection of copyright data and intellectual property, integration fo IT with partner institutions. A couple of key areas for attention: a real lack of communication between IT and international offices – and we are already helping bring these groups together; and understanding what actually is happening at the branch campuses.

A lot of IT staff don’t know who is responsible at the other end of TNE at their institution, they don’t know who to go to when things go wrong. So we have models in China and Malaysia and our preference is to work with local partners. So, in China we have a strategic alliance with CERET, the Chinese Higher Education network, utilising the high-speed London-Beijing ORIENTplus connection. That gives increased bandwidth to international traffic at no additional cost.

In Malaysia this isn’t the case. They don’t have a good network so we have had to procure a commercial solution, from Telecom Malaysia. And we had three institutions approach us for assistance here – Newcastle, Southampton and Reading. This is for a local MAN established in EduCity – which is a co-located campus. But that relationship with the commercial ISP has also enabled us to negotiate a large discount for the new Heriot-Watt campus in Malaysia.

And a third example here: to provide a multi site service for University of Nottingham – to link up campuses but also deliver Eduroa and services such as telephony and video conferences. And this is a collaborative project with CERNET.

So, we are gathering evidence from the sector on what they want us to do next. We are working with Queen Mary, University of London; Heriot-Watt, Aberdeen etc. already. So far the experience has been very positive. And there are new opportunities coming. We have looked at British Council, HMG Industrial Strategy, and BIS value of TNE reports to look for concentrated areas of interest and opportunities. And we also looked to the survey responses, many already covered in that list. And together that generated out policy list, whic is:

  • South Korea
  • Mauritius – over 10 UK campuses there
  • Malta – Malta very keen to work with us.
  • Sri Lanka – aggregate of demand, there is an NREN there but their policy is to not engage beyond Sri Lanka and their HE sector
  • Pakistan
  • United Arab Emirates adn Middle East – many in Dubai, but Oman also growing
  • India – universities poised here, but policy issues at the moment
  • Africa – definitely the next big area. Difficult to connect. But the nature of TNEs is that you are not targetting well developed/connected areas
  • Hong Kong – still much to do
  • Singapore – still much to do

We are focusing on network, eduroam, video conferencing, security, cloud and data stroage. But licensing is also moving up the priority list and we are working with others in Jisc on that. And we are also working with some schools and private education providers in some of these areas, so it’s beyond HE. And we really need to be understanding these new methods and models for delivery. We also are looking at how to support for evaluation and assessment – some still paper based for TNE. And student experience also needs some work, many opportunities there. So, there is lots to do.

As we do these projects and look at new opportunities we are beginning to understand the Jisc TNE Support Programme value proposition. That is about Cost, Risk, Quality, Time. And services such as Global TNE policy development, in-country knowledge, etc.

So, we are only just beginning to understand how TNE will develop… It is critical we understand what you are currently doing so we can understand issues, things we can assist with, opportunities for the future. We have a sense of what TNE looks like now, but it’s about where TNE goes in the future…

Within your institution you need to know your own institutional international/TNE strategy; ensure IT support for TNE is fully considered and costed into the plans at the earliest opportunity.

Find out more at: http://jisc.ac.uk/rd/projects/transnational-education. And we are planning some workshops to help have those conversations across the sector.

Q: How does what you are doing compare to developed European countries?

A – Esther: On the whole there are good relationships with the rest of Europe. Some of our time is actually paid for by JALT. The TNE activities well developed in that space. But more competition coming up from the US and Australia, and that is why it matters that we do stuff well, to keep our competitive edge.

Keynote speech – Carole Goble

Before we begin our keynote session proper we are being treated to a video on the Janet network. And I’m now proud to introduce you to someone who has benefitted from and would not be able to do her work without the Janet network. Carol has been advocating releasing research as research objects, not just for scientists and researchers but for anyone inteterested in research and knowledge.

Carol: I was inspired by a colleague, Josh Summers, who has a nasty disease called Chordoma and he was motivated not to further to research, but to speed up research so that fewer people died. He said the research is too slow, the reuse of information was not easy enough to do. I think that it is useful to remember why we do science, why we do research.

So, how do we share knowledge at the moment? We share PDFs, and link to other PDFs. Other times we share data through tables and graphs that we have to pull out of a PDF… I have a colleague who built a tool to extract that – make data reusable again. But why do we do this? Well, it’s about virtual witnessing (Mesirov 2010), to announce results, and to be able to repeat the experiment… But in Bramhall et al (2015) you find only one of 58 papers looking at colitis research gave enough information for the research to be repeatable. Why? Well look at #overlyhonestmethods and you’ll see the sorts of issues that can arise…

I am a computational scientists and an article about computational science is a about datasets, collections, standard operating procedures, software, etc. That’s a lot of stuff if we truly wanting our research to be repeatable. Of 50 papers randomly chosen from 378 manuscripts in 2011 looking at the same process (Burrows Wheeler Aligner for mapping Illumina reads) – only 7 listed neccassary details; 26 no access to primary datasets but actually the methodology is the real issue. Even if you don’t share the data, sharing the method is essential. Bad software = bad results. Geoffrey Chang should be applauded for coming clean about an error in his homemade software – he retracted 3 papers, one of which had nearly 400 citations.

So, how are our software making practices… As a general rule researchers are not good at documenting what they do. Only 34% of scientists think that formal training in developing software is important. Something is a bit wrong here about how we are doing this. We have initiatives like Data Fairport, FAIR (Finadable Accessible Interoperable Reusable) publishing – which the EU is very keen on,. There are catalogues of code. There are manifestos on computational method. To summarise: record and automate everything!

All this activity has led to a soft of bottom up “republic of science” (Merton 1942), the regulation of science (OECD, EU, Research Councils, EPSRC data mandate etc) and in the middle all of this institution cores, libraries and public services. So, why do we end up with this situation on reusability in science? Well there is honest error. Because science is messy (like climate gate). Because of fraud – a real issue in biomedicine, a significant number of biomedical papers which are fraudulent. And there are inherant issues – there is one LHC, there is one super powerful computer and it would be excessive to replicate.

Research goes wrong because of scientific method – bad resources, black boxes, poor reporting, unavailable resources, bad training. With that some more #overlyhonestmethods quotes here, e.g. “I can’t reproduce my data as I can’t remember my exel filenames any more!”.

There is also an issue of reproducability debt. The time it takes to prepare something so that someone you don’t know can actually reproduce that research…. Maybe easy to prepare for others in your lab, but for a stranger that’s hard. And no one sees the value in taking the time to do that, the benefit of doing that. And there is a lot of work to make reproducable… but there is no motivation for replication studies, no one is excited about it in terms of funding or publications… And we have a complex, fragmented landscape of subject specific and general resources.

So I’m going to look at some specific things around reproducability…

The Journal of Biogeography and the migration patterns of crabs in the Baltic. To do this you need a workflow… need reference data, own data, need to clean and process the data… modelling, running again, tweaking, running again etc. and then data analysis. So here is the myexperiment data to support that – workflows and connected programmes to capture that data, that process, those tweaks. And that points to other third party systems, data in other repositories… a complicated environment…

So, to research objects… That is a research object.. compound investigations, research products.

These objects are units of exchange, commons, contextual metadata. They are multi various products, platforms/resources. So we see this all as a research object (see: http://www.researchobject.org).  And when you have the publications, data, results, workflows, slides, metadata, logs… then you have a first class citizen, an object including data, software, methods, id, manage, credit, track, profile, focus. So it’s a big box full os stuff, connected to stuff… Like a TARDIS… lets call it Time and Relative Dimensions in Scholarship. In honour of the tradis I’m going to use a tardis as my framework for enabling this stuff… [see the slides, I can’t do it justice!].

So we are working on an MRC funded multi site collaboration to support safe use of patient and research data for medical research. And looking at research object packages codes, study, and metadata to exchnage description of research data. And that is work with the Farr institute.

We also need to share code. There has been a big push around this from Mozilla Science Lab, F1000 Research – seeing research as versioned but living documents, so the figure changes as you access it. You can register with other labs to contribute, then re-calculate to get new versions of the paper, or the conclusions… That is a research paper as object. We should not be thinking of research as publications, but as something we release – just like software… With comparisons, versions, forks and merges, dependencies… ID and citations. And we can do that across research.

To go back again to research object work that I’m doing at Manchester… here’s a paper on parasites, and it’s associated model… And this is associated with a SEEK FAIRDOM site – asset registry, models and data can be loaded… So this one paper has 2 studies, 21 assays, 14 data files… and the DOI is to all of that, not just to the paper. So this brings together standards, personal data in local stores, models, external databases, articles. SEEK is a way to look across all of these. And this idea of FAIRDOM is an aggregated commons infrastrucutre provides enough to share experimental data across your colleagues. That is underpinned by the ISA model. This work is funded by the BBSRC… I have 7 FTEs on this project which I realise is better than many will have working in this space.

What is reproducabiity? What does it actually mean? The science changes…. If I run data through the same workflow again but the data has changed slightly, for instance, I won’t get the same results – and shouldn’t. And these instruments (whether equipment, machines, software) break, labs decay…. We see bit rot, black boxes, propietary licenses, “clown” services – a way to think with caution about “cloud”, partial replication, prepare to repair – we did some research with myexperiment and found labs are dependent on their instruments, their materials… So we have to think at the start of the experiment what the equipment and setup is.

So, we know in the research world we have a research environment and a publication environment… But we now know we have a range of options here… rerun – variations on experiment and set up; repeat – cam experiment, same set up, same lab; replicate – same experiment, same set up, independent lab ;reproduce – variations on experiment… ;reuse. No scientist wants to full reproduce after publication though, they just want to reuse. And that brings us to FAIR ideas, to the need to be transparant. And in software that means standards, packages, provenance, version control. And we can make use of an eLab, a virtual machine… A way to run/replicate what has happened but not to replicate it. With a complex workflow you are trying to put the internet in a box… ! So, we have a range from portability to transparency…

At Manchester we’ve been doing quite an academic thing… thinking about what the least possible we can do… Some of my own papers are not REF returnable are not “hard computer science” and because “you’ve written so that the people you have written it for can read and use it”! So, anyway, we are trying to use existing tools and standards. Can we use Zip as transport, Docker as packaging tool. That description and manifest has to be configured from the least you can describe…. it’s identity is the least you can describe – so how you cite it matters. We need objects to be born reproducable, and we need to have smart/pragmatic ideas of reproducability.

And with that, I’m afraid, I have to sneak off to prep my own 11am session. Watch the tweets for the rest of Carol’s excellent talk. And then I was in my session, then lunch… now back… 

Get involved in co-design

So I’m just goung to talk a bit about what co-design is… We have an innovation pipeline – it looks a bit like a caterpillar… But this is about co-design as part of the process of developing new projects and services. There are two underpinning process… the process by which we move things along (the product management process), and how ideas get into the pipeline – and those ideas may come in at any point in that pipeline. And that second process is via something we call co-design. We want people who will end up using what we develop is involved from idea through to delivery of service. We’ve now done that for two years, now working on ideas that came out of the 2014 co-design process.

There are some principles here. Our effort has to be focused – we have limitless areas that we might want to develop or work on but limited resources to do that. So we have to focus and prioritise. The next thing is partnership, and working in partnership with Jisc customers to ensure there is no deep divergence in what they need and what we deliver. That partnership can also be about relationships with other organisations, delivery partners etc. The next thing is absolutely being user-centred – we have to have end users in mind throughout… Can be tricky, e.g. for middleware… But it should be the number one priority for all of our processes. We still have to take risks and be experimental in one way or another… But we need a balance of risk in our portfolio – interesting things, innovation… but a balance that everyone benefits from. The desire to be agile, to be responsive and change as needs change, technologies change, opportunities change… things can change during that pipeline process…

The way we do co-design at the moment – and we do plan to make some changes based on the feedback from the Jisc community so from 2016 onwards will be different, particularly with the new account managers in place. But how it has worked at the moment is to start with a prioritisation meeting with high level representatives (UCISA, Colleges, NUS, etc.), that generates key areas – about 5 – and then we contact and engage with a much bigger group to look at possible ways to address those challenges. And then we prioritise again, deciding which ideas to pursue.

We then reach the stage of developing the ideas into new services through regular iterations with end users. So for the 2014 co-design process we’ll be in this phase until 2016 by which time all 5 areas should have delivered.

Thinking ahead to 2016 we do want to expand who we engage with, ensure it is wider without slowing down the process. We also haven’t had many radical innovations coming forward, and hope to support that to happen.

So there are five co-design challenges for (2014-16).

Research at risk – lead by Rachel Bruce

Essentially this is about research data management. This is turning research data management from a problem, into business as usual. This is really across two categories: shared services – since many universities addressing this issue so space to address with shared platforms and approaches for instance around storage, measuring usage of shared data, also research data discovery – how do you find research data? Papers are relatively easy, but how do you find data? Looking at share service for that; the other side of things is policy, compliance… and ways to ensure compliance or roadmaps to reach compliance. We also have a project called “Research Data Spring” – going direct to researchers for ideas. Started with 70 ideas, now refined down to 22… researchers are melding and merging their ideas as well.

How do you get involved? Mainly this will be later on. Early adopters of shared services, early users and provide ideas and steering of those. All of those are

Prospect to Alumnus – lead by Simon Whittemore

Andy McGregor: This is about a more joined up student experience from prospect through studies and into alumni. We will deliver short, medium and long term solutions here. So for instance thinking about data flow across institutional systems, pathways and use case of how students interact with the data stored around tham will happen shortly. We are also looking at student profiles, and the changing nature of students, so we’d like your help with that. Into the medium term we are looking to build an employer/student skills match system, looking at formal and informal skills, use of badges etc. And our longer term solution would be a digital data service, stuff that they own and can take with them from one institution to another.

So, in terms of getting involved, probably best to email Simon or myself.

Learning Analytics – lead by Paul Bailey

Paul: Looking at challenges of implementing learning analytics in higher and further education. We asked for ideas and prioritisation of ideas. The three areas desired was: some sort of basic learning analytics solution; policy and ethics – a code of practice – of learning analytics; a cookbook of case studies, what people are doing, the algorithms and approaches in use.

How can you get involved: currently in procurement process for learning analytics solution. Hope to have in place by May, ready for trialling in September.. And then we’ll be looking for pilot participants, and an idea of required strategy, policy, etc. to bring these tools into use. Also looking at an intervention tool for the outcome of the analytics. Also a student-facing app for presenting learning analytics. And we’ll be working with staff and students to work on that over the next year. The code of practice has been drafted, it’s out for comment… And the network – we have a growing active network of people involved and engaged with learning analytics (analytics@jiscmail.ac.uk). We have face to face meetings – community led, community based network meetings. We also have some small micro funded projects for exploring more advanced research around learning analytics – wider data sets than we may have in our basic solution.

Andy: For learning analytics the problem was well defined so we have been able to move more quickly.

Paul: See out blog on analytics.jiscinvolve.org. And reports there.

Digital Capabilities – lead by Sarah Davies

This is about staff skills and capabilities. This is essential to the student experience. But it is also, from an IT Director perspective, about getting best value from investment in technology. This builds upon previous work on digital literacy. We think we can move to a better set of resources, and set of approaches but there is lots of work to build upon. And we think we can build up a capabilities framework, to understand what is needed now, and what there may be. This framework will combine other frameworks already available and form a foundation for the tools we are developing. This work is well underway – see the Get Involved page on the Jisc R&D website. There are more opportunities coming up soon. We will have something by the end of 2015 – will be prototypes to see/engage with much sooner than this.

Implementing FELTAG – lead by Nigel Ecclesfield

Paul: This has come about in part in response to the FELTAG report about improving use of learning technology in FE and Skills. We’ve been through a consultation process with leaders in the sector, and we are helping to co-ordinate what goes on in the sector. So what’s coming out of that is an FE coalition with appropriate FE provider groups. They have put together a joint statement of their commitment to work on this agenda – a bit like a government steering group. It’s partly Jisc, partly that bigger coalition. The role of the FE Coalition is broader than England, and broader than FELTAG. We have the Scottish Funding Council involved and expect NI and Wales to be involved.

There are also activities around student engagement, change agency of students, and we we have four challenges coming up around change management. Two of those four are about FE and skills organisations and learner. One is for apprentices. The other things we are working on will looking at leadership and development, at curriculum design and development and content creation. Particularly discovery of that material. A lot looking at what is being called the FE discovery community – to pull together and share learning resources, and processes. A network to engage FE practitioners around what works in learning technologies. Currently discussing the specifications here.

A lot of this has been carried forward by collating activities across the sector, including other organisations already involved.

Andy: Of course this is still taking shape, so opportunities will be coming up as they progress. And do keep an eye on the Get Involved page of the Jisc R&D website.

So what we’d like to do now is to have a bit of discussion here around co-design… and any questions you may have…

Q1: Prospect to Alumnus work – has any account been taken of existing work around student identities etc.

Shri: Not a replacement. But we know many FE colleges looking at employability have their own systems in place…

Comment: There are lots of different things taking place, we are keen to understand that, develop an easily replicable approach and method to monitor that.

Shri: Things like how do we fit placements get represented, is that badged, etc.

Comment: This also responds to increasing localisation agenda…

Q1: At the moment you lose data from schools, again at the end when students moved to university… There is a lack of consistency in what is being recorded and how that has been recorded.

Shri: In co-design we are starting small and focused, but can then reflect and get feedback and expand into a more complex system…

Andy: We could start big and never quite get there, could work on edges… but we are trying to hit balance of what is needed right now, what’s practical, but also the imaginative work about where this could go – probably more to do in that second area, more thinking to do.

Paul: It’s a big one that. Had a go at it before.

Q1: I think it’s silly we apply the ULN, they haven’t had it applied before but should have done. It’s really fragmented.

Paul: In next few years use of ULN in universities should move from about 30% to about 70%. That may be a driver. For HE it’s about attainment, for FE & skills it’s much more about tracking that process, the learner pathway over time – that’s an interesting challenge. But that’s another stage of development. We are doing well with HE, fairly well with colleges, but more to do with skills providers.

Andy: Going back to learning analytics… An app for students to track process, is that a good idea?

Comment: Is there student demand?

Andy: We have some indications from the summer of student innovation that tracking own data is of interest…

Comment: But that may not be a representative group

Andy: Certainly the NUS are interested.

Paul: Those that have piloted student dashboards have found them useful. And the NUS are keen for greater transparancy. But cautiously in a productive way. Another issue is that students may be able to interact and respond to those analytics… maybe linking up their fitbit or something, linking to performance at university. At Research Data Spring there was a small project looking at that sort of activity, attainment and activity in the VLE – and if there is any correlation. But also to look at feedback and emotional response to that feedback.

Andy: And on that, we wrap up… Hopefully if another event next year, we can show off what we have achieved, as all of these areas will be delivering over the next year.

Find out more about this work here: http://www.jisc.ac.uk/rd/how-we-innovate

Improving buy-in for e-learning through a frictionless framework – Judy Bloxham and Allen Crawford Thomas

Judy: This is going to be a reflection on working with the FE community in particular… And that’s where this frictionless framework comes from… And this is about coping with a different sort of landscape, because we can’t stand still in the education world – external forces require us to change. Only last week we had an announcement of the changes in adult education funding – an 11% cut. For colleges that money is about 36% of their budget, so that’s a 24% cut to their budget overall. That money is being refocused on apprenticeships, and that will force other changes, such as college mergers. There is no way to stay static in that environment.

We are starting with a wee quiz/poll of the room… using Kahoot.it so we get dramatic music to pressure us into answers! Questions include organisational attitude to IT, IT support view of what they do. And how we feel after staff development session. And what we think of OERs and free technology.

There has been more pedagogic change in the last 10 years than the last 1000 years. There is so much we can do… the lecture needs to change… there is so much we can do…

“if you think eduation is expensive try ignorance” – Derek Bok. This applies as much to staff as to learners. If staff are not allowed to experiment, to try things out… That’s why the elearning agenda can stall. In big institutional reviews staff complained about the lack of time to learn things properly, to understand them properly. [now watching segment of David Putnam talk]. People want to hang on to things that they recognise, and that’s a dangerous place to be. We have so much of a push side for education… We will give you this knowledge… But now it needs to be a pull, learners need to take knowledge on, students need to understand how to find information when they need it. We can’t remember facts, information in our head… So learners need to find how to find information rather than hold a load of facts…

Technology has to be useful to actually make use of it, to feel ok learning how to use it (e.g. recent City & Guilds report). Quite often technology is about acquisition without vision. Some tools are not usable enough to use. Sometimes you have to acknowledge that what you have purchased may not be fit for purpose.

Larry Cuban has been quite critical about the use of technology in education, that there is a lack of relationship between the tools and technologies and the education and pedagogies themselves. And our use of technology in institutions are often behind what we do in other areas of our life, with our devices etc. Lovely quote in a recent report: “the quality of education can never exceed the quality of the teachers”.

There needs to be a clear vision for the role of technology including joined up thinking and co-ordinated action. The whole organisation needs to be involved in procurement and deployment, good support during roll out. And of course there has to be real relevance to your learners. Tech should absolutely be there to support learning not be seen as a “nice to have”. The FELTAG report also highlighted the importance of relevance, and training to uptake and you need senior managers have to buy in for things to actually happen.

So, what we need, is fast, friendly, and focused technology to make it frictionless. Is this stuff is easy to use your staff and learners will be able to and motivated to use it… So we get to this diagram of how everything needs to work together… With the organisation, staff and learners all working together…

Senior management want low cost and high quality solutions, they want easy adoption, improved retention and achievement, improved learner success, sustainable solutions, good practice that is easy to replicate – don’t underestimate how difficult that is to do, replication knowledge and skills can be really hard to pull off. IT Infrastructure require compatibility, security, low maintenance, to be partners in the planning of how technology is applied to support learning. [Various discussion here about restrictions around installation, processes, attitude, about the degree to which this issue has been raised again and again every year for probably 15 to 20 years, of the need to reward good practice professionally for good sensible innovation and for sharing that]. Teachers want easy to understand and use of technology, pedagogical relevance – how do they relate to their practice, technology to increase learner engagement, contextualised staff development.

And with that I’m going to sneak out for a coffee, as this is not quite the session I was expecting in terms of focus, hopefully others here will be tweeting highlights for the last 10 mins though. 

How do we change the learning landscape? – Lawrie Phipps,Will Allen and Peter Chatterton

For the last two years Jisc have been working with organisations, in a multi agency partnership with ALT, NUS, HEA, etc. looking at technology enhanced learning change. Having the NUS involved has been an incredibly important part of that.  Seven key things came through: strategy and leadership was key; students – institutions really engaging students in the change made the most difference; programme design and delivery; professional support services; staff capabilities and development; change management approaches – some really interesting findings around that and preparing for change; technology – change that people wanted, making it appropriate and relevant, looking for problems and looking for solutions which are not always going to be technological solutions.

Will: leaders recognise the importance of TEL as part of achieveing organisational goals. But terms such as “excellent learning experience” didn’t neccassarily mean anything practical at the chalk face. There is recognition of rapidly changing environment, mobile, BYOD. There was also an awareness that technology isn’t part of NSS scores.

Peter: What came back from students is the lack of consistency – that is their word that they are using. Part of the benefit of an HE education is that it is not consistent, you are exposed to different views etc… But when one teacher has real enthusiasm for technology, engages students, that can reset expectations only to have those expectations dashed on later courses. But another thing we see in HE – we are great at innovation, at pilots… but not at rolling out across the institution. And support staff are also tending to want to work with the innovators… and so universities aren’t good at spreading the knowledge that they have… I started working in TEL 15 years ago and a lot of these issues haven’t changed, we are not moving that far forward and therefore need to take a different approach to ensure what students want which is more consistent practices. We need to embed innovative learning across universities…

Students really like mobile access – I know one institution looking at a student centric mobile approach instead of a VLE for instance. And students like to see the benefits of technology, but not just the use of it for the sake of it. And students really still want face to face contact. econtact, efeedback has to be sold much more to students…

There are still lots of barriers for staff not using TEL – workload, capabilities, confidence for instance. We have to encourage senior staff to embrace TEL to make that happen.

Lawrie: In terms of change management we found a lot of institutions were really agile, really flexible about changes… But strategy needs to be contextualised, turning strategy aims into meaningful terminology for staff to use in their practice mattered. Some organisations were bringing in external/independent change managers. To talk through the process. And part of that is always about ensuring that the people who need to be engaged understand why it is happening, why it matters, what the impact is. Especially when you are talking about bringing digital literacies into the curriculum.

Peter: At the moment support staff are often from different backgrounds, I think we need to equip them with coaching skills, in order to skill them to coach academic leaders, deans, etc.

Q1: Isn’t there an opportunity here to persuade the professional skills organisations to properly recognise that teaching and those skills and those pedagogies are rewarded.

A1 – Lawrie: Many different organisations here, and great to aim at getting this all linked up, but that’s a long term/huge challenge.

A1 – Peter: There is a Change Agent Network and that has just launched some initiatives. But I think we also need to see academic practice linking up research and teaching – not seeing them as different things, but as sharing many of the same needs/qualities.

Q2: I have difficulty convincing academics that they are educators – eduation is almost what you get demoted to in the HE organisation I work in. So I have really been working in the area you are talking about for many years. Drivers vary so much in HE than in FE, where I worked before.

A2 – Lawrie: We do have to recognise the importance of teaching, and the status of teaching.

A2 – Peter: That is starting to happen and be recognised. But with so many modules and programme teams, how do you that? Training? Support teams? Or as part of processes such as course review. And it’s different in a modern institution, versus a traditional institution, versus an FE college.

A2 – Lawrie: But there is cross learning to be had here.

Q3: Do we need to have outside help? In my college I’m very keen to develop digital learning for my students but it is so hard to access time and money to do so. Understanding needs of educational staff is so important here…

A3: You don’t have to, but you can use them and they can help…

A3 – Peter: I would reinforce all you’ve said about educators. Educators absolutely want to do the best for their students. But don’t knock the role of outsiders – they can add legitimacy for senior managers. It’s a fact of life in my experience that senior managers listen to outsiders more than their own staff… So you have to work with those outsiders to ensure that they reinforce your position.

Q4: I think we also have to sing the praises of the local hero at departmental level. Recognising the roles of academic and support staff, recognising good practice, rewarding with extra time to support that. We have done this very successfully by introducing our VLE with local heroes/champions. You can be as top down as you like but unless there is local engagement your technologies will not be used.

A4 – Lawrie: There’s a balance to be had there. We have to reward local heros. And we need to find a way to bring commonality to case studies in terms of deploying in our own institutions.

A4 – Peter: And of course we have to influence senior staff, loosen those barriers – reward, recognition, word load…. these are hugely important.

Q4: Part of our project was also about engaging students as well. With academic and support staff. But enabled by senior management.

Q5: To sort of agree with Peter here, the role of managers is important. But isn’t one of the biggest problems with our organisations is that the organisation isn’t willing to put in place policies and practices to enable innovations to be sustained?

A5 – Peter: And why is that?

Q5: I think because we don’t have the processes in place to support that. Deans can query the VPs/VCs but ordinary teaching staff are unlikely to do that. We need to support the ability to change.

A5 – Peter: You need people – not the innovators but other types of people – who are better equipped to make that change happen. The innovators like to innovate!

Lawrie: The report we have written, “How do you change the learning landscape?” is now available from the Digifest site and app (and here). It’s just a starting point in this process of supporting change… We are also working on digital capabilities on the whole, and digital capabilities frameworks. These compliment and recognise these skills…

Jisc has also restructured recently, so we just want to talk about some of those changes and why they support this.

Will: One of the big advantages of CLL was that partnership working model. And there is a lot of overlap with Jisc’s new approach to projects and services. I am part of the Jisc Advice&Engagement arm, I lead Jisc North, but this is part of four areas that are part of our regional engagement model. There are all of these points of contacts for you to engage with, to work in partnership with you and provide support in a new customer service model.

Each customer has a dedicated account manager – every university, college, training provider. There are now 44 account managers to work with you. The parallels to CLL are important – this model reflects the way consultants worked in CLL. We have 25 subject specialists who support account managers. We have 7 community engagement officers, we have a customer contact manager. So, please do contact your account manager. If you don’t know who the Jisc contact point within your organisation, contact us and we may be able to help. And we will be giving that contact information about their services, how they are used, etc. as well as targeted support and advice. This is about focused attention, more opportunities to influence our priorities, more tangible and meaningful results and user stories, more evidence and data and a stronger relationship with Jisc.

And with that the short but informative hub session is done! I will be perusing the exhibition and other pod sessions but the liveblog will resume at 4pm for the closing keynote for the conference.

Keynote “Digital vs. Human” from Richard Watson

Robert Haymon-Collins, Executive director customer experience: We’ve had over 1000 people here over the last two days either here in person or engaged online. We also trended on Twitter yesterday – thanks to great live tweeting but also loads of retweeting of content, of useful materials. This was our first year playing with our own app. We’ve had nearly 600 active app users over the last few days. The only thing we have left to do is our closing keynote.

Richard is the author of many books on the future, he’s an advisor and speaker on future trends to companies including IBM, and libraries such as New South Wales.

Richard: This will either work, or it will not. It will be binary. So I want to start by asking “why are you here”. That’s not a theoretical question, I’m genuinely curious since you could take part at home. I think that says something about people, humans matter, showing that digital and humans can coexist. That’s the good news.

The bad news is that companies and corporations don’t neccassarily feel that way. I don’t want you to smash your ipad or ditch Facebook, just to raise your gaze from your compote of apples and blackberries to think about what is happening. These technologies are changing human behaviour. This year, or next, there will be more phones than people. 10% of 5 year olds have their own phone. By age 10 it is more like 75%. By the way calling your kids without warning quite shocls them! But then phone is pretty misleading – voice traffic is falling through the floor, we engage through screens not directly. Does it matter? Sometimes. Text is difficult for conveying tone – there are things that help but you can’t use body language there. Skype and telepresence technologies help a lot, and we lose stuff in that interaction. Research finds that being mediated in that way can mean we miss some of those clues. So good stuff is happening, communication is happening… but how much is being understood?

We are deluged with information, with updates, with tweets… Recent research found that we check our mobile phones over 150 times a day. We rush responses, we don’t read things through properly… I am as guilty  at this as anyone. A Microsoft researcher Lynda Small(?) called this a “constant partial attention”. I’m not saying we switch everything off… but when things really matter face to face really help. Digital technologies need to enhance human communication, not replace them. Increasingly we are distracted by notifications, alerts, etc. and we work in open plan offices that include loads of distractions… Some research found that workers were typically interrupted every 20 minutes, and it can take 40 minutes to remember what you have done. Another study suggested you lose 10 IQ points if you have two or more screens open!

And even text is becoming redundant, perhaps. We are beginning to speak to our computers. Siri is part of this. We will all in ten years have AI avatars, smarter than us. As recently as 2000 only 25% of the world’s internet was online. Now it is 98%. And it’s going up with the Internet of Things. Many things we’ve never quantified before will be turned into data, into money – usually for something else.

So will smart machines take over our jobs? Well we are familiar with this stuff in industrial contexts. There was a study from Oxford University academics predicting a huge loss of US and UK jobs as things more online, similarly Gartner found a likely 30% reduction in jobs. So if you do clear rule based work then you are at risk. So what is it that humans do, that robots and technology are bad at. I’d suggest the answer is in this room… There are a number of things that mark humans from machines… Humans are curious, they like to interact physically, and we are highly creative and care about people. So low level legal assistants might be at risk, lawyers great with people, less so. Surgeons maybe at risk, those able to engage and connect emotionally and intuitively should be safe.

One worrying trend is the use of mobile devices to filter friendship… We already have robots in kindergartens and care homes in Japan, in education in the US. What is interesting is how humans are finding human interactions stressful – people are avoiding people all together and using technology to distance themselves – you see this in avoidance of others in Tesco. In Japan men in their 20s, 30s or 40s seem to prefer relationships with virtual girlfriends thanks to games like that. Also they are seeing 16-30 year olds not interested in sex at all – some demographic issues there, but also cultural issues and digital cultural issues. Perhaps that is the virtual world being more tempting than reality.

I have school aged kids using screens in school. I have no beef with this. But I question the “why?”. The “why?” here seems to be about attention span. So, for instance, if you look at an episode of “Law & Order” now versus 10 years ago the editing and speed is so different. How can a book compare? Exams are still on paper, and handwriting and spelling matter… how does that fit in. And with these screens – well they are fantastic for finding and filtering stuff fast. But blindly following that without focus may risk the loss of focused reflective thought. How many people looking at Google go past page 1? It’s 1%. For some things – like finding a good Indian restaurant in Birmingham – that’s fine. But if you are searching for wisdom… well we are all looking at the same narrow set of information. Information only acquires meaning in context.

Now, I’m hugely encouraged that you are all here, and see value in being here… I really think that it is not Digital vs Human but actually Digital and Human. With digital complementing the human.

To finish I want to encourage (1) switching off; (2) understanding different communication technologies; (3) sleep.

So Switching off: I think we need to ritualise switching off our devices one day a week, for rest and recharge. If you can divide work and home devices, and then switch off the work device after 7pm that would be great. And you also have to physically switch your mind off from time to time. I read a book called Future Minds and during that reading process I wanted to ask people where they did their best thinking. I got about 1000 people – huge mix around the world. Out of them only 1 person said they did their best thinking at work. Quite shocking. And they were lying as they said “very early, or very late when no-one is around’. No one mentioned digital technology – was 2010 but it might still apply. And that wasn’t age specific. And to have a good idea, the first thing to do is to have space to have a good idea – have a walk, get in the shower… you need silence, stillness and slowness. All hugely underrated in the digital era…

The second suggestion is that we have to match the technology to the task. Paper and pixels are quite different. Screens are incredibly useful for connecting people, exchanging information and facts, for collaboration especially on tightly defined problems. Paper is good for complex arguments, spotting mistakes – copy editing etc, and for reflection. Work out what you are trying to do, what you want to solve.. and work out the best technology for the task. A pencil is a piece of technology remember, and an extraordinary one.

Finally I want to encourage you to get enough sleep. We can’t do without sleep – however much alpha males may brag about not needing it. Sleep is our library, our space to generate ideas. When we sleep our brains process the day’s information. And the brain takes recent information and stabilise them as memories… we actively filter information, linking ideas together to create new ideas. We can do that when we are awake. And much better when we are asleep. If we sleep less than 6 hours a night that memory stablisation is damaged or fails. It used to be that when we go to bed we slept. But not so much the case now… The information on the internet goes on forever… pressures of capitalism encourage us to work forever… that’s not our fault but how we’ve responded that’s a problem. Our bedrooms are now media centres… Recent research on Kindles and iPad is that the light of these in a darkened room changes our sleep patterns. Go back 100 years, to 1900, people generally slept 9 hours. The safe number is around 8 hours per night. Currently the average is more like 7 hours per night… and we should all sleep on that tonight.

Robert: I was taken by several things in your talk. Recently the easiest way to find my daughter – in the house – was to call her mobile! We have time for questions and observations…

Q: If I stopped doing all that, I feel I’d be the first in the room to do that… people will have the edge on me…

A: That’s the ultra capitalism point. That’s why people fear taking holidays… You have to manage expectations. When you first get a mobile you can manage stuff from the off… but when you change your use, that’s different. One thing companies do is to give employees two phones – and you switch off that work phone after 7pm. You keep your own one on but they can only use that number for true real emergencies. I lived in Australia for a while, when I came back there was a week where I could’t get email.

Q: Attention span – is it genuinely a new thing… I remember watching a 1930s screwball comedy with a group of students, and they really didn’t understand the pacing or editorial style of that – that’s an attention span change that goes far back…

A: There is a reduction in attention span – the dwell time on the Mona Lisa is currently 11 seconds apparently so those are real reductions… but that is not fixed. I’ve tried arthouse films on my kids and that is too slow… Titanic is slow too.. and that is fine. Quality matters. So good content can be compelling, there is so much dross out there… but good quality content is enough for people to genuinely give you their time.

Q: there’s a point there about being digitally switched off… for younger people to do drawing, painting, music, etc. where you genuinely have to take time out to focus…

A: One of the key things in the natural world is the feedback loop… You are already seeing the emergence of slow pursuits coming back… And often it’s our fault not their fault… I get home tired from work.. the kids are on screens… but if I say lets kick a football or go for a walk they are out of the door in a flash. Last year we went to the Isle of Wight and there were debates about taking ipads. They didn’t bring one… They sort of grieved and thought about where to find one… And then they sort of relaxed… as if they were seeking permission. Kids have to contend with the real and virtual world. And manage that. And the virtual one never stops. And if you get bullied that carries on… And they look to us for permission/restriction here. Those offline days or holidays they will scream and shout but they will cope with that. And we are somewhat self-regulating, we haven’t moved to fully being involved in ebooks rather than physical books, we get savvy.

And now it’s over to our Jisc Chief Executive for our close…

Martyn Harrow: We are still early into this digital world, so we have to continue to reflect and understand that.

I  want to conclude with thanks to all of our colleagues at the ICC, our sponsors and partners, our speakers and contributors, our international partners, our participants both here at the ICC and online.

Just a quick reflection… On Monday we set out to connect more to take this crucial digital agenda forward. And that seems to have happened. So, lets finish by seeing what we have been doing together over the last few days. [cue a video of the last two days].

And with that Digifest is over…. Thanks to all who have been reading my liveblog, who made it along to my own or my colleagues sessions, and who engaged and chatted in person or on Twitter over the last few days!

Mar 092015
 

Today and tomorrow I am in busy Birmingham for Jisc Digifest 2015. As I am speaking in two sessions this year I decided not to offer my tweeting services to the fabulous Jisc live coverage team, but I will be live blogging as the opportunity arises. Do keep an eye on those tweets though – all sessions will be covered on the #digifest15 hashtag. There is also some live streaming here. For those attending the event you can find me presenting in the following slots (both in Hall 3):

When not presenting I’ll be updating this blog with notes from keynotes and break out sessions. As usual this comes with the caveats that I welcome corrections and additions since this is genuinely live updating and that can mean occasional errors etc.

And we are off! Tim Kidd, Executive Director of Jisc Technologies is introducing us to the second Jisc Digifest: This year’s theme is “connect more” so please do, with each other, on Twitter, via the event app, etc. Now to formally open the proceedings I will hand over to Martyn Harrow.

Professor Martyn Harrow, Jisc Chief Executive

Welcome all, both in the room and online, to Jisc Digifest 15. But why are we all here? Well we have serious work to do together. Unprecedented challenges face UK Higher Education, Further Education and Skills, and digital technologies are some of the best tools to enhance human efficiency. And we are here to explore the potential for digital tools for higher, further education and skills.

Jisc is funded by higher and further education, overseen by the Jisc board. We are of the sectors, by the sectors, for the sectors. Jisc is dedicated to playing our part to help you achieve your success, including better exploiting existing Jisc services and support – already saving over £1/4 billion per year, but also on ground breaking innnovation. You told us you wanted more chance to do this and that is part of the reason for this event, and also why we have a new “architecture” for customer engagement. We also have a new account manager systems – for the first time every higher and further education organisation will have a dedicated account manager, there to support you, ensure you get the best out of Jisc services and activities, but also to ensure you have a voice in shaping what we do, in new activities.

We have many partners, including many strategic partners. I would like to acknowledge these relationships which are so important in what we are trying to achieve. In particular I would like to thank today’s sponsors (AM, CrossRef, Talis), supporters (Epson, Rapid Education, ?) and our media partner the THES.

Connected is the theme of our conference, we have the power to do much more for our sector, for our universities and colleges… And what we want to achieve over the next few days. That’s what we want to achieve over the next few days: a new level of ambition.

And, following a wee new Jisc video, we are getting an introduction to Simon Nelson, who aside from being the FutureLearn lead is also the man behind BBC 6Music, notes Tim Kidd. 

Welcome and keynote speech – Simon Nelson, Futurelearn

I am in some ways quite intimidated by speaking to this group, you have been navigating the difficult digital waters for over 15 years. I will be talking today about FutureLearn though, what we want to achieve, and where we are going. But I will start by looking back to my BBC days… here is a clip (of Toby Anstis on CBBC) which we think is the first BBC mention of a website. [which is wonderful! And includes an enormous URL!]. This takes me back to the days of trying to get BBC Radio announcers to mention websites – much chaos reading out those long URLs.

But I joined the BBC in 1997. And there was much discussion of whether the web would mean the end of radio. We didn’t believe that, so we spent the next ten years actually putting radio in a stronger place than when we started, launching 5 new digital channels, we made BBC radio available on demand – something that seemed difficult when first envisioned in 2002, but became a reality in 2004. And that made memorable moments of radio, like this, available for all [cue Charlotte Green corpsing live on air].

I then moved onto BBC Two and their digital offerings in 2007. At that time we again heard of the death of the medium, this time from YouTube (with NetFlix not far behind). We weren’t going to sit back and let that happen. iPlayer was, in many ways, even more important than radio on demand. And we made sure all of our brands had a clear online presence.

And now, I find myself in an industry looking at the role of digital. In part concerns here come from the idea of the MOOC, Massive Open Online Courses. In some ways this is an exampe of Amara’s Law – overestimating impact based on short term impact rather than long term changes. So for me this is much more than MOOCs, it’s much more about the internet and the role of the internet in education. Institutions can adapt and become stronger by adapting to the threats and opportunities of the internet. But so much is unknown that the best we can hope for is “informed bewilderment”.

So, the best I can do is to apply the same sorts of frameworks I used in previous roles, and my current FutureLearn role to outline the opportunities I see.

So, first of all, we can open up access – in new ways, to new audiences, on new platforms. At FutureLearn we want to work with partners that provide depth and experience across a range of curriculum areas, and skills associated with them. We want to update the old elearning experiences, to bring the concept up to date. We’ve built FutureLearn from scratch, making it easier and more attractive to use for the user. And we need to think about our audience as global… looking beyond institution walls. Global reach changes the social contract of the university.

I want to look at one FutureLearn example, a course on Ebola from a leading scientist working on the disease [now viewing a clip from that course]. The impact of this course has already been profound. Over 20k people took the course, and it saw some of the highest participation rates of any of our courses. Indeed FutureLearn received word from the Medicins Sans Frontiers Bo-Ebola Treatment Centre in Sierra Leone – where they had used downloaded course videos to enable staff and volunteers in the centre to take the course together.

Discovery. FutureLearn now has 19 universities around the world, and we have another 9 joining us which we are announcing today (Basel, Bergen, De Los Andes, Paris Diderot, Pompeu Fabra, etc.). We now have Korean universities, from two Dutch universities… [we are now watching a video on learning dutch]. The creativity being adopted by our partners, is one of the most exciting parts of running this company. [cue a diversion into the Steve McLaren adopt the accent language technique]. One of the most interesting aspects of these free open courses for the universities is the opportunity to attract new students. So we are developing our approach to optimising the free courses by enabling them to register interest in full courses offered by our partners.

We also want to move beyond our partners thinking about courses, we want them to share content openly on the web. And we’ve started that by opening up some of our step pages on the web, so that they are more findable in Google… We have great resources here, we want content in the courses to be found, to direct people into those courses and the expertise of those organisations.

Third is the importance of the opportunities afforded by Social learning. The opportunity for learners to work together around these MOOCs is one of the most important things. So, within FutureLearn, we have embedded discussion, social interaction facilities. We ensure all learners have their own profile page – they can like each others comments, they can follow other learners and the educators… That helps them turn the huge scale of conversation, into something more manageable. We are trying to build a social network that makes the learning more enjoyable and more effective. We know we are only at the start of what we could do here…

At the BBC we build the most amazing web resources, but trying to add social in was far less successful as it has to built into the foundations. So watch FutureLearn over the coming years, how that social interaction works in the site. Do look at our courses, and see the discussions. Our biggest course is Exploring English. There is something magic about asking learners where they are learning at a particular moment… This British Council uses existing resources but allows learners to develop their skills, and work together on those skills. There are great interactions here – one student says he wants to learn English in case he ever met Mick Jagger – and he did! (by befriending a bouncer in Singapore).

On a more serious note, we had a brilliant course from the University of Bath called Inside Council(?)… We had feedback from one of our educators for that course that this was one of the most rewarding teaching experiences of his career – because there were learners, there were professionals, there were patients all engaging together.

Fourthly, Engagement. We work with our course creators to take advantage of the potential to reinvent learning. These new skills are essential for all organisations to have in the modern digital era. So, we work with the best story tellers too – with the BBC on four WWI course, with the British Library around their Propaganda exhibition… We aim for a delightful user experience, and we facilitate invite only blended learning opportunities on campus.

With those other aspects in place there is so much potential for Extension. All these learners have lifelong learning interests, including skills for the workplace, courses for professional learners – changing jobs/sectors (Simon notes he started his career managing in a wig and hairpiece company!). The changes in work lives goes so far beyond standard undergraduate or postgraduate courses. And then there are so many personal reasons and motivations to learn [cue Pointless clip with contestent taking a course on Moons]. This wide range of motivations means we are trying to set up a variety of different revenue models. We are a wholly owned subsidiary of the Open University. We want to repay that investment. Anyone completing a course can receive a statement to that effect (£29) and those are far more popular than we anticipated. And we are looking at other possibilities, other revenue models… to recognise and create new pathways from free courses into employability opportunities.

So, finally, is a recognition that the recipient is more than a passive consumer, they are involved in Creation. Learners create their own games, they code, they take photographs, and we encourage those learners to share what they have made… But we are just at the beginning of what is possible here.

So, we are not at the end of the university. We have an amazing opportunity for them to reinvent their role in society.

There has been a break here as I was giving my MediaHub session (delightfully we had standing room only, and lots of good questions and comments!). And then some lunch… 

Mobile learning in practice

This is a workshop session so my notes may not be that detailed… however it’s a fantastic turn out so should be some very interesting discussion.

Steve Hall (speaking) and Tracey Duffy from Jisc are leading the session on Jisc Digital Media Infokits. Specifically we are talking about the Mobile Learning Infokit, which has been around a little while but have been substantially retooled and updated. The format for today will be that we have four sets of four tables, four sets of presenters… so each presenter will tell you about their work in just 10 minutes… and then they will rotate clockwise to the next table so you should hear from all of our presenters. And then we’ll have a panel session at the end.

Tracey: We wanted to add to our current infokit on app based learning. We put out a call for video case studies to HE and FE community. 30 proposals were submitted, 20 submissions then. The institutions created these case studies themselves, with support from the digital media team, and we hugely appreciate the work that those institutions put into those case studies, and we know that many of their staff and students gained new skills and enjoyed that process. So, I’ll show you a taster but first I can say that the infokits are live. jisc.ac.uk/guides/mobile-learning. [watching Newcastle uni video – on their use of campus apps]. Now I’d like to hand over to our co-presenters…

Reflection: Tarsin, University of Birmingham – Social Work Social Media App

I am based in the social work and social care department, and we are finding that students come in and we want to engage them with ethical issues about use o fthe internet and social media…. So I created an app for students to use before lectures… I am both a social worker and a programmer and so I learnt how to programme this app. So I created an app where they take the role of a team manager, and it raises a number of ethical issues… Allowing students to relate their learning to real life practice… So these are realistic scenarios. I’ve used a comic book and games based approach here. If the outcomes are not appropriate, the user has to go back and try again. The student really has to think through the process… The students get competitive and share their experiences which is great, it gets them thinking and talking about those decisions…

So, you’ll get a choice of options – these are relatively vague verbal answers, they require the student to think realistically about what they would do… If they do make a poor choice, they get an alternative argument – a branching approach… some more arguments get put forward…. So they see a range of potential outcomes… They can be complex scenarios… For instance about foster children using the internet and how carers might be supported to ensure that risks are minimised. So the students can use the app before the classroom session, and then that is not a lecture/transmission format, instead students come in, they can work in groups and discuss those scenarios… Demonstrating potential outcomes from decision making processes can be so useful here.

[Q about app building] I was given a grant of £5k by my university and I used Flash ? which enabled me to develop once for both Apple and Android. The only other option would have been xcode.

Assessment, Feedback and Submission: Lewisham and Southwark College – iMovie and Socrative

Socrative (two versions, Student and Teacher) is an app is used for checking, understanding and feedback…. As a teacher you sign up, you get an id that you use – and students use that id to log into the app. Normally I’d login, and also reflect that on a display/screen… You can ask a question to your students, and gather answers back in… You can share or collaborate on quizzes etc – with colleagues etc. So you can explore questions and info etc. And as a teacher I can see the results coming in live… I can download that data to use again later on… You can use the Teacher App, you can also use Space Race – where you can put people into team… This is web based so you don’t need the app if you don’t want to download it. So we are showcasing this app (we didn’t develop it).

Content Creation: University of Nottingham – E-Lecture Producer App

We’ve used the idea of the e-lectures since 2008 but we were using huge amounts of bandwidth for our students in other countries… video was too excessive, so now we have slides with audio… And we use an app to produce e-lectures like this. Teaching staff record in a recording studio, or in their lecture theatre… You can easily cut the audio to match the slides – a nice interface to do that, to ensure you use your best recordings. Also it means that when you update your lecture for the next year… Sometime you just change a few slides… And you can focus on just those few slides, record the new sound and you are fine. This is a web based systems so you can use on Windows based server or Unix server. We used it, via links, in WebCT and more recently in Moodle. Prior to 2008 we did manual editing… We developed the app in 2010… We always need to invite some business contacts etc. for guest lectures and the app is particularly useful for that, since they are very busy, often can’t make it to campus etc. When they export their file they can upload or share it anywhere – and can send to us via Dropbox, OneDrive etc. And it is very flexible for making web casts/presentations. And those files can be played in the browser (no need to use an app to open/access). And to bring your slides in you import from PPT or PDF etc.

Assessment, Feedback and Submission: Perth College UHI – Hairdressing App

This app was actually the output of a research project… Thiswas a research project on the use of tablets in FE contexts, which we thought there would be. The outcome of that project was published in the ALT Journal for Learning Technology last year (Google “use of tablets in further education sector” to find that). So to look at this we looked at hairdressing mobile apps, also looked at apps for those with social and educational learning needs – using multimedia they tended to use the apps for eportfolio systems which seemed to work well. We looked at modern languages, again using multimedia in those contexts… We also brought proprietary apps for language practice, etc. So, quite a range of activity. So in terms of the hair apps we needed a framework for evaluation, how to understand the added value. We looked at the Salmon model – four main quadrants for that… The app automated feedback, put in triggers around errors – the student gets automatic feedback, keeps them ranked without too much more traditional teacher input. Android devices were more popular than Android devices… We went for Android devices because they were cheaper, and also it’s easier to deploy an Android app than an Apple app. In terms of BYOD that was something possible for students and staff. Also an element of the flipped classroom – students encouraged to prepare for F2F session. Students were generally more engaged… Student feedback was positive. They liked using tablets – but an element of novelty there. But they liked the app, particularly the feedback. There were some issues around privacy…. if accounts were left logged in on devices etc.

Panel Discussion and Q&A

Q1: The apps and how they were made – was there any reason that students weren’t involved in the making of these apps?

A1 – Birmingham Uni: They were involved in mine. I beta tested with students… that helped with the interface, and also the content and feedback.

A1 – Tracey: And there are other case studies in the Infokit

Q2: All of you have used native apps, is that more preferential in terms of user experience, but can also exclude some people. Should we be building web apps with more complexity or native apps?

A2: Perth: Absolutely. We went Android but I think we’d go HTML5 for all devices/traditional computer access would work

A2 – Birmingham Uni: Things have changed over the last 12 months. Responsive apps have become much easier to display well on all devices and that seems to be where things are going.

Q3: To all:

A3 – Birmingham: Something encouraging debate and discussion rather than traditional transmission

A3 – Lewisham: Engage your students

A3 – Perth: Try to ensure that you genuinely engage your students

A3 – Nottingham: I think being increasingly multimodal is the trend.

Integrating TV programmes into your learning environment – Carol Parish, ClickView & Angela

ClickView gives educational establishments access to thousands (2300) of educational videos which are designed for secondary schools and FE colleges. The videos cover a whole range of subjects. And those familiar with Classroom Video, who made loads of materials, have just been brought by ClickView, and we have other publishers content joining us soon. Any content put into ClickView can be put into our BYOD video platform. And with our tool you can embrace multimedia by building up libraries of content… We expose iFrames and URLs that let you embed content in VLEs, and use those videos on any device and any computer.

So, the focus of this session is our television recording function in ClickView. We are digital video solutions for educations. We use  high quality educational videos and TV recording to help teachers create engaging lessons and improve learning outcomes… We are trying to solve the issue of bandwidth by using local cacheing etc. The idea is to build a video archive using TV recorded content, your own content and ClickView content.

So we’ll look at trends from ClickView 24-7 Cloud… Top news programmes, top current affairs, top documentaries, top feature films and series. As a teacher (in my former role) I wanted to just show the small relevant clip of video in my classroom, rather than play the whole thing. Sites like YouTube can take longer in terms of time to find content, to ensure that you find relevant engaging content… So we’ll look at searching and saving time by finding relevant content… You can search every word spoken on TV in the past 2 weeks across all the major channels – you can find it, store it, edit it, embed it in your virtual learning environment. So teaching staff are able to access, edit and store content, make playlists, to share those, to make and build an archive. And when you search, you get to search all of the materials – can bridge to Eclipse, Heritage, etc.

So this is the interface for ClickView: http://www.clickview.co.uk/ [Carol moving to live demo]. So ClickView is a cloud video tool, which allows you to have a local cache – and local publishing point – to help deal with the realities of bandwidth. If you are not on campus then you use the Azure Cloud that we run our cloud services from. And you can use your library and media store asset manager here to manage your own content. Each user of ClickView have their own work space assigned. You can assign that space (I’d suggest between 15-100GB at max). The idea of ClickView is you can push content to your library so that content is held centrally for all of your users to have access to. The idea is that you build up a media library for your establishment, and allow students to have their own autonomy through their own space…

So Cloud 24/7 ClickView lets you access any free to air channels. We have an English and Scottish (which goes back 3 rather than 2 weeks) data centres. You can go to England or Scotland regions. We don’t yet have enough users in Wales to support that region – but it will happen… We have Radio 4 across both data centres but will have more radio… The difference with iPlayer is that you can save and permanently keep the materials you want. Typically ClickView runs 1 hour behind real time. And of course you can edit that content – taking those clips is probably the most powerful part of what is on offer, so you can use the most relevant part of what is on offer.

ClickView is a lot about community. We have the ClickView Exchange which other universities and colleges have collected resources, over 11,000 programmes there. Just to say though that this service is legal because of the ERA licence – which enables access to recordings of tv and radio as long as that’s for educational use on campus or online with login/password access.

ClickView has an analytics function which enables you to see who is watching what. You can take a programme, save it, make a playlist, and/or add to my establishment media library. Now, for any programme, ClickView captures 5 minute buffers at either end of a programme to ensure it isn’t missed. We offer videos at 240p or 720p (HD quality UK TV) – you can choose according to your access/device at the time. And if you want to upload your own content, we support a variety of resolutions up to 1080p, and a wide range of formats.

So, looking at the ClickView Exchange we have over 400 feature films, because of them airing on free to view television and covered by ERA licence. You will also find lots of content for media studies, etc. This area is populated by our customers. So you could select a programme, add it to the exchange for universities and colleges across the UK to access. Probably the most powerful way to access the exchange is to run a keyword search of that. I can then explore the results, play them, push to the Library Server at my establishment, add to playlists, share that playlists etc. And that sharing can have a privacy level to pick from. ClickView works closely with Moodle, Blackboard, SharePoint – we have plugins to make this stuff easier to do. So for Moodle you can use a plugin rather than use iframe or URL. So here the plugin allows you to pick ClickView video as a resource, then you can explore anything from your workspace to add that content in… And save that video to bring it into Moodle. Its a quick easy way to get content from television into Moodle.

The app in ClickView also allows you to create videos from your mobile devices into ClickView, and make available for assessment, for students to share work from a mobile device etc.

[response to audience Q about ERA]: Most universities and colleges in the UK have an ERA licence. That allows you to record anything from free to view television, and that includes Open University courses. You can use any free to air television for education purposes, you can edit them, you can use them in the classroom, in the VLE, and the extended learning environment. However your students need to be based in the UK/be accessing that material from the UK. If you are putting your own content in, that’s your own copyright. TED talks might be OK – because of their copyright status. But a DVD, say, would require you to have permission from the copyright holder as you would be changing the format. Similarly YouTube videos you’d need permissions.

So… Looking at today’s TV… one of the stories was about the amount of Asbestos in our schools… Just by seeing the sentence in which that word appears (in the search results) tells us a lot about what the content is… You can find a lot out here… The reason this works is because of the subtitles on programmes… But in the UK we broadcast subtitles as a picture, we need to OCR that to be able to search through those subtitles…

Angela levins, Stroud College in Somerset 

Angela is joining us for Q&A

Carol: How long have you had ClickView

Angela: About a year, we needed some tech set up and it took a while to get up and running with our super users first, but just had a huge training session to reach a far wider range of staff.

Carol: Why was there a need for this?

Angela: We had staff expecting programmes but not telling us they needed it recorded – they asked if we can it from iPlayer and we had to explain that for copyright reasons that isn’t OK. So ClickView is really useful for that.

Carol: And are they seeing the potential?

Angela: We have staff helping each other out, recording stuff for each others… And being able to clip that video to just the bit they need has huge potential – so they are motivated to use the editor and seem to be finding it easy to use.

Carol: In terms of getting staff to understand the vision, we ran a training session for all users last week – that’s part of the package

Angela: Yes, we will then be running advanced one to one sessions.

Q: Do you anticipate greater uses in some courses/areas

Angela: It seems to be across the whole college. Obviously media and film are keen, but hospitality for instance very keen. I think because there is so much stuff on the TV that can be helpful – even Maths staff have been engaging with us.

Q: How about usage of video they have made themselves

Carol: That’s actually the next stage for this organisation… That training is yet to happen for Angela but we’ll get to that.

Q: If you want a programme from 3 years ago, and not in Exchange, how do you do that? And how much does it cost to set up local infrastructure

Carol: We have a Yammer group, we have in-person 3 times per year forums. Between those spaces, it tends to be that we can find a university that does have it… Then that person can upload to the exchange. In most cases that works. In terms of infrastructure… ClickView4 is about to come out – that can run entirely as a cloud based system. With ClickView at the moment, for the folder structure, you need to be able to publish those – requiring either Server 2008/12 or a Windows 7 computer/s. Local cache is helpful for many organisations.

So, just to show you an example of edits here… I can quickly find the  bits of the programme I want…. And select the areas I’m interested in. I can use chapter breaks as appropriate – and you can name/label these. You can add or delete chapters. Teachers can do this from any machine, including from home. And once you’ve made those edits it will be in your work space, ready for use, in about a minute, and available in plugins in about 2 minutes.

To return to the issue of uploading your own content… You can upload to your workspace from your own machine… You can add a title, description and age rating… then Save.

Q: Do you have to apply for the copyright for that content of what you are uploading?

One should.

I will mention “Albert” – a curriculum mapping expert who helps save teachers time. This is mapped to the English National Curriculum. So we have built ito Albert – a crowdsourced tool – all the National Curriculum content. Albert will look at your content, Exchange content, and also in “Media Store” – where suppliers can provide their own materials. So Albert finds videos quickly in line with objectives for National Curriculum. You can also search by key words. An easier way to find videos than trawling through YouTube etc.

If you do want to go forward from ClickView I’d say you need engagement from someone on the curriculum side, someone from IT/Infrastructure and someone from library and learning resources. Then you’d have a visit followed by a one month trial

What the learners say: FE learners’ expectations and experiences of technology – Sarah Knight; John Webber; Ellen Lessner; Chris Fuller, Jodran Holder, Tyler Bond, and Nikolas Melo

This session is opening with the Jisc “Supporting learners with their use of technology” video… 

Sarah: I thought it was so important to include some student voices to open our sessions, and that student voice and engagement is so important to what we do. We have a number of these videos. This work began as both an FE and HE excercise – two parallel strands here but we’ll focus on FE. We had a comment of “I look forward to the findings. Too often we try and guess what our student expectations will be and often get this wrong.” and certainly we found that there is no one student experience or expectation of technology.

So this project – the FE Digital Student project – aims to support colleagues in FE to (a) decide how and how often to monitor changing learner experiences and (b) ?

We started a study last year, doing an initial review of where learner views on technology was at. There was very little post 2009. So the real difficulties were around actual learner views – lots from teachers and the sector but much much less on learners themselves.

Ellen: We has 12 focus groups with 220 learners. Last week in Edinburgh at a consultation event we heard that staff wanted research evidence for their decision makers. This was done as research, we took specific subjects, looked at 1st year and 2nd year students. Within a subject area within year 1 or year 2 there weren’t huge differences, but between subjects there was a lot of variance. So we selected five subject areas here including childcare and IT.

But how do we do research in FE? So many levels are supported here… We had a learner profile – this was done by the tutor and could support students filling that out if needed. We then came in, had rooms set up with round tables, and we had a standard protocol to ensure these sessions were comparable. And we did a card sort exercise. Doing research in FE means needing to have staff who understand FE undertaking that research.

Sarah: One of the other things we’ve done is put together a blog post on running this sort of research – see digitalstudent.jisc.org for this and also the resources from the card sort activity. We also had feedback from staff that this was a useful process for them too.

So, what have we found from the literature, focus groups, and the consultation events (4 of the 6 have happened now). Probably not too surprising perhaps:

  • Their learning to be enhanced by the colleges use of technologuy ef VE, online submission and assessment
  • To have anywhere anytime any device access to coure materials
  • To have acces sto both formal and informal (e.g. social media) supports on and off campus
  • To learn at college how technology is used in the workplace
  • To be asked aout their views and for them to make a difference

And that latter point certainly has relevance for thinking about elearning strategy and development. But I hope these are areas of work that you are involved in, and developing. But our research should be useful evidence for you to use in that, in working with decision making.

We have created a model from this work. FE is very complex, there are so many different requirements, levels, and backgrounds our learners have. So there was a model was put together by Chris Davis at Becta – segmenting into “Unconnected and vulnerable”, “mainstream pragmatists”, and “Intensive and Specialist enthusiasts”, and that helped us to look at a framework for supporting learners with technology. Pragmatic mainstream learners seek support from tutors, so pedagogy-led experiences of technology are substantial. For the unconnected and vulnerable access-led experiences of digital environments are key. And at the enthusiast end of the spectrum we see learner-led and technology-led experiences.

Importantly from the focus group work we found 7 key themes for our FE learners:

1. Don’t assume we are digitally literate – hence the importance of tutors and teachers, particularly for using technology for learning and skills

2. We need ongoing development – and want to understand more about digital tools

3. We expect the same (or better…) services as in school – including having technology they need

4. We expect colleges to provide what we need –  including access at home

5. We expect modern learing resources that are easy to find and use – and consistency there.

6. We want to work with lecturers… – recognising teachers knowledge and expertise but also students understanding and ideas of how technology can support their needs.

7. Ask us what we need… – much more than surveys, they want a real voice here.

John: I used to manage technology for a site with 1000+ staff. Recently refocued on learning technology innovation. This work was informed by my work in the wider context of teaching and learning…

So, student voice is something OFSTED requires us, along with others, to do this… It’s where this stuff starts, but, regretably also often stop. We ask students questions at the start of each year… We’ve been moving further to escape the trap of just asking students to talk about quality of teachers with closed ended questions… Limited opportunity to unpack students comments and criticisms…

So, we adopted a process of Funded Action Research Projects, that are clear about what impact we seek to achieve, and how we will measure that… And part of that is involving students from the start, getting their views, eliciting their views throughout. Myself and a colleague has a chance to go in as an observer for their views on digital technology. Engaging students early on elicits some very informed and informative views. Having an idea of what you want to achieve is useful anyway, even if your focus in on the intervention of technology. And seeing students as partners help them understand that they are not passive in this process…

One of the things here has been the use of Flipped learning. We asked students to help us think about what they saw at various stages in the process. One student said that initially they thought “What? Homework”… And then they discriminated between homework and flipped learning.. because flipped learning was more useful (slightly sad to hear but…).  And students said “Set and maintain clear expectations”, and they also said “don’t repeat yourself” – don’t accommodate those who have not prepared, it punishes those who have prepared. Instead there was an ipad at the back of the room – and that became “the ipad of shame!”.

Students liked being able to pause the videos, to take better notes – some tutors recommend the Cornell Note Taking process, a sophisticated mechanism that really supports learning. And students reported getting much more out of class. Students also enjoyed being able to do their work outside the college day, when commuting, to catch up if off sick. Students talked about it levelling the playing field – those who picked things up quickly had space to do that, those who picked it up more slowly had space to learn and catch up so all started class at a similar point. All this from 5 minute videos with slides…

But we are moving from asking students to be our evaluators, to encourage their agency in this process… To encourage a digital leadership team of students. To help us find new opportunities that are available. And our students here didn’t wait to be asked…. they came to us!

Student 1: We live 30 miles from college… We travel 90 minutes a week, for a 1 hour session. We asked our tutor if we could Skype into class, and that means we can attend when we might otherwise be challenged to get there. This college is a really open college – Chris and I have attended 3 colleges before and others would have never been open to this. And that is a real issue, we could end up behind but these technologies mean that we’ve stayed up to date.

Student 2: Skype can be an issue – can lose connection to our teacher… Had to find online resources, ways around the tutor. So all three of us use Collabator, to share our code and work together, resolve issues without our teacher.

John: And these students are at least as up to speed as those working in class.

Chris: We still see our lecturer, Kev, twice a week… And we work together – can chat when the teacher is talking, work through an idea, figure it out. Then we can confirm with Kev later on that we have gotten the right idea. It’s more flexible and it works better.

Student 3: Was introduced to flipped learning at the beginning of AS years… So by the time I come to class I have a basic understanding of what the teacher will be talking about… It flips the idea that you learn in class, revise at home. Instead you learn at home, and revise and discuss in class… It’s like having a 24/7 home tutor – can just go back to YouTube and rewatch. My grades in classes using flipped classrooms have skyrocketed versus other subjects. And for instance my psychology tutor has summarised our textbook so that you can find your way through so much easier. She also has a blog sumarising each week’s lesson. Flipped learning has taught me a lot… You learn at home, revise in lesson, and catch up again at home if you still aren’t sure.

Student 1: Learning in a home environment has worked really well for us. At home we can find ourselves ahead of the class… we work together, we learn from each other and how each other learn. We’ve had lots of group projects – and we’ve really come to realise where our skills lie. We are a friendship group, not sure any group of 16 year olds would work. We were friends beforehand and that does help. But learning at home in a comfortable environment helped us, it gives us confidence… and then when you hit class I think you feel much more receptive and able to learn.

Chris: Often at home we’ve found things we want to learn, that aren’t covered in the lesson… we look something up… and a few weeks later that will come up in class… that really strengthens our understanding.

Student 2: Also for me using my own computer really matters. College computers aren’t that good. We have been working on Unity, and we have 2GB limit, so doing this stuff on my own computer can be a really big benefit as well…

Sarah: I think that gives us some really really valuable insights into our own expectations…

Chris, Woolwich 6th Form College: Would you guys who work at home a lot – would you be harder working normally… or

Chris: We did 2 years at sixth form, weren’t doing subjects we were passionate about. Dedication comes from that, and not something from every student perhaps.

Student 1: We are all very lazy basically… I put same effort at home as in class. One of the reasons we put in effort at home is that essentially is a day off and we could lose that easily if we weren’t putting the work in.

Chris questionnner: I think you are all university students, without knowing it… Have you had any issues with people not doing the work?

Student 3: Our teacher makes students do that walk of shame to the ipad if they don’t prepare, that helps!

John: I sat in on a class last monday that had been experimenting with flipped learning. A full class of 25 were there, not just enthusiasts. I asked if they all did that, and they said “of course, it would be so stupid not to”. It takes about 2 weeks to establish that sense that you don’t come to class if you don’t do the work. But students tell us they have to be firm..

Q: If this was functional skills, English and Maths, would it work the same?

Student 1: I would say there is still a big stigma that students don’t want to learn. Students are more passionate about subjects they pick. But students really want to learn… If students don’t want to be there, don’t make them. For English and Maths it’s so important, but those essential skills are less appealing… but there is still that idea that teachers are at the top, students are at the bottom… Students do want to learn so that has to be recognised.

Student 2: I think that working from home for functional skills… well if the students weren’t passionate it would show quickly – it would show really fast if we didn’t do the work.

Student 3: There is evidence that digital media can help people to develop English skills, across any subject area… So useful for subjects like English and Maths too!

Q: What do your parents think? And have their heating and food bills gone up?

Student 1: I think they didn’t quite believe we could do that… We have had some wifi issues… But we have also used CollabEdit and RealTimeBoard to get round any difficulties we do have – on our own.

Student 2: We have a genuine need, so we find a way around this…

Gary, Stroud College in Somerset: You are obviously doing a course you enjoy, in an environment you enjoy. What happens when you hit the world of work?

Student 1: Our Skype day is our least favourite of the week… We do do stuff that we don’t like, because there are courses we don’t like but we know are important to getting that A-level that will enable us to access that world of work.

Chris: The reason for Skype here was that the long travel times limited our amount of time to do work, to find part time work. The whole thing was to save us money… We wouldn’t have come to Skype without that need.

Student 2: To put a number on this… If we went into that 1hr20 minute lesson, travel would take over 5 hours out of our day.

John: How many know that PISA now measures collaborative problem solving… They snuck it under the radar! One of the reasons I was so interested in this group of students is that they have evidenced very high level collaborative problem solving. We’d have struggled to come up with scenarios to test that so realistically.

Sarah: I’d just like to thank John. And that comment that you are already university students, without knowing it. That reflection and understanding of your own learning is certainly applaudable.

Before we finish I wanted to share some resources that may be useful to you… [and we have a postcard to complete, which I will be filling in momentarily!]

So, resources here include:

  • 50 institutional exemplars (based around 7 challenge areas)
  • “Digital students are different” posters – those are in the room today but also available for download, to act as a trigger for discussion.
  • “Enhancing the digital experience for students” cards – to enable more detailed discussion on taking stuff forward, enhancements that add value and make a difference for your learners
  • FE Learner voices videos
  • “Enhancing the student digital experience: a strategic approach” guide – jisc.ac.uk/guides/enhancing-the-student-digital-experience

So I hope we have provided you with some inspiration and food for thought. If this has enticed you to find out more… our next session at 4.30, in Hall 7, will focus on university student experience.

Staff-student partnership working to effect institutional change – chaired by Peter Chatterton with Sarah Knight (Jisc)

Sarah:  a very warm welcome to all of you today. It is such a privilege to showcase institutions who are working with students. We have three fantastic examples of that working in practice. I will start with a brief introduction to the change network, but we will mainly focus on our learners and their experiences.

  • Fiona Harvey with Anne and Rebekah iChamps, University of Southampton
  • Deborah Millar, with Kirsty and Student Digipal Cai Rourke from Blackburn College
  • Tim Lowe, VP Education with Dr Stuart Sims, research fellows (student engagement), Eli Nixon-Davingoff, student fellow at University of Winchester

The vision for The Student engagement partnership, running over the last few years, has been about establishing principles for institutions to use to guide their engagement with students – and the importance and benefits of that. There was a 2014 NUS Report on “Radical interventions in teaching and learning” talks about the importance of students being active and engaged agents of change.

So, what is the change agents network (CAN)? It is a network to support students working as change agendes, digital pioneers, student fellows, and students working in partnership with staff on technology related change projects. The network facilitates the sharing of best practice through Face to face networking events, CAN monthly webinar series, CAN case studies. And we have a student partnership toolkit, for organisations looking to embed student partnerships in their practice. (see http://can.jiscinvolve.org/ or @CANagogy).

We have set up a SEDA accredited Jisc Institutional Change Leader Award, to recognise and showcase work in this area. We are also about to launch our first issue of the new Jisc Journal of Educational Innovation Partnership and Change – a peer-reviewed online journal welcoming articules case studies, and opinion pieces. Do get in touch as we have the next  issue being planned at the moment!

So, we will now have 3 quick pitches for today’s session… then you can choose 2 of the 3 sessions to hear more about.

Fiona Harvey with Anne and Rebekah iChamps, University of Southampton

We have iChamps at Southampton, Innovation and Digital Literacy champions. These sit alongside other student champions – around feedback, accessibility etc. We have a placement scheme with our careers service – they fund half of the time of the students over summer/easter etc. Our champs are in Music, Biological Sciences, Social Sciences, etc. They are there specifically to support the development of skills of staff and students. It’s about showing academics how to make a website, say, rather than doing it for them. All of the iChamps and champions have great online presences, great digital literacy skills, etc. What’s in it for them? Skills, expereince, profiles, etc. And the university benefits too – not just academics but those who work with and support them. We based this on digital literacy model (e.g. Future Lab structure). They start with a Digital competancies quiz to establish what their skills are, where development is needed. We have iPad coffee clubs to talk and try… We give them tools. We give them iPads (if they don’t have one) so that they can actually show this stuff off, demo or review apps in discipline specific areas. The champs get monthly support sessions – on new tools, on their online presence. And additionally I can be accessed via WhatsApp, SnapChat, Facebook etc. And they ahve a blog as well. And we have an iChamp badge – a group of three badges, as they work with academics they gain badges for their LinkedIn presence, etc.

Deborah Millar, Head of eLearning with Kirsty and Student Digipal Cai Rourke from Blackburn College

I’m Deborah from Blackburn College, to introduce the Digipals (#Digipals)… We use digipals as drivers of change, digital leaders, trainers, collaborators, creators… 12 members of staff looking for digipals to work with them. We have interventions to see how to make things more fit for purpose, more technology enhanced, etc. So we have an A-team style video to introduce the team to staff and students across the college… Fun and silly… So, what are our drivers for using technology? We look at it from a learner’s perspective – we want joy and playfulness in education, to be inspired to learn inside and outside the college… And we want staff to create more stimulating and interactive lessons, should provide further opportunities for collaboration on a global leel… And as a college we want to enable us to deliver deeper, more effective and cheaper learning. We have three questions for our learners – do you use technology in your learning, what is it, and how does that benefit your learning.

We have staff digipals, and we have student digipals… I want staff and students to be working collaboratively, to be treated equally… and I want employers and schools to come in… And the student voice informs our strategy and vision. We do research with our students… we have surveys about expectations and experiances, to help demonstrate to staff, and to college, that these opportunities really matter, that they expect that technology as part of their learning…

Tim Lowe, VP Education with Dr Stuart Sims, research fellows (student engagement), Eli Nixon-Davingoff, student fellow at University of Winchester

Tim: We had technology based research fellows in the learning and teaching section, as a proof of concept in 2012/13. We had student reps across the university (over 400) providing student voice. But they only did 10-12 hours per year. And there are lots of barriers to learning, loads of technologies to look at… We needed students to commit more time, to engage more strongly. So we set up a bursary to support 100 hours of student time. We won’t pay students hourly – changes relationships – hence bursary. So we recruited 60 student fellows… We had a really big mix of students – mature students, commuting students, some that were just annoyed at the university and wanted to make a change. Students can benefit themselves but also benefit their department by their impact. And those lessons learned have been shared across those student fellows…

Stuart: We have 60 students cross 53 projects. We had four key themes across those. The projects are identified by students or by staff or by support staff, and students then do research and exploration. The themes are technology, design and innovation, etc. Of these projects 53.8% benefited students, 69% improved their programmes. The second year is now in progress, have funding secured for next year, and it is increasingly embedded in the organisation.

Eli: My project was about an issue of students not making the most of contact time. We are expected to have 36 hours of contact time for a module across a semester… In the form of 3 hour session per week.  I applied to be a student fellow, I was able to work with staff in our department (sociology) and co-created an online questionnaire, went into lectures and asked students to fill in surveys on their phone. I had 76 responses from 1st, 2nd and 3rd students and generated data that will be used in future committee meetings on departmental timetabling decisions etc. Obviously that stuff could be applied to any subject later on as well.

I get to pick sections… I’m starting with Southampton

Q1: How does this work?

A1 – Fiona: The staff member has a question to explore, or area to think about… usually a student that they already know… And then I help them get trained up, support them to do that role… There is only one of me and our students understand the module, they are taking that course, and they influence the time. The iChamps do meet to discuss and share experiences, but f2f can be hard. We have a facebook group… and we will have a conference for all of the champions – not just the iChamps, to share and discuss….

Sophie: So we have specialist iChamps in sustainability, accessibility but there are core skills – photography, portfolios, how to write a blog etc. are areas we train all of them in.

Fiona: And actually we had this eportfolio tool, showed it in an authentic context, the use of that by iChamps has really demonstrated the value. And they can have several different types of eportfolios, and the badges system means they can create an eportfolio for each badge area. Our sabbaticals use eportfolio. And our medics use it in a very different way, to show the courses they have taken.

Sophie: I have portfolios for my role now, for my former experience as president of Winchester University Students, for my role as a classical singer… A great way to show off those skills and experiences.

Fiona: We had a wishlist for functionality… and students use it but also encouraging staff to use it too. Students want to show employers that they have their LinkedIn profile, links to portfolios. We got students to evaluate it…

Rebekah: With employers in the corporate sector, they have all told me they are sick of A4 PDF CVs and applications, they are boring. They much prefer a video of that experience, say, linked from a CV, but these online resources can see these things, they can see you, they can see you doing things that are enjoyable to you… and that these are real rounded people…

Fiona: the “3D Students”

Rebekah: And employers expect us to know how to use this stuff – Twitter, Facebook, social media etc.

Fiona: One last thing: It’s not easy though!

And now moving to the Winchester one… which is more of a round table session/discussion

Q1: How does student union fit in?

A1 Tim: We have a very small student union, very commercially orientated. We have lots of representatives… we had staff willing to work with students, but few students can volunteer that amount of time… If they can financially afford to do it, the enrichment is worth it, but that bursary bridges that gap. But the driver was from our executive team. We knew this stuff mattered… We spend 5 hours a week empowering 60 students to do something. The finances isn’t the main thing but the students also get the social research training. And these students are being change agents. We wanted the idea of “fellow” to reflect their relationship/similarity from staff fellows. So, our main motivation, which was from the student union, was to use this programme to focus on so many things. And Eli’s project won’t just benefit her courses, but out into other courses, all 7000 students there.

Stuart: Now that I can  empower Eli to do this sort of work…

Sarah: That impact of Eli’s work across the institution. Research can often be local to one department and not shared across the organisation. And you have that strategic support of the whole organisation.

Tim: We went to all of the deans of the colleges and spoke to them before the project, and we kept the university managers informed as well. We can update on all the projects but you need more. So we have an annual conference for the student fellows, these are staff development opportunities. And stuart speaks to more school sub committees as well. It is a partnership… It is students, but also staff too, that partnership matters.

Stuart: That initial funding from Jisc was so important. We trialled the methodology, mainly in Law, and can apply that elsewhere and look at themes across the university

Eli: Like student safety

Stuart: We had a student present to the vice principal, who is now looking at change based on that.

Q2: How do you envision funding the scheme

A2: We had money from Jisc to pilot, then the first year we co-funded between the student union and the university. We demonstrated the concept, the university now pays, but the co-directorship by the union and the university is still there. But that sharing across different areas of the university, sharing with the student representatives, and we’ve also now got more reporting to support that and ask students to create abstracts/outlines for their projects to share.

And with that it’s back to the room….

Comment: The confidence and drive and vision and fun of these people leading these projects is brilliant, and the whole sector should thank them for that.

Sarah: What we wanted to try and get you to do was to get a taste of practice taking place across the sector. To have three different examples, start to help us evidence the importance of working with students. It has been so important to have students with us in the room today as well, and we really appreciate that.

We are looking to gather together discussion across people interested in this area, and we have a newsletter with information relevant to the CAN network. All three organisations here today are also case studies in our digital student site (digitalstudent.jiscinvolve.org). If you want more information do get in touch, join our mailing list, etc. We have an exciting 2 day event here in Birmingham coming up in the next few weeks.

Keynote from Bob Harrison

Robert Haymon-Collins, Jisc Executive director customer experience is introducing the closing keynote for this first day – and a thank you to our online participants and also to our wonderful sign language interpretors. Bob is someone who tweets a lot and I find so much of my best stuff comes from him! He has a huge variety and role in FE and skills and without further ado I’m handing over to Bob Harrison [with a brief stop for Bob  to take a selfie for his wife!].

Bob is starting with a straw poll here of FE organisations (lots), Adult and Community (low), Prisoner and Offender (none), other skills (few), and HE (a fair chunk). 

So, why FELTAG… FELTAG started with a tweet. I’d been criticising Jisc, alongside just about any quango that had anything to do with technology in education. I tweeted that. I found I had a tweet direct from the Minister – he said “dear Bob, I agree, I have no money. Lets meet and chat”. So we did… We have people in the sector keen to use technology, but issues of the sector and infrastructure don’t allow that. Now I’m passionate about FE and Skills. One of the colleges I worked at was funded by a penny tax from miners, choosing to educate their children. And my thesis is that our industry has it’s origins in this post industrial revolution culture. And that’s not where we need to be.

What is FELTAG? The last report we have, from 2012, showed less than 30% of FE and Skills were making effective use of technology. So the Further Education Learning Technology Action Group have a mission statement to aim to best support the agile evolution of the use of technology in FE and Skills.

And now, a cautionary note on research… with a tall tail of lions and zebras… how long and how you observe makes a big difference…

Sorry I’m a bit croaky btw, I had to come down today to support Jisc in what they are doing… And the great work Martyn has been doing to refocus what they do to really include FE and skills.

The Northern College for Residential Adult Education, set up by money from slavery… and an aside that recent funding cuts to adult education have been less than helpful here… however… What gives me greatest happiness is when you find, say, a 55 year old miners wife about to go off to Sheffield University, thats great!

OFSTED have reported tutors making good use of innovative learning and technlogy… But that’s the past… this is the future, my grandkids. The eldest came home all excited about going on a school trip overnight… She’s excited and keen! My daughter rings me, and she’s going through the list of what Millie has to take with her… halfway down it says sleeping bag, toilet bag, etc… If Millie wants to take photographs she’s allowed to take one disposable camera… She doesn’t know what that is! How do we take a system – schools as well as FE – that’s designed on an industrial, Taylor-based, type system whose assets are in land and buildings… And reinvest those assets in what will be fit for a digital future – from chalkboard to Millie’s iPhone (which she’s banned from using, of course).

The music industry has moved on a long way… You look at pictures from the nineteenth century versus a modern college.. looks the same, the only difference is a PC on the desk (in rows). So what is taking us so long? Well Prof Diana Laurillad talk about the barriers to change in the sector. I work at a technology company, Toshiba, and have done for a long time… Whilst technology doesn’t change learning outcomes…. But there is a correlation between organisations using digital technologies and improved learning outcomes… If we think about the Sigmoid Curve… and at Blockbuster, Woolworths, Kodak… there is  a paradigm shift required to change thinking, to keep up with technology. And that requires input at leadership, governance, etc, where FELTAG focuses and where Jisc needs to focus. FELTAG is about paradigm shift. But paradigm shift is hard…

Now, I think we need to sell physical buildings and assets… When you see colleges, with huge investment, they are empty for months on end… and not fully occupied when in use. We need to move funding further up Bloom’s taxonomy. The key principles are about realising assets we have, and making use of them, and reinvesting them… We had a six month report on FELTAG, from BIS….  We also have the House of Lords Digital Skills report. It’s not about new technology, it’s about new thinking…

Returning to our tall tale on research, Bob finishes the story saying that we can’t wait for research, to start doing what we need to be doing… 

So… we have a new ALT group with great people on board… But what happens if FELTAG doesn’t happen? Well these future learners will leave school with no books, no papers, no pens… no printers except 3D printers… They will be want to go to an FE college that can provide them with all the digital tools and technologies they need and expect to have. And only you, only you, can make that happen!

And with that we draw to a close… I will be at Digifeast later so if you corrections and comments on the blog, want to ask me about Jisc MediaHub, digital footprints, digital education, or just say hello, do keep an eye out!

 

Oct 032014
 
Found a foot

This Monday (29th September 2014) the Managing Your Digital Footprint project launched across the University of Edinburgh.  I’m hugely excited about this project as it is a truly cross-University initiative that has been organised by a combination of academic departments, support services and the student association all working together, indeed huge thanks and respect are due to Louise Connelly at IAD for bringing this ambitious project together.

I am representing EDINA across both of the project’s strands: a digital footprint awareness-raising campaign for all students (UG, PGT, ODL, PhD) which is led by the Institute for Academic Development (IAD) in collaboration with EDINA, the Careers Service, EUSA, Information Services, and other University departments; and a research project, a collaboration between IAD, the School of Education, EDINA and EUSA, which will examine how students are managing their digital footprints, where such management is lacking, and what this might mean for future institutional planning to build student competence in this area.

Before saying more about the project it is useful to define what a “digital footprint” might be. The best way to start that is with this brilliant wee video made specially for the campaign:

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Digital footprints, or the tracks and traces you leave across the internet, are a topic that frequently comes up in my day to day role as social media officer, and is also the focus of a guest week I provide for the MSc in Digital Education’s IDEL (Introduction to Digital Environments for Learning) module. Understanding how your privacy and personal data (including images, tags, geo locations) are used is central to making the most appropriate, effective, and safe use of social media, or any other professional or personal presences online. Indeed if you look to danah boyd’s work on teens on Facebook, or Violet Blue’s writings on real name policies on Google+ you begin to get a sense of the importance of understanding the rules of engagement, and the complexities that can arise from a failure to engage, or from misunderstanding and/or a desire to subvert the rules and expectations of these spaces. What you put online, no matter how casually, can have a long-term impact on the traces, the “footprints” that you leave behind long after you have moved on from the site/update/image/etc.

When I give talks or training sessions on social media I always try to emphasize the importance of doing fewer things well, and of providing accurate and up to date bios, ensuring your privacy settings are as you expect them to be, and (though it can be a painful process) properly understanding the terms and conditions to sites that you are signing up for, particularly for professional presences. Sometimes I need to help those afraid to share information to understand how to do so more knowledgeably and safely, sometimes it is about helping very enthusiastic web/social media users to reflect on how best to manage and review their presences. These are all elements of understanding your own digital footprints – though there are many non-social media related examples as well. And it is clear that, whilst this particular project is centered on the University of Edinburgh, there is huge potential here for the guidance, resources, reflections and research findings from the Managing Your Digital Footprint project to inform best practice in teaching, support and advice, and policy making across the HE sectors.

So, look out for more on my contributions to the Managing Your Digital Footprint campaign – there should be something specifically looking at issues around settings very soon. In the meantime  anyone reading this who teaches/supports or who is a student at the University of Edinburgh should note that there will also be various competitions, activities, workshops, resources and advice throughout 2014-2015, which will focus on how to create and manage a positive online presence (digital footprint), and which should support students in their: professional networking; finding the right job; collaborating with others; keeping safe online; managing your privacy and the privacy of others; how to set up effective social media profiles; using social media for research and impact.

Digital Footprint campaign logo

The Digital Footprint project logo – anyone based at the University of Edinburgh will be seeing a lot of this over the coming months!

The research strand of the project is also underway but don’t expect anything more about that for a wee while – there will be a lot of data collection, analysis and writing up to do before we are ready to share findings. I’ll make sure to share appropriate updates and links here as appropriate. And, of course, questions and comments are welcome – just add yours to this post.

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