Oct 042017
 

This afternoon I’m at the Keynote Session for Information Security Awareness Week 2017 where I’ll speaking about Managing Your Digital Footprint in the context of security. I’ll be liveblogging the other keynotes this afternoon.

The event has begun with a brief introduction from Alistair Fenemore, UoE’s Chief Information Security Officer, and from his colleague David Creighton Offord, the organiser for today’s event.

Talk by John Whitehouse, PWC Cyber Security Director Scotland covering the state of the nation and the changing face of Cyber Threat

I work at PWC, working with different firms who are dealing with information security and cyber security. In my previous life I was at Standard Life. I’ve seen all sorts of security issues so I’m going to talk about some of the things I’ve seen, trends, I’ll explain a few key concepts here.

So, what is cybersecurity… People imagine people in basements with balaclavas… But it’s not that at all…

I have a video here…

(this is a Jimmy Kimmel comedy segment on the Sony hack where they ask people for their passwords, to tell them if it’s strong enough… And how they construct them… And/or the personal information they use to construct that…)

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We do a lot of introductions for boards… We talk about technical stuff… But they laugh at that video and then you point out that these could all be people working in their companies…

So, there is technical stuff here, but some of the security issues are simple.

We see huge growth due to technology, and that speaks to businesses. We are going to see 1 billion connected devices by 2020, and that could go really really wrongly…

There is real concern about cyber security, and they have concerns about areas including cloud computing. The Internet of Things is also a concern – there was a study that found that the average connected device has 25 security vulnerabilities. Dick Cheney had to have his pacemaker re programmed because it was vulnerable to hacking via Bluetooth. There was an NHS hospital in England that had to pause a heart surgery when the software restarted. We have hotel rooms accessible via phones – that will come to homes… There are vulnerabilities in connected pet feeders for instance.

Social media is used widely now… In the TalkTalk breach we found that news of the breach has been leaked via speculation just 20 seconds after the breach occurs – that’s a big challenge to business continuity planning where one used to plan that you’d perhaps have a day’s window.

Big data is coming with regulations, threats… Equifax lost over 140 million records – and executives dumped significant stock before the news went public which brings a different sort of scrutiny.

Morrisons were sued by their employees for data leaked by an annoyed member of staff – I predict that big data loss could be the new PPI as mass claims for data loss take place. So maybe £1000 per customer per data breach for each customer… We do a threat intelligence service by looking on the dark net for data breach. And we already see interest in that type of PPI class suit approach.

The cyber challenge extends beyond the enterprise – on shore, off shore; 1st through to 4th parties. We’ve done work digging into technology components and where they are from… It’s a nightmare to know who all your third parties are… It’s a nightmare and a challenge to address.

So, who should you be worried about? Threat actors vary…. We have accidental loss, Maware that is not targeted, and hacker hobbyists in the lowest level of sophistication, through to state sponsored attacks at the highest level of sophistication. Sony were allegedly breached by North Korea – that firm spends astronomical amounts on security and that still isn’t totally robust. Target lost 100 million credit card details through a third party air conditioner firm, which a hacker used to get into the network, and that’s how the loss occured. And when we talk organised crime we are talking about really organised crime… One of the Ukrainian organised crime groups were offering a Ferrari for their employee of the month prize for malware. We are talking seriously Organised. And serious financial gain. And it is extremely hard to trace that money once its gone. And we see breaches going on and on and on…

Equifax is a really interesting one. There are 23 class action suits already around that one and that’s the tip of the iceberg. There has been a lot of talk of big organisations going under because of cyber security, and when you see these numbers for different companies, that looks increasingly likely. Major attacks lead to real drops in share prices and real impacts on the economy. And there are tangible and intangible costs of any attack…. From investigation and remediation through to DEO and CTO’s losing their jobs or facing prison time – at that level you can personally liable in the event of an attack.

In terms of the trends… 99% of exploited vulnerabilities (in 2014) had been identified for more than a year, some as far back as 1999. Wannacry was one of these – firms had 2 months notice and the issues still weren’t addressed by many organisations.

When we go in after a breach, typically the breach has been taking place for 200 days already – and that’s the breaches we find. That means the attacker has had access and has been able to explore the system for that long. This is very real and firms are dealing with this well and really badly – some real variance.

One example, the most successful bank robbery of all time, was the Bangladesh Central Bank was attacked in Feb 2016 through the SWIFT network .These instructions totalled over US $900 million, mostly laundered through casinos in Macau. The analysis identified that malware was tailored for the target organisation based on the printers they were using, which scrubbed all entry and exit points in the bank. The US Secret Service found that there were three groups – two inside the bank, one outside executing the attack.

Cyber security concerns are being raised, but how can we address this as organisations? How do we invest in the right ways? What risk is acceptable? One challenge for banks is that they are being asked to use Fintechs and SMEs working in technology… But some of these startups are very small and that’s a real concern for heads of securities in banks.

We do a global annual survey on security, across about 10,000 people. We ask about the source of compromise – current employees are the biggest by some distance. And current customer data, as well as IPR, tend to be the data that is at risk. We also see Health and Social Care adopting more technology, and having high concern, but spending very little to counter the risks. So, with Wannacry, the NHS were not well set up to cope and the press love the story… But they weren’t the target in any way.

A few Mythbusters for you…

Anti-Virus software… We create Malware to test our clients’ set up. We write malware that avoids AVs. Only 10-15% of malware will be caught with Anti-Virus software. There is an open source tool, Veil-Framework, that teaches you how to write that sort of Malware so that you can understand the risks. You should be using AV, but you have to be aware that malware goes beyond that (and impacts Macs too)… There is a malware SaaS business model on the darknet – as an attacker you’ll get a guarantee for your malware’s success and support to use it!

Myth 2: we still have time to react. Well, no, the lag from discovery to impacting you and your set up can be minutes.

Myth 3: well it must have been a zero day that got us! True Zero Day exploits are extremely rare/valuable. Attacker won’t use one unless target is very high value and they have no other option. They are hard to use. Even NSA admits that persistence is key to sucessful compromise, not zero day exploits. The NSA created EternalBlue – a zero day exploit – and that was breached and deployed out to these “good guys” as Wannacry.

Passwords… They are a thing of the past I think. 2-factor authentication is more where we are at. Passphrases and strength of passphrases is key. So complex strings with a number and a site name at the end is recommended these days. Changing every 30 days isn’t that useful – it’s so easy to bruteforce the password if lost – much better to have a really strong hash in the first place.

Phishing email is huge. We think about 80% of cyber attacks start that way. Beware spoofed addreses, or extremely small changes to email addresses.

We had a client that had an email from their “finance director” about urgently paying money to an account, which was only spotted because someone in finance noticed the phrasing… “the chief exec never says “Thanks”!”

Malware trends: our strong view is that you should never ever pay for a Ransomeware attack.

I have another video here…

(In this video we have people having their “mind read” for some TV show… It was uncanny… And included spending data… But it wasn’t psychic… It was data that they had looked up and discovered online… )

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It’s not a nice video… This is absolutely real… This whole digital footprint. We do a service called Digital Footprinting for senior execs in companies, and you have to be careful about it as they can give so much away by what you and those around you post… It’s only getting worse and more pointed. There are threat groups going for higher value targets, they are looking for disruption. We think that the Internet of Things will open up the attack surface in whole new ways… And NACS – the Air Traffic people – they are thinking about drones and the issues there around fences and airspace… How do you prepare for this. Take the connected home… These fridges are insecure, you can detect if owner is opened or not and detect if they are at home or not… The nature of threats is changing so much…

In terms of trends the attacks are moving up the value chain… Retain bank clients aren’t interesting compared to banks finance systems, more to exchanges or clearing houses. It’s about value of data… Data is maybe $0.50 for email credentials; a driving license is maybe $25… and upwards the price goes depending on value to the attackers…

So, a checklist for you and your work: (missed this but delighted that digital footprint was item 1)

Finally, go have a look at your phone and how much data is being captured about you… Check your iPhone frequent locations. And on Android check Google Location History. The two biggest companies in the world, Google and Facebook, are free, and they are free because of all the data that they have about you… But the terms of service… Paypal’s are longer than Hamlet. If you have a voice control TV from Samsung and you sign those, you agree to always on and sharable with third parties…

So, that’s me… Hopefully that gave you something to ponder!

Q&A

Q1) What does PWC think about Deloitte’s recent attack?

A1) Every firm faces these threats, and we are attacked all the time… We get everything thrown at us… And we try to control those but we are all at risk…

Q2) What’s your opinion on cyber security insurance?

A2) I think there is a massive misunderstanding in the market about what it is… Some policies just cover recovery, getting a response firm in… When you look at Equifax, what would that cover… That will put insurers out of business. I think we’ll see government backed insurance for things like that, with clarity about what is included, and what is out of scope. So, if, say, SQL Injection is the cause, that’s probably negligence and out of scope…

Q3) What role should government have in protecting private industry?

A3) The national cyber security centre is making some excellent progress on this. Backing for that is pretty positive. All of my clients are engaging and engaged with them. It has to be at that level. It’s too difficult now at lower levels… We do work with GCHQ sharing information on upcoming threats… Some of those are state sponsored… They even follow working hours in their source location… Essentially there are attack firms…

Q4) (I’m afraid I missed this question)

A4) I think Microsoft in the last year have transformed their view… My honest view is that clients should be on Windows 10 its a gamechanger for security. Firms will do analysis on patches and service impacts… But they delayed that a bit long. I have worked at a firm with a massively complex infrastructure, and it sounds easy to patch but it can be quite difficult to do that in practice, and it can put big operational systems at risk. As a multinational bank for instance you might be rolling out to huge numbers of machines and applications.

Talk by Kami Vaniea (University of Edinburgh) covering common misconceptions around Information Security and to avoid them

My research is on the usability of security and why some failings are happening from the point of view of an average citizen. I do talks to community groups – so this presentation is a mixture of that sort of content and proper security discussion.

I wanted to start with misconceptions as system administrators… So I have a graph here of where there is value to improving your password; then the range in which having rate limits on password attempts; and the small area of benefit to the user. Without benefits you are in the deadzone.

OK, a quick question about URL construction… http://facebook.mobile.com? Is it Facebook’s website, Facebook’s mobile site, AT&T’s website, or Mobile’s website. It’s the last one by construction. It’s both of the last two if you know AT&T own mobile.com. But when you ask a big audience they mainly get it right. Only 8% can correctly differentiate http://facebook.profile.com vs http://profile.facebook.com. Many users tend to just pick a big company name regardless of location in URLs. A few know how to to correctly read subdomain URLs. We did this study on Amazon Mechanical Turk – so that’s a skewed sample of more technical people. And that URL understanding has huge problematic implications for phishing email.

We also tried http://twitter.com/facebook.com. Most people could tell that was Twitter (not Facebook). But if I used “@” instead of “/” people didn’t understand, thought it was an email…

On the topic of email… Can we trust the “from” field? No. Can we trust a “this email has been checked for viruses…” box? No. Can you trust the information on the source URL for a link in the email, that is shown in the bottom of the browser? Yes.

What about this email – a Security alert for your linked Google account email? Well this is legitimate… Because it’s coming from accounts.google.com. But you knew this was a trick question… Phishing is really tricky…

So, a shocking percentage of my students think that “from” address is legitimate… Tell your less informed friends how easily that can be spoofed…

What about Google. Does Google know what you type as you type it and before you hit enter? Yes, it does… Most search engines send text to their servers as you write it. Which means you can do fun studies on what people commonly DON’T post to Facebook!

A very common misconception is that opening web pages, emails, pdfs, and docs is like reading physical paper… So why do they need patching?

Lets look at an email example… I don’t typically get emails with “To protect your privacy, Thunderbird has blocked remote content in this message” from a student… This showed me that a 1 pixel invisible image had come with the email… which pinged the server if I opened it. I returned the email and said he had a virus. He said “no, I used to work in marketing and forgot that I had that plugin set up”.

Websites are made of many elements from many sources. Mainly dynamically… And there are loads of trackers across those sites. There is a tool called Lightbeam that will help you track the sites you go to on purpose, and all the other sites that track you. That’s obviously a privacy issue. But it is also a security problem. The previous speaker spoke about supply chains at Target, this is the web version of this… That supply chain gets huge when you visit, say, six websites.

So, a quiz question… I got to Yahoo, I hit reload… Am I running the same code as a moment ago… ? Well, it’s complicated… I had a student run a study on this… And how much changes… In a week about half of the top 200 sites had changed their javascript in a week. I see trackers change between individual reloads… But it might change, it might not…

So we as users you access a first party website, then they access third party sites… So they access ad servers and that sells that user, and ad is returned, with an image (sometimes with code). Maybe I bid to a company, that bids out again… This is huge as a supply chain and tracking issue…

So the Washington Post, for instance, covering the yahoo.com malware attack showed that malicious payloads were being delivered to around 300k users per hour, but only about 9% (27k) users per hour were affected – they were the ones that hadn’t updated their systems. How did that attack take place? Well rather than attack, they just brought an ad and ran malware code.

There is a tool called Ghostery… It’s brilliant and useful… But it’s run by the ad industry and all the trackers are set the wrong way. Untick those all and then it’s fascinating… They tell you about page load and all the components involved in loading a page…

To change topic…

Cookies! Yes, they can be used to track you across web sites. But they can’t give you malware as is. So… I will be tackling the misconception that cookies is evil… And I’m going to try to convince you otherwise. Tracking can be evil… But cookies is kind of an early example of privacy by design…

It is 1994. The internet cannot remember anyone between page loads. You have an interaction with a web server that has absolutely no memory. Cookies help something remember between page loads and web pages… Somehow a server has to know who you are… But back in 1994 you just open a page and look at it, that’s the interaction point…

But companies wanted shopping baskets, and memory between two page reloads. There is an obvious technical solution… You just give every browser a unique identifier… Great! The server remembers you. But the problem is a privacy issue across different servers… So, Netscape implemented cookies – small text strings the server could ask the browser to remember and give back to it later…

Cookies have some awesome properties: it is client visible; third party tracking is client visible too; it’s opt out (delete) option on a per-site basis; it’s only readable by the site that set it; and it allows for public discussion of tracking…

… Which is why Android/iOS both went with the unique ID option. And that’s how you can be tracked. As a design decision it’s very different…

Now to some of the research I work on… I believe in getting people to touch stuff, to interact with it… We can talk to each other, or mystify, but we need to actually have people understand this stuff. So we ran an outreach activity to build a website, create a cookie, and then read the cookie out… Then I give a second website… To let people try to understand how to change their names on one site, not the other… What happens when you view them in Incognito mode… And then exploring cookies across sites. And how that works…

Misconception: VPNs solve all privacy and security problems. Back at Indiana I taught students who couldn’t code… And that was interesting… They saw VPNs as magic fairy dust. And they had absorbed this idea that anyone can be hacked at any time… They got that… But that had resulted in “but what’s the point”. That worries me… In the general population we see media coverage of attacks on major companies… And the narrative that attacks are inevitable… So you end up with this problem…

So, I want to talk about encryption and why it’s broken and what that means by VPNs. I’m not an encryption specialist. I care about how it works for the user.

In encryption we want (1) communication between you and the other party is confidential and has not been changes, and no-one can read what you sent and no one can change what you sent; and (2) to know who we are talking about. And that second part is where things can be messed up. You can make what you think is the secure connection to the right person, but could be a secure connection to the wrong person – a man in the middle attack. A real world example… You go to a coffee shop and use wifi to request the BBC news site, but you get a wifi login page. That’s essentially a man in the middle attack. That’s not perhaps harmful, it’s normal operating procedure… VPNs basically work like this…

So, an example of what really happened to a student… I set up a page that just had them creating a very simple cookie page… I was expecting something simple… But one of them submitted a page with a bit of javascript… it is basically injecting code so if I connect to it, it will inject an ad to open in my VPN…. So in this case a student logged in to AnchorFree – magic fairy dust – and sees a website and injects code that is what I see when they submit the page in Blackboard Learn…

VPNs are not magic fairy dust. The University runs an excellent VPN – far better for coffee shops etc!

So, I like to end with some common advice:

  • Install anti virus scanner. Don’t turn off Windows 8+ automatically installed AV software… I ran a study where 50% of PhD students had switched off that software and firewalls…
  • Keep your software updated – best way to stay safe
  • Select strong passcode for important things you use all the time
  • For non-important stuff, use a password manager for less important things that you use rarely… Best to have different password between them…
  • Software I use:
    • Ad blockers – not just ads, reduce lots of extra content loading. The more websites you visit the more vulnerable you are
    • Ghostery and Privacy Badger
    • Lightbeam
    • Password Managers (LastPass, OnePassword and KeePass are most recommended
    • 2-factor like Yubikey – extra protection for e.g. Facebook.
    • If you are really serious: UMatrix and NoScript BUT it will break lots of pages…

Q&A

Q1) It’s hard to get an average citizen to do everything… How do you get around that and just get the key stuff across…

A1) Probably it’s that common advice. The security community has gotten better at looking at 10 key stuff. Google did a study with Blackhats Infosec conference about what they would do… And asked on Amazon Mechanical Turj about what they would recommend to friends. About the only common answer amongst blackhats was “update your software”. But actually there is overlap… People know they should change passwords, and should use AV software… But AV software didn’t show on the Blackhat list… But 2-factor and password managers did…

Q2) What do you think about passwords… long or complex or?

A2) We did a study maybe 8 years ago on mnemonic passwords… And found that “My name is Inigo Montoya, you killed my father, prepare to die” was by far the most common. The issue isn’t length… It’s entropy. I think we need to think server side about how many other users have used the same password (based on encrypted version), and you need something that less than 3 people use…

Q2) So more about inability to remember it…

A2) And it depends on threat type… If someone knows you, your dog, etc… Then it’s easier… But if I can pick a password for a long time I might invest in it – but if you force people to change passwords they have to remember it. There was a study that people using passwords a lot use some affirmations, such as “I love God”… And again, hard to know how you protect that.

Q3) What about magic semantic email links instead of passwords…

A3) There is some lovely work on just how much data is in your email… That’s a poor mans version of the OAuth idea of getting an identity provider to authenticate the user. It’s good for the user, but that is one bigger stake login then… And we see SMS also being a mixed bag and being subject to attack… Ask a user though… “there’s nothing important in my email”.

Q4) How do you deal with people saying “I don’t have anything to hide”?

A4) Well I start with it not being about hiding… It’s more, why do you want to know? When I went to go buy a car I didn’t dress like a professor, I dressed down… I wanted a good price… If I have a lot of time I will refer them to Daniel Salvo’s Nothing to Hide.

Talk by Nicola Osborne (EDINA) covering Digital Footprints and how you can take control of your online self

And that will be me… So keep an eye out for tweets from others on the event hashtag: #UoEInfoSec.

And with a very brief summing up from Alastair Fenemore, the day came to a close. Thanks to the lovely University Information Security team for organising this really interesting event (and inviting me to speak) as part of their awesome Information Security Awareness Week programme.

 October 4, 2017  Posted by at 3:06 pm digital footprint, Events Attended, LiveBlogs Tagged with: ,  No Responses »