Nov 172017
 

Today I am at the Scottish Government for the Digital and Information Literacy Forum 2017.

Introduction from Jenny Foreman, Scottish Government: Co-chair of community of practice with Cleo Jones (who couldn’t be here today). Welcome to the 2017 Digital and Information Literacy Forum!

Scottish Government Digital Strategy – Cat Macaulay, Head of User Research and Service Design, Scottish Government

I am really excited to speak to you today. For me libraries have never just been about books, but about information and bringing people together. At high school our library was split between 3rd and 4th year section and a 5th and 6th year section, and from the moment I got there I was desperate to get into the 5th and 6th year section! It was about place and people and knowledge. My PhD later on was on interaction design and soundscapes, but in the context of the library and seeking information… And that morphed into a project on how journalists yse information at The Scotsman – and the role of the library and the librarian in their clippings library. In Goffman terms it was this backstage space for journalists to rehearse their performances. There was talk of the clippings library shutting down and I argued against that as it was more than just those clippings.

So, that’s the personal bit, but I’ll turn to the more formal bit here… I am looking forward to discussions later, particularly the panel on Fake News. Information is crucial to allowing people to meaningfully, equally and truly participate in democracy, and to be part of designing that. So, the imporatnce of digital literacy is crucial to participation in democracy. And for us in the digital directorate, it is a real priority – for reaching citizens and for librarians and information professionals to support that access to information and participation.

We first set out a digital strategy in 2011, but we have been refreshing our strategy and about putting digital at the heart of what we do. Digital is not about technology, it’s a cultural issue. We moved before from agrarian to industrial society, and we are now in the process of moving from an industrial to a digital society. Aiming to deliver inclusive economic growth, reform public services, tackle inequalities and empower communities, and prepare people for the future workplace. Digital and information literacy are core skills for understanding the world and the future.

So our first theme is the Digital Economy. We need to stimulate innovation and investment, we need to support digital technologies industr, and we need to increase digital maturity of all businesses. Scotland is so dependent on small businesses and SMEs that we need our librarians and information professionals to be able to support that maturity of all businesses.

Our second theme is Data and Innovation. For data we need to increase public trust in holding data securely and using/sharing appropriately. I have a long term medical issue and the time it takes to get appointments set up, to share information between people so geographically close to each other – across the corridor. That lack of trust is core to why we still rely on letters and faxes in these contexts.

In terms of innovation, CivTech brings together the public sector teams and tech start-ups to develeop solutions to real problems, and to grow and expand services. We want to innovate and learn from the wider tech and social media context.

The third theme is Digital Public Services, the potential to simplify and standardise ways of working. Finding common technologies/platforms build and procured once. And design services with citizens to meet their needs. Information literacy skills and critical questioning are at the heart of this. You have to have that literacy to really understand the problems, and to begin to be looking at addressing that, and co-designing.

The fourth theme is Connectivity. Improving superfast broadband, improving coverage in rural areas, increasing the 4G coverage.

The fifth theme is Skills. We need to build a digitally skilled nation. I spent many years in academia – no matter how “digital native” we might assume them, actually we’ve assumed essentially that because someone can drive a car, they can build a car. We ALL need support for finding information, how to judge it and how to use it. We all need to learn and keep on learning. We also need to promote diversity – ensuring we have more disabled people, more BAME people, more women, working in these areas, building these solutions… We need to promote and enhance that, to ensure everyone’s needs are reflected. Friends working in the third sector in Dundee frequently talk about the importance of libraries to their service users, libraries are crucial to supporting people with differing needs.

The sixth theme is Participation. We need to enable everybody to share in the social, economic and democractic opportunities of digital. We need to promote inclusion and participation. That means everyone participating.

And our final theme (seven) is Cyber Security. That is about the global reputation for Scotland as a secure place to work, learn and do business. That’s about security, but it is also about trust and addressing some of those issues I talked about earlier.

So, in conclusion, this is a strategy for Scotland, not just Scottish Government. We want to be a country that uses digital to maximum effect, to enable inclusion, to build the economy, to positively deliver for society. It is a living document and can grow and develop. Collective action is needed to ensure nobody is left behind; we all remain safe, secure and confident about the future. We all need to promote that information and digital literacy.

Q&A
Q1) I have been involved in information literacy in schools – and I know in schools and colleges that there can be real inconsistency about how things are labeled as “information literacy”, “digital literacy”, and “digital skills”. I’m slightly concerned there is only one strand there – that digital skills can be about technology skills, not information literacy.

A1) I echo what you’ve just said. I spent a year in a Life Sciences lab in a Post Doc role studying their practice. We were working on a microscopy tool… And I found that the meaning of the word “image” was understood differently by Life Scientists and Data Scientists. Common terminology really matter. And indeed semantic technologies enable us to do that in new ways. But it absolutely matters.

Q2, Kate SVCO) We are using a digital skills framework developed that I think is also really useful to frame that.

A2) I’m familiar with that work and I’d agree. Stripping away complexity and agree on common terms and approaches is a core focus of what we are doing.

Q3) We have been developing a digital skills framework for colleges and for the student lifecycle. I have been looking at the comprehensive strategy for schools and colleges by Welsh Government’s… Are there plans for similar?

A3) I know there has been work taking place but I will take that back.

Q4) I thought that the “Participation” element was most interesting here. Information literacy is key to enabling participation… Say what you like about Donald Trump but he has made the role of information literacy in democracy very vital and visible. Scotland is in a good place to support information literacy – there are many in this room have done great work in this area – but it needs resourcing to support it.

A4) My team focuses on how we design digital tools and technologies so that people can use them. And we absolutely need to look at how best to support those that struggle. But is not just about how you access digital services… How we describe these things, how we reach out to people… I remember being on a bus in Dundee and hearing a guy saying “Oh, I’ve got a Fairer Scotland Consultation leaflet… What the fuck is a Consultation?!”. I’ve had some awkward conversations with my teenage boys about Donald Trump, and Fake News. I will follow up with you afterwards – I really welcome a conversation about these issues. At the moment we are designing a whole new Social Security framework right now – not a thing most other governments have had to do – and so we really have to understand how to make that clear.

Health Literacy Action Plan Update – Blythe Robertson, Policy Lead, Scottish Government

The skills, confidence, knowledge and understanding to interact with the health system and maintain good health is essentially what we mean in Health Literacy. Right now there is a huge focus in health policy on “the conversation”. And that’s the conversation between policy makers and practitioners and people receiving health care. There is a model of health and care delivery called “More than Medicine” – this is a memorable house-shaped visual model that brings together organisational processes and arrangements, health and care professionals, etc. At the moment though the patient has to do at least as much as the medical professional, with hoops to jump through – as Cat talked about before…

Instructions can seem easy… But then we can all end up at different places [not blogged: an exercise with paper, folding, eyes closed].

Back when computers first emerged you needed to understand a lot more about computer languages, you had to understand how it worked… It was complex, there was training… What happened? Well rather than trianing everyone, instead they simplified access – with the emergence of the iPad for instance.

So, this is why we’ve been trying to address this with Making it easy: A health literacy action plan for Scotland. And there’s a lot of text… But really we have two images to sum this up… The first (a woman looking at a hurdle… We’ve tried to address this by creating a nation of hurdlers… But we think we should really let people walk through/remove those hurdles.

Some statistics for you: 43% of English working age adults will struggle to understand instructions to calculate a childhood paracetamol dose. There is lot bound up here… Childhood health literacy is important. Another stat/fact: Half of what a person is told is forgotten. And half of what is remembered is incorrect. [sources: several cited health studies which will be on Blythe’s slides]. At the heart of issue is that a lot of information is transmitted… then you ask “Do you understand?” and of course you say “yes”, even if you don’t. So, instead, you need to check information… That can be as simple as rephrasing a question to e.g. “Just so I can check I’ve explained things clearly can you tell me what you’ve understood” or similar.

We did a demonstrator programme in NHS Tayside to test these ideas… So, for instance, if you wander into Nine Wells hospital you’ll see a huge board of signs… That board is blue and white text… There is one section with yellow and blue… That’s for Visual Impairment, because that contrast is easier to see. We have the solution but… People with visual impairment come to other areas of the hospitals. So why isn’t that sign all done in the same way with high contrast lettering on the whole board? We have the solution, why don’t we just provide it across the board. That same hospital send out some appointment letters asking them to comment and tell them about any confusion… And there were many points that that happened. For instance if you need the children’s ward… You need to know to follow signs for Paediatrics first… There isn’t a consistency of naming… Or a consistency of colour. So, for instance Maternity Triage is a sign in red… It looks scary! Colours have different implications, so that really matters. You will be anxious being in hospital – consistency can help reduce the levels of anxiety.

Letters are also confusing… They are long. Some instructions are in bold, some are small notes at the bottom… That can mean a clinic running 20 minutes late… Changing what you emphasise has a huge impact. It allows the health care provision to run more smoothly and effectively. We workshopped an example/mock up letter with the Scottish Conference for Learning Disability. They came up with clear information and images. So very clear to see what is happening, includes an image of where the appointment is taking place to help you navigate – with full address. The time is presented in several forms, including a clock face. And always offer support, even if some will not need it. Always offer that… Filling in forms and applications is scary… For all of us… There has to be contact information so hat people can tell you things – when you look at people not turning up to appointments was that they didn’t know how to contact people, they didn’t know that they could change the appointment, that they wanted to contact them but they didn’t want to make a phone call, or even that because they were already in for treatment they didn’t think they needed to explain why they weren’t at their outpatients appointment.

So, a new action plan is coming called “Making it easier”. That is about sharing the learning from Making it Easy across Scotland. To embed ways to improve health literacy in policy and practice. To develop more health literacy responsive organisations and communities. Design supports and services to better meet people’s health literacy levels. And that latter point is about making services more responsive and easier to understand – frankly I’d like to put myself out of a job!

So, one area I’d like to focus on is the idea of “Connectors” – the role of the human information intermediary, is fundamental. So how can we take those competancies and roll them out across the system… In ways that people can understand… Put people in contact with digital skills, the digital skills framework… Promoting understanding. We need to signpost with confidence, and to have a sense that people can use this kind of information. Looking at librarians as a key source of information that can helps support people’s confidence.

In terms of implementation… We have at (1) a product design and at (3) “Scaled up”. But what is at step (2)? How do we get there… Instead we need to think about the process differently… Starting with (1) a need identified, then a planned structured resources and co-developed for success, and then having it embedded in the system… I want to take the barriers out of the system.

And I’m going to finish with a poem: This is bad enough by Elspeth Murray, from the launch of the cancer information reference group of the South East Scotland Cancer Network 20 January 2016.

Q&A

Q1) I’m from Strathclyde, but also work with older people and was wondering how much health literacy is part of the health and social care integration?

A1) I think ultimately that integration will help, but with all that change it is challenging to signpost things clearly… But there is good commitment to work with that…

Q2) You talked about improving the information – the letters for instance – but is there work more fundamentally questioning the kind of information that goes out? It seems archaic and expensive that appointments are done through posted physical letters… Surely better to have an appointment that is in your diary, that includes the travel information/map….

A2) Absolutely, NHS Lothian are leading on some trial work in this area right now, but we are also improving those letters in the interim… It’s really about doing both things…

Cat) And we are certainly looking at online bookings, and making these processes easier, but we are working with older systems sometimes, and issues of trust as well, so there are multiple aspects to addressing that.

Q3) Some of those issues would be practically identical for educators… Teachers or lecturers, etc…

A3) I think that’s right. Research from University of Maastrict mapped out the 21 areas across Public and Private sectors in which these skills should be embedded… And i Think those three areas of work can be applied across those area… Have to look at design around benefits, we have some hooks around there.

Cat) Absolutely part of that design of future benefits for Scotland.

Panel Discussion – Fake News (Gillian Daly – chair; Lindsay McKrell (Strathclyde); Sean McNamara (CILIPS); Allan Lindsay (Young Scott))

Sean: CILIPS supports the library and information science community in Scotland, including professional development, skills and ethics. Some years ago “information literacy” would have been more about university libraries, but now it’s across the board an issue for librarians. Librarians are less gatekeepers of information, and more about enabling those using their libraries to seek and understand information online, how to understand information and fake news, how to understand the information they find even if they are digitally confident in using the tools they use to access that information.

Allan: Young Scot is Scotland’s natural charity for information literacy. We work closely with young people to help them grow and develop, and influence us in this area. Fake News crops up a lot. A big piece of work we are involved in is he 5 Rights projects, which is about rights online – that isn’t just for young people but significantly about their needs. Digital literacy is key to that. We’ve also worked on digital skills – recently with the Carnegie Trust and the Prince’s Trust. As an information agency we reach people through our website – and we ensure young people are part of creating content in that space.

Lindsay: I’d like to talk about digital literacy as well as Fake News. Digital literacy is absolutely fundamental to supporting citizens to be all that they can be. Accessing information without censorship, and a range of news, research, citizenship test information… That is all part of public libraries service delivery and we need to promote that more. Public libraries are navigators for a huge and growing information resource, and we work with partners in government, in third sector, etc. And our libraries reach outside of working hours and remote areas (e.g. through mobile levels) so we have unique value for policy makers through that range and volume of users. Libraries are also well placed to get people online – still around 20% of people are not online – and public libraries have the skills to support people to go online, gain access, and develop their digital literacy as well. We can help people find various source of information, select between them, to interpret information and compare information. We can grow that with our reading strategies, through study skills and after school sessions. Some libraries have run sessions on fake news, but I’m not sure how well supported thse have been. We are used to displaying interesting books… But why aren’t our information resources similarly well designed and displayed – local filterable resources for instance… Maybe we should do some of this at national level,  not just at local council level. SLIC have done some great work, what we need now is digital information with a twist that will really empower citizens and their information literacy…

Gillian Daly: I was wondering, Allan, how do you tackle the idea of the “Digital Native”? This idea of inate skills of young people?

Allan: It comes up all the time… This presumption that young people can just do things digitally… Some are great but many young people don’t have all the skills they need… There are misconceptions from young people themselves about what they can and cannot do… They are on social media, they have phones… But do they have an understanding of how to behave, how to respond when things go wrong… There is a lot of responsibility for all of us that just because young people use these things, doesn’t mean they understand them all. Those misconceptions apply across the board though… Adults don’t always have this stuff sorted either. It’s dangerous to make assumptions about this stuff… Much as it’s dangerous to assume that those from lower income communities are less well informed about these things, which is often not correct at all.

Lindsay: Yes, we find the same… For instance… Young people are confident with social media… But can’t attach a document for instance…

Comment from HE org: Actually there can be learning in both directions at University. Young people come in with a totally different landscape to us… We have to have a dialogue of learning there…

Gillian: Dialogue is absolutely important… How is that being tackled here…

Sean: With school libraries, those skills to transfer from schools to higher education is crucial… But schools are lacking librarians and information professionals and that can be a barrier there… Not just about Fake News but wider misinformation about social media… It’s important that young people have those skills…

Comment: Fake News doesn’t happen by accident… It’s important to engage with IFLA guide to spot that… But I think we have to get into the territory of why Fake News is there, why it’s being done… And the idea of Media and Information Literacy – UNESCO brought those ideas together a few years ago. There is a vibrant GATNO organisation, which would benefit from more Scottish participation.

Allan: We run a Digital Modern Apprenticeship at Young Scot. We do work with apprentices to build skills, discernment and resiliance to understand issues of fake news and origins. A few weeks back a young person commented on something they had seen on social media… At school for me “Media Studies” was derided… I think we are eating our words now… If people had those skills and were equipped to understand that media and creation process. The wider media issues… Fake News isn’t in some box… We have to be able to discern mainstream news as well as “Fake News”. Those skills, confidence, and ability to ask difficult questions to navigate through these issues…

Gillian: I read a very interesting piece by a journalist recently, looking to analyse Fake News and the background to it, the context of media working practice, etc. Really interesting.

Cat: To follow that up… I distinctly remember in 1994 in The Scotsman about the number of times journalists requested clippings that were actually wrong… Once something goes wrong and gets published, it stay there and repopulates… Misquotations happen that way for instance. That sophisticated understanding isn’t about right and wrong and more about the truthfulness of information. In some ways Trump is doing a favour here, and my kids are much more attuned to accuracy now…

Gillian: I think one of the scariest things is that once the myth is out, it is so hard to dispel or get rid of that…

Comment: Glasgow University has a Glasgow Media Group and they’ve looked at these things for years… One thing they published years ago, “Bad News”, looked at for instance the misrepresentation of Trade Unionists in news sources, for a multitude of complex reasons.

Sean: At a recent event we ran we had The Ferret present – those fact checking organisations, those journalists in those roles to reflect that.

Jenny: The Ferret has fact checking on a wonderful scale to reflect the level of fakeness…

Gillian: Maybe we need to recruit some journalists to the Digital and Information Literacy Forum.

And on that, with many nods of agreement, we are breaking for lunch.

Information Literacy & Syrian New Scots – Dr Konstantina Martzoukou, Postgraduate Programme Leader, Robert Gordon University

This project was supposed to be a scoping study of Syrian New Scots – Syrian Refugees coming to Scotland. The background to this is the Syrian Civil War since 2011, which has led to an enormous amount of refugees, mainly in the near region. Most research has been on Asylum seekers in the camps near Syria on basic survival and human rights, on their needs and how to respond to them. The aim of this project was different: a scoping study to examine the information related experiences and information literacy practices of Syrian new Scots during their resettlement and integration. So this is quite different as the context is relatively settled, and is about that resettlement process.

In September 2015 the Prime Minister announced an expansion of the refugee programme to take up to 2000 Syrian Refugees. And the first place Syrian Refugees came was Glasgow. Now, there have been a lot of changes since then but there is the intent to resettle 2000 Syrian Refugees by 2020.

Primary research was done with 3 refugee resettement officers, as well as focus groupd with Syrian new Scots. These groups were in both urban (1 group) and rural (2 groups), and included 38 people from across Syria, having been in camps in Lebanon, Turkey and Iraq and Jordan. I didn’t know what to expect – these people had seen the worst horrors of war. In reality the focus groups were sometimes loud and animated, sometimes quiet and sad. And in this group they came from a huge range of professional backgrounds, though most of the women did not work.

So, our work looked at included English language and community integration; Information provisions, cultural differences and previous experiences; Financial security. Today I want to focus on libraries and the role of libraries.

One of the most crucial aspects were language barriers and sociocultural. The refugees were given ESOL classes; a welcome pack with key information for finding the resources in their neighbourhood; a 24 hour Arabic hotline, set up with the mosque for emergencies so that families could receive help outside core working hours; In-house translation services. But one of the challenges across the support given was literacy as a whole – not all of the refugees could read and write in any language. But it was also about understanding interchangable words – “doctor” has a meaning but “GP” not so much. There was also a perception that learning English would be really difficult.

The refugees wanted to know how to learn English, and they were anxious about that. The support officers had different approaches. The ESOL classes were there, but some officers were really proactive, taking refugees to the train station, having mock job interviews… That was really really valuable. But some groups, even a year after arriving, weren’t speaking English. But sometimes that was about the families… Some were confident and really well travelled, but some had lived in one place, and not travelled, and found communication and networking much more difficult. So the language learning was very tied to socio-cultural background.

Many of these families have complex health needs – they were hand picked to come here often because of this – and that causes it’s own challenge. Some had no experience of recycling and of how to correctly put their bins out. Someone felt the open plan kitchen was difficult – that her child was burned because of it. One reported a neighbour telling him not to play with his son outside – the boundaries of danger and expectations of childhood was rather different from their new neighbours. Doctors appointments were confusing. Making bus change was expensive – buying something unneeded because the buses don’t give change. Many wanted family reunion information and support.

Technology is used, but technology is not the key source of information. They used mobile phones with pasy as you go sim cards. They used WhatsApp and were sharing quite traumatic memories and news in this way.

The library is there… But actually they are perceived as being for books and many refugees don’t go there. Community classes, meals etc. may be better. Computer classes can be useful, especially when refugees can participate in a meaningful way. And there are real challenges here – computer classes in the library didn’t work for this group as there were too few computers and the internet connections were too small.

For me the key thing is that we need to position the library as a key place for communication, learning and support for the families.

Q&A
Q1) Alamal(?) is running events in our libraries – we have an event with films and telling their story – and we have had huge interest in that.

A1) We really want to show case that to the wider community. There are some great examples from England, from other EU countries, but we want more Scottish examples so do please get in touch.

A User Study Investigating the Information Literacy of Scotland Teenagers – David Brazier, Research Assistant, Northumbria University

This is an ILG funded project looking at the Information Literacy of Scottish Teenagers. I’ll introduce the concepts, going through some related works, and then some of the methodology we’d like to implement. So, information literacy is about the ability to seek, understand, assess information. They are crucial to integrating with society as a whole, and is crucial to our modern society. We need to empower students to learn, so they can integrate themselves into modern society.

As the panel talked about earlier, the idea of the “Digital Native” is misleading. Young people have a poor understanding of their information needs. That leads to young people taking the top ranked documents/sites or cite that. And that needs to be counteracted early in their learning so that it doesn’t carry through and right into University (Rowlands 2008). In recent research (Brazier and Harvey 2017) ESOL post graduates were unable to perceive their performance correctly, often judging high performance when the opposite was true. In the “Not Without Me” report this inability to assess their own skills was also highlighted in the wider range of young people. These groups are highly educated, so they should be able to be more reflective on their own practice.

So, in our research, we are using a Mixed Methods approach to do a quantitative analysis of secondary school-aged children’s information gathering behaviour. Triangulated with qualitative assessments of the participants own assessment. It is around a simulated work task.

The search system is based on the TREC AQUAINT collection – large set of over a million documents from three large news agencies collected between 196 and 2000. Pre-defined search topics associated with the project. The initial 15 topics were reduced down to 4 topics selected by school representatives (librarian and 2 teachers from Gracemount High School in Edinburgh).

So, we start with a pre-task questionnaire. The search task is “Tropical strms: What tropical storms (hurricanes and typhoons) have caused significant property damage and loss of life?”. They can then search through a Google-style search of the documents. They click on those sources that seem relevant. And then they get a questionnaire to reflect on what they’ve done.

A pilot was conducted in December 2016. Tasks were randomly selected, using a Latin Square design to ensure no 2 students had the same two tasks. In total 19 students were involved, from S3 (13-14 years old). The study was on PCs rather than handheld devices. No other demographic data was collected. The school representative did provide a (new) unique id to match the task and the questionnaires. The id was known only to the school rep. No further personal data was taken.

We could then look at the queries each student submitted, and were able to ask why they did that and why they selected the article they did.

This is a work in progress… We are interested in how they engage with the study as a whole. We have used the findings of the pilot to adapt the study design and interface, including a task description relocated to a more prominent location; and an instruction sheet (physical) i.e. browser page, interpret interface.

The main study takes place next week, with 100 students (none of whom were part of the pilot). From this we want to get recommendations and guidelines for IL teaching; to inform professional practice; feedback to participants (pamphlet) for reflective purposes; academic publications in the field of information literacy, information retrieval, education and pedagogy.

Q&A

Q1) Why such a controlled space was selected – presumably students would normally use other places to search, to ask friends etc. So I wondered why you selected such a controlled space like this.

A1) In the previous study we allowed students to look anywhere on the web… But it is much harder to judge relevance in that… These have already been judged for relevance… It’s a wide arc… It adds complexity to the whole process… And someone has to transcribe and mark that footage… For my study there were 29 students and it took 7 months. For 100 students that’s just too large. Test collection is also standardised and replicatable.

The Digital Footprint MOOC – Nicola Osborne, Digital Education Manager, EDINA

This was me… No notes but slides to follow. 

Wikipedia & Information Literacy: the importance of reliable sources – Sara Thomas, Wikimedian in Residence, SLIC

Hi, I’m Wikimedian in Residence at SLIC. The role of a Wikimedian in residence is to work with cultural heritage organisations and Wikimedia and bring the two together. In this role we are working with three local libraries right now but we will be expanding it to a wider Scottish context.

I am passionate about open knowledge and open data. Open data and open knowledge leads to better society, it allows us to make better decisions – I am sick of us being asked to make big decisions about big issues without appropriate information.

Now, I want to introduce you to Bassel Khartabil who was an open source software developer and advocate for open data and knowledge. Knowledge is power… He was detained by the Syrian government and, before he was killed by the government, he wrote very movingly about the impact of open knowledge, that it is so important and a matter of life and death in some contexts.

I want to talk about production of knowledge and what that can teach us about information literacy. Jim Groom at #OER16, said “Wikipedia is the single greatest Open Education Resource the world has ever known”, and he’s not wrong. Wikipedia is more accurate than you may think. There are groups who just edit and work on improving the quality of articles. Women in Red is a group dedicated to having more women’s biographies on Wikipedia. 17% of biographies are women now, that’s 2% more than was the case 2 years ago – and they also work on bringing those biographies up to “featured article” quality.

Quality and ratings scale. Vandalism is picked up quickly – by bots and by people. Wikipedia is neutral in it’s point of view. Nature, in 2005, found that Wikipedia was nearly as accurate as Britannica (2.92 errors per article compared to 3.86 on Wikipedia). The Journal of Clinical Oncology, 2010, found Wikipedia as accurate as Physician Data Query (a premium database). The medical information there is huge – 80% of medical students will use it; ~50% of GPs will use it as a first point in their search. It is the most popular health resource on the web.

Wikipedia is generally the seventh most popular site on the internet. And we have a basic Notability guidance that means an article must be notable, there must be a reason for it being there. The information but be verifiable – the information must come from credible checkable verifiable sources. And we have to use reliable third party publiches sources with a reputation for fact checking and accuracy.

On the subject of media literacy… The Daily Mail didn’t like that Wikipedia doesn’t treat it as reliable – there is no ban but you will get a trigger to ask you if that’s the right source. Brilliantly, they got loads of errors in their own outraged article.

Manipulation is really obvious… The community spots when people are trying to whitewash their own biographies, to promote their company, to try to remove claims of misconduct. And Wikipedia gets it – there is an article on “Wikipedia is not a credible source” – we get it. We are a starting point, a jumping off and discovery point. And in fact we have Wiki Ed (https://wikiedu.org/) which works to combat fake news, to support information literacy. If you want to teach information literacy, wiki can help you. We have a Wiki Education Dashboard – mainly in the US, but lots in the UK. Our guides include: Instructor Basics and Case Studies for using Wikipedia in teaching. Some lovely projects here…

I did some work with Chris Harlow, at University of Edinburgh, a few years ago… He found a medical term that wasn’t in Wikipedia, gave them guidance on how to create a Wikipedia page, taught them how to use a medical database, and sent them away to write a section in simple language… Then we show them how to edit an article. It’s really really easy to edit an article now… The students write their section, put it in… And write a page, it goes live… Five minutes later it’s on the front page of Google. It is gratifying to find work so immediately valued and used and useful.

Translation studies at UoE also use Wikipedia in the classroom. Queen Mary’s University of London use Wikipedia in their film classes. They trialled it, it’s now a compulsory part of the programme. It’s a way to teach digital skills, information synthetis. Imperial College London are working to engage undergraduate students involved in synthesising and sharing university. Greg Singh in Sterling University who uses WikiBooks… Which is a project that seeks to create collaboratively produced text books… To produce a text book, a chapter, on what they’ve been doing… It’s about developing collaboration, track that, instill that within a student…

So I have a vide here of Aine Kavanagh from Reproductive Biology at the University of Edinburgh, who authored an article that has been read 20,000 times in the last year. Aine was looking for some extra work, and she wanted to develop her skills. She asked Chris (Harlow) what she could do… She wrote about one of the most common sorts of cancers which there was very little information about. To be able to see the value of that, the impact of that work, that this has been hugely gratifying to do.

To conclude: open knowledge is important, open knowledge gives us a better society, not just being able to find this information but also be able to produce that knowledge is hugely powerful. And Wikipedia is more accurate than you think!

Closing

Gillian: I just want to thank all of our speakers, to thank all of you for coming, and to thank the Scottish Government for hosting us.

Oct 042017
 

This afternoon I’m at the Keynote Session for Information Security Awareness Week 2017 where I’ll speaking about Managing Your Digital Footprint in the context of security. I’ll be liveblogging the other keynotes this afternoon.

The event has begun with a brief introduction from Alistair Fenemore, UoE’s Chief Information Security Officer, and from his colleague David Creighton Offord, the organiser for today’s event.

Talk by John Whitehouse, PWC Cyber Security Director Scotland covering the state of the nation and the changing face of Cyber Threat

I work at PWC, working with different firms who are dealing with information security and cyber security. In my previous life I was at Standard Life. I’ve seen all sorts of security issues so I’m going to talk about some of the things I’ve seen, trends, I’ll explain a few key concepts here.

So, what is cybersecurity… People imagine people in basements with balaclavas… But it’s not that at all…

I have a video here…

(this is a Jimmy Kimmel comedy segment on the Sony hack where they ask people for their passwords, to tell them if it’s strong enough… And how they construct them… And/or the personal information they use to construct that…)

YouTube Preview Image

We do a lot of introductions for boards… We talk about technical stuff… But they laugh at that video and then you point out that these could all be people working in their companies…

So, there is technical stuff here, but some of the security issues are simple.

We see huge growth due to technology, and that speaks to businesses. We are going to see 1 billion connected devices by 2020, and that could go really really wrongly…

There is real concern about cyber security, and they have concerns about areas including cloud computing. The Internet of Things is also a concern – there was a study that found that the average connected device has 25 security vulnerabilities. Dick Cheney had to have his pacemaker re programmed because it was vulnerable to hacking via Bluetooth. There was an NHS hospital in England that had to pause a heart surgery when the software restarted. We have hotel rooms accessible via phones – that will come to homes… There are vulnerabilities in connected pet feeders for instance.

Social media is used widely now… In the TalkTalk breach we found that news of the breach has been leaked via speculation just 20 seconds after the breach occurs – that’s a big challenge to business continuity planning where one used to plan that you’d perhaps have a day’s window.

Big data is coming with regulations, threats… Equifax lost over 140 million records – and executives dumped significant stock before the news went public which brings a different sort of scrutiny.

Morrisons were sued by their employees for data leaked by an annoyed member of staff – I predict that big data loss could be the new PPI as mass claims for data loss take place. So maybe £1000 per customer per data breach for each customer… We do a threat intelligence service by looking on the dark net for data breach. And we already see interest in that type of PPI class suit approach.

The cyber challenge extends beyond the enterprise – on shore, off shore; 1st through to 4th parties. We’ve done work digging into technology components and where they are from… It’s a nightmare to know who all your third parties are… It’s a nightmare and a challenge to address.

So, who should you be worried about? Threat actors vary…. We have accidental loss, Maware that is not targeted, and hacker hobbyists in the lowest level of sophistication, through to state sponsored attacks at the highest level of sophistication. Sony were allegedly breached by North Korea – that firm spends astronomical amounts on security and that still isn’t totally robust. Target lost 100 million credit card details through a third party air conditioner firm, which a hacker used to get into the network, and that’s how the loss occured. And when we talk organised crime we are talking about really organised crime… One of the Ukrainian organised crime groups were offering a Ferrari for their employee of the month prize for malware. We are talking seriously Organised. And serious financial gain. And it is extremely hard to trace that money once its gone. And we see breaches going on and on and on…

Equifax is a really interesting one. There are 23 class action suits already around that one and that’s the tip of the iceberg. There has been a lot of talk of big organisations going under because of cyber security, and when you see these numbers for different companies, that looks increasingly likely. Major attacks lead to real drops in share prices and real impacts on the economy. And there are tangible and intangible costs of any attack…. From investigation and remediation through to DEO and CTO’s losing their jobs or facing prison time – at that level you can personally liable in the event of an attack.

In terms of the trends… 99% of exploited vulnerabilities (in 2014) had been identified for more than a year, some as far back as 1999. Wannacry was one of these – firms had 2 months notice and the issues still weren’t addressed by many organisations.

When we go in after a breach, typically the breach has been taking place for 200 days already – and that’s the breaches we find. That means the attacker has had access and has been able to explore the system for that long. This is very real and firms are dealing with this well and really badly – some real variance.

One example, the most successful bank robbery of all time, was the Bangladesh Central Bank was attacked in Feb 2016 through the SWIFT network .These instructions totalled over US $900 million, mostly laundered through casinos in Macau. The analysis identified that malware was tailored for the target organisation based on the printers they were using, which scrubbed all entry and exit points in the bank. The US Secret Service found that there were three groups – two inside the bank, one outside executing the attack.

Cyber security concerns are being raised, but how can we address this as organisations? How do we invest in the right ways? What risk is acceptable? One challenge for banks is that they are being asked to use Fintechs and SMEs working in technology… But some of these startups are very small and that’s a real concern for heads of securities in banks.

We do a global annual survey on security, across about 10,000 people. We ask about the source of compromise – current employees are the biggest by some distance. And current customer data, as well as IPR, tend to be the data that is at risk. We also see Health and Social Care adopting more technology, and having high concern, but spending very little to counter the risks. So, with Wannacry, the NHS were not well set up to cope and the press love the story… But they weren’t the target in any way.

A few Mythbusters for you…

Anti-Virus software… We create Malware to test our clients’ set up. We write malware that avoids AVs. Only 10-15% of malware will be caught with Anti-Virus software. There is an open source tool, Veil-Framework, that teaches you how to write that sort of Malware so that you can understand the risks. You should be using AV, but you have to be aware that malware goes beyond that (and impacts Macs too)… There is a malware SaaS business model on the darknet – as an attacker you’ll get a guarantee for your malware’s success and support to use it!

Myth 2: we still have time to react. Well, no, the lag from discovery to impacting you and your set up can be minutes.

Myth 3: well it must have been a zero day that got us! True Zero Day exploits are extremely rare/valuable. Attacker won’t use one unless target is very high value and they have no other option. They are hard to use. Even NSA admits that persistence is key to sucessful compromise, not zero day exploits. The NSA created EternalBlue – a zero day exploit – and that was breached and deployed out to these “good guys” as Wannacry.

Passwords… They are a thing of the past I think. 2-factor authentication is more where we are at. Passphrases and strength of passphrases is key. So complex strings with a number and a site name at the end is recommended these days. Changing every 30 days isn’t that useful – it’s so easy to bruteforce the password if lost – much better to have a really strong hash in the first place.

Phishing email is huge. We think about 80% of cyber attacks start that way. Beware spoofed addreses, or extremely small changes to email addresses.

We had a client that had an email from their “finance director” about urgently paying money to an account, which was only spotted because someone in finance noticed the phrasing… “the chief exec never says “Thanks”!”

Malware trends: our strong view is that you should never ever pay for a Ransomeware attack.

I have another video here…

(In this video we have people having their “mind read” for some TV show… It was uncanny… And included spending data… But it wasn’t psychic… It was data that they had looked up and discovered online… )

YouTube Preview Image

It’s not a nice video… This is absolutely real… This whole digital footprint. We do a service called Digital Footprinting for senior execs in companies, and you have to be careful about it as they can give so much away by what you and those around you post… It’s only getting worse and more pointed. There are threat groups going for higher value targets, they are looking for disruption. We think that the Internet of Things will open up the attack surface in whole new ways… And NACS – the Air Traffic people – they are thinking about drones and the issues there around fences and airspace… How do you prepare for this. Take the connected home… These fridges are insecure, you can detect if owner is opened or not and detect if they are at home or not… The nature of threats is changing so much…

In terms of trends the attacks are moving up the value chain… Retain bank clients aren’t interesting compared to banks finance systems, more to exchanges or clearing houses. It’s about value of data… Data is maybe $0.50 for email credentials; a driving license is maybe $25… and upwards the price goes depending on value to the attackers…

So, a checklist for you and your work: (missed this but delighted that digital footprint was item 1)

Finally, go have a look at your phone and how much data is being captured about you… Check your iPhone frequent locations. And on Android check Google Location History. The two biggest companies in the world, Google and Facebook, are free, and they are free because of all the data that they have about you… But the terms of service… Paypal’s are longer than Hamlet. If you have a voice control TV from Samsung and you sign those, you agree to always on and sharable with third parties…

So, that’s me… Hopefully that gave you something to ponder!

Q&A

Q1) What does PWC think about Deloitte’s recent attack?

A1) Every firm faces these threats, and we are attacked all the time… We get everything thrown at us… And we try to control those but we are all at risk…

Q2) What’s your opinion on cyber security insurance?

A2) I think there is a massive misunderstanding in the market about what it is… Some policies just cover recovery, getting a response firm in… When you look at Equifax, what would that cover… That will put insurers out of business. I think we’ll see government backed insurance for things like that, with clarity about what is included, and what is out of scope. So, if, say, SQL Injection is the cause, that’s probably negligence and out of scope…

Q3) What role should government have in protecting private industry?

A3) The national cyber security centre is making some excellent progress on this. Backing for that is pretty positive. All of my clients are engaging and engaged with them. It has to be at that level. It’s too difficult now at lower levels… We do work with GCHQ sharing information on upcoming threats… Some of those are state sponsored… They even follow working hours in their source location… Essentially there are attack firms…

Q4) (I’m afraid I missed this question)

A4) I think Microsoft in the last year have transformed their view… My honest view is that clients should be on Windows 10 its a gamechanger for security. Firms will do analysis on patches and service impacts… But they delayed that a bit long. I have worked at a firm with a massively complex infrastructure, and it sounds easy to patch but it can be quite difficult to do that in practice, and it can put big operational systems at risk. As a multinational bank for instance you might be rolling out to huge numbers of machines and applications.

Talk by Kami Vaniea (University of Edinburgh) covering common misconceptions around Information Security and to avoid them

My research is on the usability of security and why some failings are happening from the point of view of an average citizen. I do talks to community groups – so this presentation is a mixture of that sort of content and proper security discussion.

I wanted to start with misconceptions as system administrators… So I have a graph here of where there is value to improving your password; then the range in which having rate limits on password attempts; and the small area of benefit to the user. Without benefits you are in the deadzone.

OK, a quick question about URL construction… http://facebook.mobile.com? Is it Facebook’s website, Facebook’s mobile site, AT&T’s website, or Mobile’s website. It’s the last one by construction. It’s both of the last two if you know AT&T own mobile.com. But when you ask a big audience they mainly get it right. Only 8% can correctly differentiate http://facebook.profile.com vs http://profile.facebook.com. Many users tend to just pick a big company name regardless of location in URLs. A few know how to to correctly read subdomain URLs. We did this study on Amazon Mechanical Turk – so that’s a skewed sample of more technical people. And that URL understanding has huge problematic implications for phishing email.

We also tried http://twitter.com/facebook.com. Most people could tell that was Twitter (not Facebook). But if I used “@” instead of “/” people didn’t understand, thought it was an email…

On the topic of email… Can we trust the “from” field? No. Can we trust a “this email has been checked for viruses…” box? No. Can you trust the information on the source URL for a link in the email, that is shown in the bottom of the browser? Yes.

What about this email – a Security alert for your linked Google account email? Well this is legitimate… Because it’s coming from accounts.google.com. But you knew this was a trick question… Phishing is really tricky…

So, a shocking percentage of my students think that “from” address is legitimate… Tell your less informed friends how easily that can be spoofed…

What about Google. Does Google know what you type as you type it and before you hit enter? Yes, it does… Most search engines send text to their servers as you write it. Which means you can do fun studies on what people commonly DON’T post to Facebook!

A very common misconception is that opening web pages, emails, pdfs, and docs is like reading physical paper… So why do they need patching?

Lets look at an email example… I don’t typically get emails with “To protect your privacy, Thunderbird has blocked remote content in this message” from a student… This showed me that a 1 pixel invisible image had come with the email… which pinged the server if I opened it. I returned the email and said he had a virus. He said “no, I used to work in marketing and forgot that I had that plugin set up”.

Websites are made of many elements from many sources. Mainly dynamically… And there are loads of trackers across those sites. There is a tool called Lightbeam that will help you track the sites you go to on purpose, and all the other sites that track you. That’s obviously a privacy issue. But it is also a security problem. The previous speaker spoke about supply chains at Target, this is the web version of this… That supply chain gets huge when you visit, say, six websites.

So, a quiz question… I got to Yahoo, I hit reload… Am I running the same code as a moment ago… ? Well, it’s complicated… I had a student run a study on this… And how much changes… In a week about half of the top 200 sites had changed their javascript in a week. I see trackers change between individual reloads… But it might change, it might not…

So we as users you access a first party website, then they access third party sites… So they access ad servers and that sells that user, and ad is returned, with an image (sometimes with code). Maybe I bid to a company, that bids out again… This is huge as a supply chain and tracking issue…

So the Washington Post, for instance, covering the yahoo.com malware attack showed that malicious payloads were being delivered to around 300k users per hour, but only about 9% (27k) users per hour were affected – they were the ones that hadn’t updated their systems. How did that attack take place? Well rather than attack, they just brought an ad and ran malware code.

There is a tool called Ghostery… It’s brilliant and useful… But it’s run by the ad industry and all the trackers are set the wrong way. Untick those all and then it’s fascinating… They tell you about page load and all the components involved in loading a page…

To change topic…

Cookies! Yes, they can be used to track you across web sites. But they can’t give you malware as is. So… I will be tackling the misconception that cookies is evil… And I’m going to try to convince you otherwise. Tracking can be evil… But cookies is kind of an early example of privacy by design…

It is 1994. The internet cannot remember anyone between page loads. You have an interaction with a web server that has absolutely no memory. Cookies help something remember between page loads and web pages… Somehow a server has to know who you are… But back in 1994 you just open a page and look at it, that’s the interaction point…

But companies wanted shopping baskets, and memory between two page reloads. There is an obvious technical solution… You just give every browser a unique identifier… Great! The server remembers you. But the problem is a privacy issue across different servers… So, Netscape implemented cookies – small text strings the server could ask the browser to remember and give back to it later…

Cookies have some awesome properties: it is client visible; third party tracking is client visible too; it’s opt out (delete) option on a per-site basis; it’s only readable by the site that set it; and it allows for public discussion of tracking…

… Which is why Android/iOS both went with the unique ID option. And that’s how you can be tracked. As a design decision it’s very different…

Now to some of the research I work on… I believe in getting people to touch stuff, to interact with it… We can talk to each other, or mystify, but we need to actually have people understand this stuff. So we ran an outreach activity to build a website, create a cookie, and then read the cookie out… Then I give a second website… To let people try to understand how to change their names on one site, not the other… What happens when you view them in Incognito mode… And then exploring cookies across sites. And how that works…

Misconception: VPNs solve all privacy and security problems. Back at Indiana I taught students who couldn’t code… And that was interesting… They saw VPNs as magic fairy dust. And they had absorbed this idea that anyone can be hacked at any time… They got that… But that had resulted in “but what’s the point”. That worries me… In the general population we see media coverage of attacks on major companies… And the narrative that attacks are inevitable… So you end up with this problem…

So, I want to talk about encryption and why it’s broken and what that means by VPNs. I’m not an encryption specialist. I care about how it works for the user.

In encryption we want (1) communication between you and the other party is confidential and has not been changes, and no-one can read what you sent and no one can change what you sent; and (2) to know who we are talking about. And that second part is where things can be messed up. You can make what you think is the secure connection to the right person, but could be a secure connection to the wrong person – a man in the middle attack. A real world example… You go to a coffee shop and use wifi to request the BBC news site, but you get a wifi login page. That’s essentially a man in the middle attack. That’s not perhaps harmful, it’s normal operating procedure… VPNs basically work like this…

So, an example of what really happened to a student… I set up a page that just had them creating a very simple cookie page… I was expecting something simple… But one of them submitted a page with a bit of javascript… it is basically injecting code so if I connect to it, it will inject an ad to open in my VPN…. So in this case a student logged in to AnchorFree – magic fairy dust – and sees a website and injects code that is what I see when they submit the page in Blackboard Learn…

VPNs are not magic fairy dust. The University runs an excellent VPN – far better for coffee shops etc!

So, I like to end with some common advice:

  • Install anti virus scanner. Don’t turn off Windows 8+ automatically installed AV software… I ran a study where 50% of PhD students had switched off that software and firewalls…
  • Keep your software updated – best way to stay safe
  • Select strong passcode for important things you use all the time
  • For non-important stuff, use a password manager for less important things that you use rarely… Best to have different password between them…
  • Software I use:
    • Ad blockers – not just ads, reduce lots of extra content loading. The more websites you visit the more vulnerable you are
    • Ghostery and Privacy Badger
    • Lightbeam
    • Password Managers (LastPass, OnePassword and KeePass are most recommended
    • 2-factor like Yubikey – extra protection for e.g. Facebook.
    • If you are really serious: UMatrix and NoScript BUT it will break lots of pages…

Q&A

Q1) It’s hard to get an average citizen to do everything… How do you get around that and just get the key stuff across…

A1) Probably it’s that common advice. The security community has gotten better at looking at 10 key stuff. Google did a study with Blackhats Infosec conference about what they would do… And asked on Amazon Mechanical Turj about what they would recommend to friends. About the only common answer amongst blackhats was “update your software”. But actually there is overlap… People know they should change passwords, and should use AV software… But AV software didn’t show on the Blackhat list… But 2-factor and password managers did…

Q2) What do you think about passwords… long or complex or?

A2) We did a study maybe 8 years ago on mnemonic passwords… And found that “My name is Inigo Montoya, you killed my father, prepare to die” was by far the most common. The issue isn’t length… It’s entropy. I think we need to think server side about how many other users have used the same password (based on encrypted version), and you need something that less than 3 people use…

Q2) So more about inability to remember it…

A2) And it depends on threat type… If someone knows you, your dog, etc… Then it’s easier… But if I can pick a password for a long time I might invest in it – but if you force people to change passwords they have to remember it. There was a study that people using passwords a lot use some affirmations, such as “I love God”… And again, hard to know how you protect that.

Q3) What about magic semantic email links instead of passwords…

A3) There is some lovely work on just how much data is in your email… That’s a poor mans version of the OAuth idea of getting an identity provider to authenticate the user. It’s good for the user, but that is one bigger stake login then… And we see SMS also being a mixed bag and being subject to attack… Ask a user though… “there’s nothing important in my email”.

Q4) How do you deal with people saying “I don’t have anything to hide”?

A4) Well I start with it not being about hiding… It’s more, why do you want to know? When I went to go buy a car I didn’t dress like a professor, I dressed down… I wanted a good price… If I have a lot of time I will refer them to Daniel Salvo’s Nothing to Hide.

Talk by Nicola Osborne (EDINA) covering Digital Footprints and how you can take control of your online self

And that will be me… So keep an eye out for tweets from others on the event hashtag: #UoEInfoSec.

And with a very brief summing up from Alastair Fenemore, the day came to a close. Thanks to the lovely University Information Security team for organising this really interesting event (and inviting me to speak) as part of their awesome Information Security Awareness Week programme.

 October 4, 2017  Posted by at 3:06 pm digital footprint, Events Attended, LiveBlogs Tagged with: ,  No Responses »
Aug 032017
 

Today I am at Repository Fringe which runs today and tomorrow in Edinburgh and is celebrating 10 years of Repofringe! I’m just here today – presenting a 10×10 on our recent Reference Rot in Theses: A HiberActive Pilot project work – and will be blogging whilst I’m here. As usual, as this is live, may include the odd typo or error so all comments, corrections, questions, additions, etc. are very much welcomed!

Welcome – Janet Roberts, Director of EDINA

My colleagues were explaining to me that this event came from an idea from Les Carr that there should be not just one repository conference, but also a fringe – and here were are at the 10th Repository Fringe on the cusp of the Edinburgh Fringe.

So, this week we celebrate ten years of repository fringe, and the progress we have made over the last 10 years to share content beyond borders. It is a space for debating future trends and challenges.

At EDINA we established the OpenDepot to provide a space for those without an institutional repository… That has now migrated to Zenodo… and the challenges are changing, around the size of data, how we store and access that data, and what those next generation repositories will look like.

Over the next few days we have some excellent speakers as well as some fringe events, including the Wiki Datathon – so I hope you have all brought your laptops!

Thank you to our organising team from EDINA, DCC and the University of Edinburgh. Thank you also to our sponsors: Atmire; FigShare; Arkivum; ePrints; and Jisc!

Opening Keynote – Kathleen Shearer, Executive Director COARRaising our game – repositioning repositories as the foundation for sustainable scholarly communication

Theo Andrew: I am delighted to introduce Kathleen, who has been working in digital libraries and repositories for years. COAR is an international organisation of repositories, and I’m pleased to say that Edinburgh has been a member for some time.

Kathleen: Thank you so much for inviting me. It’s actually my first time speaking in the UK and it’s a little bit intimidating as I know that you folks are really ahead here.

COAR is now about 120 members. Our activities fall into four areas: presenting an international voice so that repositories are part of a global community with diverse perspective. We are being more active in training for repository managers, something which is especially important in developing countries. And the other area is value added services, which is where today’s talk on the repository of the future comes in. The vision here is about

But first, a rant… The international publishing system is broken! And it is broken for a number of reasons – there is access, and the cost of access. The cost of scholarly journals goes up far beyond the rate of inflation. That touches us in Canada – where I am based, in Germany, in the UK… But much more so in the developing world. And then we have the “Big Deal”. A study of University of Montreal libraries by Stephanie Gagnon found that of 50k subscribed-to journals, really there were only 5,893 unique essential titles. But often those deals aren’t opted out of as the key core journals separately cost the same as that big deal.

We also have a participation problem… Juan Pablo Alperin’s map of authors published in Web of Science shows a huge bias towards the US and the UK, a seriously reduced participation in Africa and parts of Asia. Why does that happen? The journals are operated from the global North, and don’t represent the kinds of research problems in the developing world. And one Nobel Prize winner notes that the pressure to publish in “luxury” journals encourages researchers to cut corners and pursue trendy fields rather than areas where there are those research gaps. That was the cake with Zika virus – you could hardly get research published on that until a major outbreak brought it to the attention of the dominant publishing cultures, then there was huge appetite to publish there.

Timothy Gowers talks about “perverse incentives” which are supporting the really high costs of journals. It’s not just a problem for researchers and how they publish, its also a problem of how we incentivise researchers to publish. So, this is my goats in trees slide… It doesn’t feel like goats should be in trees… Moroccan tree goats are taught to climb the trees when there isn’t food on the ground… I think of the researchers able to publish in these high end journals as being the lucky goats in the tree here…

In order to incentivise participation in high end journals we have created a lucrative publishing industry. I’m sure you’ve seen the recent Guardian article: “is the staggeringly profitable business of science publishing bad for science”. Yes. For those reasons of access and participation. We see very few publishers publishing the majority of titles, and there is a real

My colleague Leslie Chan, funded by the International Development Council, talked about openness not just being about gaining access to knowledge but also about having access to participate in the system.

On the positive side… Open access has arrived. A recent study (Piwowar et al 2017) found that about 45% of articles published in 2015 were open access. And that is increasing every year. And you have probably seen the May 27th 2016 statement from the EU that all research they fund must be open by 2020.

It hasn’t been a totally smooth transition… APCs (Article Processing Charges) are very much in the mix and part of the picture… Some publishers are trying to slow the growth of access, but they can see that it’s coming and want to retain their profit margins. And they want to move to all APCs. There is discussion here… There is a project called OA2020 which wants to flip from subscription based to open access publishing. It has some traction but there are concerns here, particularly about sustainability of scholarly comms in the long term. And we are not syre that publishers will go for it… Particularly one of them (Elsevier) which exited talks in The Netherlands and Germany. In Germany the tap was turned off for a while for Elsevier – and there wasn’t a big uproar from the community! But the tap has been turned back on…

So, what will the future be around open access? If you look across APCs and the average value… If you think about the relative value of journals, especially the value of high end journals… I don’t think we’ll see lesser increases in APCs in the future.

At COAR we have a different vision…

Lorcan Dempsey talked about the idea of the “inside out” library. Similarly a new MIT Future of Libraries Report – published by a broad stakeholder group that had spent 6 months working on a vision – came up with the need for libraries to be open, trusted, durable, interdisciplinary, interoperable content platform. So, like the inside out library, it’s about collecting the output of your organisation and making is available to the world…

So, for me, if we collect articles… We just perpetuate the system and we are not in a position to change the system. So how do we move forward at the same time as being kind of reliant on that system.

Eloy Rodrigues, at Open Repository earlier this year, asked whether repositories are a success story. They are ubiquitous, they are adopted and networked… But then they are also using old, pre-web technologies; mostly passive recipients; limited interoperability making value added systems hard; and not really embedded in researcher workflows. These are the kinds of challenges we need to address in next generation of repositories…

So we started a working group on Next Generation Repositories to define new technologies for repositories. We want to position repositories as the foundation for a distributed, globally networked infrastructure for scholarly communication. And on top of which we want to be able to add layers of value added services. Our principles include distributed control to guard againts failure, change, etc. We want this to be inclusive, and reflecting the needs of the research communities in the global south. We want intelligent openness – we know not everything can be open.

We also have some design assumptions, with a focus on the resources themselves, not just associated metadata. We want to be pragmatic, and make use of technologies we have…

To date we have identified major use cases and user stories, and shared those. We determined functionality and behaviours; and a conceptual models. At the moment we are defining specific technologies and architectures. We will publish recommendations in September 2017. We then need to promote it widely and encourages adoption and implementation, as well as the upgrade of repositories around the world (a big challenge).

You can view our user stories online. But I’d like to talk about a few of these… We would like to enable peer review on top of repositories… To slowly incrementally replace what researchers do. That’s not building peer review in repositories, but as a layer on top. We also want some social functionalities like recommendations. And we’d like standard usage metrics across the world to understand what is used and hw.. We are looking to the UK and the IRUS project there as that has already been looked at here. We also need to address discovery… Right now we use metadata, rather than indexing full text content… So contat can be hard to get to unless the metadata is obvious. We also need data syncing in hubs, indexing systems, etc. reflect changes in the repositories. And we also want to address preservation – that’s a really important role that we should do well, and it’s something that can set us apart from the publishers – preservation is not part of their business model.

So, this is a slide from Peter Knoth at CORE – a repository aggregator – who talks about expanding the repository, and the potential to layer all of these additional services on top.

To make this happen we need to improve the functionality of repositories: to be of and not just on the web. But we also need to step out of the article paradigm… The whole system is set up around the article, but we need to think beyond that, deposit other content, and ensure those research outputs are appropriately recognised.

So, we have our (draft) conceptual model… It isn’t around siloed individual repositories, but around a whole network. And some of our draft recommendations for technologies for next generation repositories. These are a really early view… These are things like: ResourceSync; Signposting; Messaging protocols; Message queue; IIIF presentation API; AOAuth; Webmention; and more…

Critical to the widespread adoption of this process is the widespread adoption of the behaviours and functionalities for next generation repositories. It won’t be a success if only one software or approach takes these on. So I’d like to quote a Scottish industrialist, Andrew Carnegie: “strength is derived from unity…. “. So we need to coalesce around a common vision.

Ad it isn’t just about a common vision, science is global and networked and our approach has to reflect and connect with that. Repositories need to balance a dual mission to (1) showcase and provide access to institutional research and (2) be nodes in a global research network.

To support better networking in repositories and in Venice, in May we signed an International Accord for Repository Networks, with networks from Australasia, Canada, China, Europe, Japan, Latin America, South Africa, United States. For us there is a question about how best we work with the UK internationally. We work with with OpenAIRE but maybe we need something else as well. The networks across those areas are advancing at different paces, but have committed to move forward.

There are three areas of that international accord:

  1. Strategic coordination – to have a shared vision and a stronger voice for the repository community
  2. Interoperability and common “behaviours” for repositories – supporting the development of value added services
  3. Data exchange and cross regional harvesting – to ensure redundancy and preservation. This has started but there is a lot to do here still, especially as we move to harvesting full text, not just metadata. And there is interest in redundancy for preservation reasons.

So we need to develop the case for a distributed community-managed infrastructure, that will better support the needs of diverse regions, disciplines and languages. Redundancy will safeguard against failure. With less risk of commercial buy out. Places the library at the centre… But… I appreciate it is much harder to sell a distributed system… We need branding that really attracts researchers to take part and engage in †he system…

And one of the things we want to avoid… Yesterday it was announced that Elsevier has acquired bepress. bepress is mainly used in the US and there will be much thinking about the implications for their repositories. So not only should institutional repositories be distributed, but they should be different platforms, and different open source platforms…

Concluding thoughts here… Repositories are a technology and technologies change. What its really promoting is a vision in which institutions, universities and their libraries are the foundational nodes in a global scholarly communication system. This is really the future of libraries in the scholarly communication community. This is what libraries should be doing. This is what our values represent.

And this is urgent. We see Elsevier consolidating, buying platforms, trying to control publishers and the research cycle, we really have to move forward and move quickly. I hope the UK will remain engaged with this. And i look forward to your participation in our ongoing dialogue.

Q&A

Q1 – Les Carr) I was very struck by that comment about the need to balance the local and the global I think that’s a really major opportunity for my university. Everyone is obsessed about their place in the global university ranking, their representation as a global university. This could be a real opportunity, led by our libraries and knowledge assets, and I’m really excited about that!

A1) I think the challenge around that is trying to support common values… If you are competing with other institutions it’s not always an incentive to adopt systems with common technologies, measures, approaches. So there needs to be a benefit for institutions in joining this network. It is a huge opportunity, but we have to show the value of joining that network It’s maybe easier in the UK, Europe, Canada. In the US they don’t see that value as much… They are not used to collaborating in this way and have been one of the hardest regions to bring onboard.

Q2 – Adam Field) Correct me if I’m wrong… You are talking about a Commons… In some way the benefits are watered down as part of the Commons, so how do we pay for this system, how do we make this benefit the organisation?

A2) That’s where I see that challenge of the benefit. There has to be value… That’s where value added systems come in… So a recommender system is much more valuable if it crosses all of the repositories… That is a benefit and allows you to access more material and for more people to access yours. I know CORE at the OU are already building a recommender system in their own aggregated platform.

Q3 – Anna Clements) At the sharp end this is not a problem for libraries, but a problem for academia… If we are seen as librarians doing things to or for academics that won’t have as much traction… How do we engage academia…

A3) There are researchers keen to move to open access… But it’s hard to represent what we want to do at a global level when many researchers are focused on that one journal or area and making that open access… I’m not sure what the elevator pitch should be here. I think if we can get to that usage statistics data there, that will help… If we can build an alternative system that even research administrators can use in place of impact factor or Web of Science, that might move us forward in terms of showing this approach has value. Administrators are still stuck in having to evaluate the quality of research based on journals and impact factors. This stuff won’t happen in a day. But having standardised measures across repositories will help.

So, one thing we’ve done in Canada with the U15 (top 15 universities in Canada)… They are at the top of what they can do in terms of the cost of scholarly journals so they asked us to produce a paper for them on how to address that… I think that issue of cost could be an opportunity…

Q4) I’m an academic and we are looking for services that make our life better… Here at Edinburgh we can see that libraries are the naturally the consistent point of connection with repository. Does that translate globally?

A4) It varies globally. Libraries are fairly well recognised in Western countries. In developing world there are funding and capacity challenges that makes that harder… There is also a question of whether we need repositories for every library.. Can we do more consortia repositories or similar.

Q5 – Chris) You talked about repository supporting all kinds of materials… And how they can “wag the dog” of the article

A5) I think with research data there is so much momentum there around making data available… But I don’t know how well we are set up with research data management to ensure data can be found and reused. We need to improve the technology in repositories. And we need more resources too…

Q6) Can we do more to encourage academics, researchers, students to reuse data and content as part of their practice?

A6) I think the more content we have at Commons level, the more it can be reused. We have to improve discoverability, and improve the functionality to help that content to be reused… There is huge use of machine reuse of content – I was speaking with Peter Knoth about this – but that isn’t easy to do with repositories…

Theo) It would be really useful to see Open Access buttons more visible, using repositories for document delivery, etc.

Chris Banks, Director of Library Services, Imperial CollegeFocusing upstream: supporting scholarly communication by academics

Gavin MacLachlan: I’d just like to welcome you again to Edinburgh, our beautiful city and our always lovely weather (note for remote followers: it’s dreich and raining!). I’m here to introduce Chris, whose work with LIBER and LERU will be well known to you.

Chris: This is my first fringe and I find it quite terrifying that I’m second up! Now, I’m going to go right back to basics and policy…

The Finch report in 2012 and Research Councils UK: we had RCUK policy; funding available for immediate Gold OA (including hybrid); embargo limits apply where Green OA chosen. Nevertheless the transition across the world is likely to take a number of years. For my money we’ve moved well on repositories, partly as the UK has gone it alone in terms of funding that transition process.

In terms of REF we had the Funding council REF policy (2013) which is applicable to all outputs that are to be submitted to the post 2014 REF exercise – effectively covers all researchers. No additional funding available Where Green OA selected, requirement for use of repositories. There were also two paragraphs (15 and 26) shaping what we have been doing…

That institutions are encouraged to go beyond the minimum (and will receive credit for doing so) – and the visibility of that is where we see the rise of University presses. And the statement that repositories do not need to be accessible for reuse and text mining, but that, again, there will be credit for those that are. Those two paragraphs have driven what we’ve been doing at Imperial.

At the moment UK researchers face the “policy stack” challenge. There are many funder policies; the REF policy differs substantially from other policies and applies to all UK research academics – you can comply with RCUK policy and fall foul of REF; many publisher policies…

So how can the REF policy help? Institutions recognise IP, copyright and open access policies are not necessarily supporting funder compliance – something needs to be done. There is a variety of approaches to academic IP observed in UK institutions. Legally in the UK the employer is the first copyright holder… subject to any other agreements and unless the individual is a contractors etc.

Publishers have varying approaches to copyright, licence to first publish, to outright copyright transfer. Licences are not read to academics. It’s not just in publishing… It’s social media… It’s a big problem.

For the library we want to create frictionless services. We need to upscale services to all researchers – REF policy requirements. We can’t easily give an answer to researchers on their OA options. So we started our work at imperial to address this, and to ensure our own organisational policy aligned with funder policies. We also wanted to preserve academic choice over publishing, and ability to sign away rights when necessary (though encouraging scrutiny of licenses). We have a desire to maximise impact of publication. And there is a desire to retain some re-use rights for us in teaching etc, including rights to diagrams etc.

The options we explored with academics was to do as we do at the moment – with academics signing over copyright, through to the institution claiming all copyright on all academic outputs. And we wanted to look at two existing models in between, the SPARC model (academic signed copyright over to publisher but licenses back); and the Harvard model – which we selected.

The Harvard model is implemented as part of the university OA policy. Academic deposits Author Accepted Manuscipts (AAMs) and grant a non-exclusive licence to the university for all journal articles. It is a well established policy and has been in use (elsewhere) since 2008. Where a journal seeks a waiver that can be managed by exception. And this is well tested in Ivy League colleges but also much more widely, including universities in Kenya.

The benefits here is that academia retains rights, authors have the right to make articles open access – open access articles have higher citations than closed ones. Authors can continue to publish in journal or choice irrespective of whether it allows ope access or not. Single means by which authors can comply with green open access policies. We are minimising reliance on hybrid open access – reducing “double dipping”, paying twice through subscriptions and APC – a complex and costly process. I think we and publishers see money for hybrid OA models drying up in the future, as the UK has pretty much been the one place doing that. Instead funding is typically used for pure gold OA models and publications.

We have mae some changes to the Harvard model policy to make it work in the context of UK law, also to ensure it facilitated funder deposit compliance and REF eligibility. The next step here is that 60 institutions overall are interested and we have a first mover group of around 12 institutions. We are discussing with publishers. And we have had wider engagement with the researcher, library, research office and legal office communities. We have a website and advocacy materials under development. We are also drafting boilerplate texts for authors, collaboration agreements etc. especially for large international collaborative projects. We have a steering committee established and that includes representatives from across institutions, and including a publisher.

At the moment we are addressing some publisher concerns and perceptions. Publishers are taking a very particular approach to us. We have a real range of responses. Some are very positive – including the pure gold (e.g. PLoS) and also learned society (e.g. Royal Society). Other publishers have raised concerns and are in touch with the steering group, and with ASPLP.

Summary of current concerns:

  • that it goes beyond requirements of Finch. We have stated that UK-SCL is to support REF and other
  • AAMs will be made available on publication. Response: yes, as per Harvard model around since 2008
  • Administrative burden on UK author/institutions as publishers would have to ask for waivers in 70-80%. We have responded that in other Harvard using experiences it has been less than 5% and we can’t see why UK authors would be treated differently.
  • They noted that only 8% of material submitted to the REF were green OA compliant. We have noted that only 8% submitted were green OA, not 8% of all eligible for submission.

Researchers have also raised concerns

  • the need to seek agreement from co-authors, especially in collaborations. Can be addressed through a phased/gradual implementation
  • Fear that a publisher will refuse to publish. Institutions using Harvard model repot no instances of this happening
  • Learned Societies – fear loss of income. No reliable research evidence to back up this fear.
  • Don’t like the CC-BY-ND Licence. That is to comply with RCUK but warrants further discussion.

Our next step is further meeting with PA/ALPSP to take place during the summer. We have encouraged proposals to delivery more than simply minimum REF eligibility which would resolve current funder/publisher policy stack complexity. We will finalise the website, waiver system, advocacy materials and boilerplate texts. To gain agreement on early mover institutions and on the dat of first adoption. And to notify publishers.

Another bit of late breaking news… Publishers recently went to HEFCE to ask about policy statements and, as a result of that, HEFCE will be clarifying that it is pushing for minimum compliance and encouraging more than that. One concern of the REF policy had been that only material submitted to the REF would have been deposited…

Last time my institution submitted 5k items, more than half were not monographs. We submitted 95% of our researchers. Out of that four items were looked at, now would be 2. And from that our funding is decided. And you can see, from that, why that bigger encouragement for the open scholarly ecosystem is so important.

I wanted to close by sharing some useful further materials and to credit others who have been part of this work.

One important thing to note is that we are trying to help researchers and university to comply as policies from funders and publishers evolve. I would like to see that result in discussion with publishers, and a move to all gold OA…  The AAMs is not the goal here, it’s the published article. Now that could see the end of repositories – something I am cautious of raising with this audience. Now in the

Q&A

Q1) The elephant in the room here is Sci Hub… They are making 95% of published content available for free. You have AAMCs out there… And we haven’t seen subscriptions drop.

A1) So our initiative is about legal sharing. And also need to note that the UK is just one scholarly community. And others have not moved towards mandates and funding. I think it is a shame that fights have been picked is with institutions, when we have that elephant in the room…

Q2) Congratulations on the complex and intricate discussions you have been holding… Almost a legal game of Twister, where all the participants hate each other! This ia particular negotiation at the end of a process, at the end of the scholarly publishing change. How might you like your experience to feed into training of researchers and their own understanding of copyright, ownership of their own outputs.

A2) The challenge that we observe is that we have many younger researches and authors who are very passionate and ethically minded about openness. They are under pressure from supervisors who say they will not get tenured position if they don’t have a “good” journal on heir cv. And they are frustrated by the slow movement on the San Francisco research assessment declaration. Right now the quality journals remain those subscription high impact journals. But we have research showing the higher use of open access journals. But we still have that debate within academe that is slowing down that environment. But training researchers about their IP and what copyright. I also think it is interesting that Sir Mark Walpock in charge of UKRI as he has written before about the evolving scholarly record, and the scattering of articles and outputs, instead building online around research projects. He gave a talk at LIBER in 2015, and an article for THE. He was also at Wellcome when they first introduced their mandate so I think we really do have someone who understands that complexity and the importance of openness.

10×10 presentations (Chair: Ianthe Sutherland, University Library & Collections)

  1. v2.juliet – A Model For SHERPA’s Mid-Term Infrastructure. Adam Field, Jisc

I’m here from SHERPA HQ at Jisc! I’m going to go back to 2006… We saw YouTube celebrating it’s first year… Eight out of Ten Cats began… The Nintendo WII appeared… And… SHERPA/JULIET was launched (SHERPA having been around in 2001). So, when we set up Sherpa REF as a beta service in 2016 we had to build something new, as JULIET hadn’t been set up for APIs and interoperability in that kind of way.

So, we set about a new SHERPA/JULIET based around a pragmatic, functional data model; to move data into a platform; to rebrand to Jisc norms; a like-for-like replacement; and a precedent for our other services as we update them all..

So, a quick demo… We now have the list of funders – as before – include an overview of open access. So if we choose Cancer Research UK… You can see the full metadata record, headings for more information. Can see which groups it is part of… We have a nice open API where you can retrieve information.

So, whilst it was a like for like rebuild we have snuck in new features, including FundRef DOIs – added automatically where possible, will be added to with manual input too. More flexible browsing. And a JSON API – really easy to work with. And in the future we’d like funders able to add to their own records and other usefu l3rd party editorial features. We want to integrate ElasticSearch. And we want to add microservices…

In terms of our process here… The hard part was analying the existing data, structuring it into a more appropriate shape… the next part was much easier… We configured EPrints, imported data, and added some bespoke service requirements.

Right now we have a beta of SHERPA/JULIET. All take a look please! We are now working on OpenDOAR. And then SHERPA/ROMEO is expected to be in early 2018.

We now want your feedback! Email sherpa@jisc.ac.uk with your comments and feedback. We’ll have feedback sessions later today that you can join us for and share your thoughts, ask questions about the API. And myself and Tom Davey our user interface person, are here all day – come find us!

  1. CORE Recommender: a plug in suggesting open access content. Nancy Pontika, CORE

I want to talk about discoverability of content in repositories… Salo 2008, Konkiel 2012 and Acharya 2017 talk about the challenges of discoverability in repositories. So, what is needed? Well, we need recommender systems in repositories so that we can increase the number of incoming links to relevant resources…

For those of you new to repositories, CORE is an aggregation service, we are global and focused we have started harvesting gold OA journals… We have services at various levels, including for text mining and data science. We have a huge collection of 8 million full text articles,  77 million metadata records… They are all in one place… So we can build a good recommendation system.

What effect can we have? Well it will increase the accessibility meaning more engagement, higher Click-Through Rate (CTR); twice as often people access resources on CORE via its recommender system than via search. And that additional engagement increases the time spent in your repositories – which is good for you. And you can open another way to find research…

For instance you can see within White Rose Research Online that suggested articles are presented that come from all of the collections of CORE, including basic geographic information… We would like crowd sourced feedback here. The more users that engage in feedback, the more the recommender will improve. We also get feedback from our community. At the moment the first tab is CORE recommendations, the second tab is institutional recommendations. We’ve had feedback that institutions would prefer it th eother way… We have heard that… Although we note that CORE recommendations are better as its a bigger data set…. We want to make sure the institutional tab appears first unless there are few recommendations/poor matches… We are working on this…

CORE Recommender has been installed at St Mary’s; LSHTM; the OU; University of York; University of Sheffield; York St John; Strathclyde University… and others with more to follow.

How does it work? Currently it’s an article-to-article recommender system. There is preprocessing to make this possible. What is unique is that recommendations is based on full text, and the full text is open access.

What is the CORE recommender not? It is not always right – but which recommendation system is? And it does not compare the “quality” of the recommended articles with the “quality” of the initial paper…

  1. Enhancing Two workflows with RSpace & Figshare: Active Data to Archival Data and Research to Publication. Rory Macneil, Research Space and Megan Hardeman of Figshare

Rory: Most of the discussion so far has been on publications, but we are talking about data. I think it’s fair to say that FigShare in the data field; and RSpace in the Lab notebooks world have been totally fixated on interoperability!

Right now most data does not make it into repositories… Some shouldn’t be but even the data that should be shared, is not. One way to increase deposit is to make it easy to deposit data. By integrating with RSpace notebooks that allows easy and quick deposit.

So, in RSPace you can capture metadata of various types. There are lots of ways to organise the data… And to use that you just need to activate the FigShare plugin. Then you select the data to deposit – exporting one or many documents… You select what you want to deposit, and the format to deposit in. You can export all of your work, or all of your lab’s work – whatever level of granularity you want to share… You deposit to Figshare… And over to Megan!

Megan: Figshare is a repository where users can male all of their research outputs availale in citable, accessible ways (all marked up for Google Scholar). You upload any file type (we support over 1000 types); we assign a DOI on an item level’ Store items in perpetuity (and backed up in DPN); track usage stats and Altmetrics (more exposure) and you can collaborate with researchers inside and outside your institutions.

figshare has na open API and integrations with RSpace nad other organizations and tools…

For an example… You can see an electronic lab notebook from RSpace which can be browsed and explored in the browser!

  1. Thesis digitisation project. Gavin Willshaw, University of Edinburgh

I’m digital curator here, and manager of the PhD digitisation project. This project sees a huge amount of content going into ERA, our repository. In the last three years we’ve moved from having two photographers to having two teams of photographers and cataloguers across two sites – we are investing heavily.

We have 17,000 PhD theses and that will all be online by the end of 2018. This will provide global access to entire PhD collection. We have obtained some equipment. We are creating metadata records, and also undertaking some preservation work where thre required.

The collection is largely standardised… But we have some latin and handwritten theses. We have awkward objects – like slices of lungs!

For 10k theses we have duplicates and they are scanned destructively. 3000 unique these are scanned non-destructively in house. And 40000 unique these outsourced. All are OCRed. And they are all catalogued, with data protection checks made before determining what can be shared online in full and which cannot.

In terms of copyright and licensing, that is still with the author. We have contacted some and had positive feedback. It’s a risk but a low risk. In any case we can’t asset the copyright or change licences on our own. And we already have over 2500 theses live.

And these theses are not just text… We have images that are rare and unusual. We share some of these highlights in our blog: https://libraryblogs.is.ed.ac.uk/phddigitisation/ and we use, on Twitter, the hashtag #UoEPhD. We have some notable theses… Alexander Macall Smith’s PhD is there; Isabelle Elmsley Hutton, a doctor in the first world war in the Balkans – so noted she was on a stamp in Serbia last year; Helen Pankhurts; and of course members of staff from the university too!

Impact wise the theses on ERA have been downloaded 2 million times since 2012. Those digitised in the project are seeing around 3000 downloads per month. Oddly our most popular thesis right now is on the differentiation of people in Norwich. We are also looking at what else we can d… Linking theses to Wikipedia; adding a thesis to Wikisource (and getting 10x the views); and now looking at what else… text and data mining etc.

  1. Weather Cloudy & Cool Harvest Begun’: St Andrews output usage beyond the repository. Michael Bryce, University of St Andrews

I didn’t expect it to actually be cloudy today…!

Our repository has been going since 2006, and use has been growing steadily…

Some of the highlights fro our repository has included research on New Caledonian crows and collaborative tool use. We also have farming diaries in our repository under Creative Commons license… Pushing that out into the community in blog posts and posters… So going beyond traditional publications and use. Our material on Syria has seen significant usage driven partly by use in OJS journals.

Our repository isn’t currently OpenAIRE compliant, but we have some content shared that way, which means a bigger audience… For instance material on virtual learning environments associated with a big EU project.

We’ve also been engaging in publishing engagement. The BBC asked us to digitise a thesis at the time of broadcasting Coast which added that work to our repository.

When we reached our 10,000th item we had cake! And helped publicise the student and their work to a wider audience…

Impact and the REF panel session

Brief for this session: How are institutions preparing for the next round of the Research Excellence Framework #REF2021, and how do repositories feature in this? What lessons can we learn from the last REF and what changes to impact might we expect in 2021? How can we improve our repositories and associated services to support researchers to achieve and measure impact with a view to the REF? In anticipation of the forthcoming announcement by HEFCE later this year of the details of how #REF2021 will work, and how impact will be measured, our panel will discuss all these issues and answer questions from RepoFringers.

Chair: Keith McDonald (KM), Assistant Director, Research and Innovation Directorate, Scottish Funding Council

The panel here include Pauline Jones, REF Manager at University of Edinburgh, and a veteran of the two previous REFs – she was at Napier University in 2008, and was working at the SFC (where I work) for the previous REF and was involved in the introduction of Impact.

Catriona Firth (CF), REF Deputy Manager, HEFCE

I used to work in universities, now I am a poacher-turned-gamekeeper I suppose!

Today I want to talk about Impact in REF 2014. Impact was introduced and assessed for the first time in REF 2014. After extensive consultation Impact was defined in an inclusive way. So, for REF 2014, impact was assessed in four-page case studies describing impacts that had occurred between January 2008 and July 2013. The submitting university must have produced high quality research since 1993 that contributed to the impacts. Each submitting unit (usually subject area) returned one case study, plus an additional case study for every 10 staff.

At the end of the REF 2014 we had 6,975 case studies submitted. On average across submissions 44% of impacts were judged outstanding (4*) by over 250 external users of research, working jointly with the academic panel. There was global spread of impact, and those impacts were across a wealth of areas of life policy, performance and creative practice, etc. There was, for instance, a case study of drama and performance that had an impact on nuclear technology. The HEFCE report on impact is highly recommended reading.

In November 2015 Lord NicholasStern was commissioned by the Minister of Universities and Science to conduct an independent review of the REF. He found that the exercise was excellent, and had achieved what was desired. However there were recommendations for improvement:

  • lowering the burden on institutions
  • less game-playing and use of loop holes
  • less personalisation, more institutionally focused – to take pressure off institutions but also recognise and reward institutional investment in research
  • recognition for investment
  • more rounded view of research activity – again avoiding distortion
  • interdisciplinary emphasis – some work could
  • broaden impact – and find ways to capture, reward, and promote the ways UK research has a benefit on and impacts society.

If you go to the HEFCE website you’ll see a video of a webinar on the Stern Review and specifically on staff and outputs, including that all research active staff should be included, that outputs be determined at assessment level, and that outputs should not be portable.

In terms of impact there was keenness to broaden and deepen the definition of impact and provide additional guidance. Policy was a safer kind of case studies before. The Stern Review emphasised a need for more focus on public engagement and impact on curricula and/or pedagogy. Reduce the number of required case studies to a minimum of one. And to include impact arising from research, research activity, or a “body of work”.  And having a quality threshold for underpinning research based on rigour – not just originality. And the opportunity to resubmit case studies if the impact was ongoing.

We have been receiving feedback – over 400 responses – which are being summarised. That feedback includes positive feedback on broadening impact and to aligning definitions of impact and on public engagement across funding bodies. There were some concerns about sub-profile based on one case study – especially in small departments. And in those case you’d know exactly whose work and case study was 4* (or not). There have been concerns about how you separate rigour from originality and significance. There was a lot of support for broader basis of research, but challenges in drawing boundaries in practice – in terms of timing and how far back you go… For scholarly career assessment do you go back further? And there was broad support for resubmission of 2014 case studies but questions about “additionality” – could it be the same sort of impact or did it need to be something new or additional? So, we are working on those questions at the moment.

The other suggestion from the Stern Review was the idea of an institutional level assessment of impact, giving universities opportunities to show case studies that didn’t fall neatly elsewhere. Th ecase studies arising from multi and interdisciplinary and collaborative work, and that that should be 10-20% of total ipact case studies; minimum of one. But feedback has been unclear here, particularly the conflation of interdisciplinary research with institutional profiles. Concern also that the University might take over a case study that would otherwise sit in another unit.

So, the next step is communications in summer/autumn 2017. There will be a REF initial decisions document. A summary of consultation responses. And there will be sharing of full consultation responses (with permission).  And there will be a launch for our REF 2021 website and Twitter account.

Anne-Sofie Laegran (ASL), Knowledge Exchange Manager, College of Arts, Humanities and Social Sciences, University of Edinburgh

KM: Is resubmission better for some areas than others?

ASL: I think it depends on what you mean by resubmission.. We have some good case studies arising from the same research as in 2014, but they are different impacts.

So.. I will give you a view from the trenches. To start I draw your attention to the University strapline that we have been “Influencing the world since 1583”. But we have to demonstrate and evidence that of course.

There has been impact of impact in academia… When I started in 2008 it was about having conversations about the importance of having an impact, and now it is much more about how you do this. There has been a culture change – all academic staff must consider th epotential impact of research. The challenge is not only to create impact but also to demonstrate impact. There is also an incentive to show ipact – it is part of career progression, it is part of recruitment, and it is part of promotion.

Impact of impact in academia has also been about training – how to develop pathways as well as how to capture and evidence impact. And there has been more support – expert staff as well as funding from funders and from the university.

In terms of developing pathways to impact we have borrowed questions that funders ask:

  • who may benefit from your researh?
  • what might th ebenefts ve?
  • what can you do to ensure potential beneficiaries and decision makers have th eopportunity to engage and benefit

And it is also – especially when capturing impact – about developing new skills and networks.

For instance… If you want to impact the NHS, who makes decisions, makes changes… If you are working with museums and galleries the decision makers will vary depending on where you can find that influence. And, for instance, you rarely partner with the Scottish Government, but you may influence NGOs who then influence Scottish Government.

Whatever the impact it starts from excellent research; which leads to knowledge exchange – public engagement, influencing policy, informing professional practice and service deliver, technology transfer; and that results in impact. You don’t “do” impact, your work is used and influences that then effects a change and an impact.

REF impact challenges include demonstrating change/benefit as opposed to reporting engagement activity. Attributing that change to research. And providing robust evidence. In 2014 that was particularly tricky as the guidance was in 2012 so people had to dig back… That should be less of an issue now, we’ve been collecting evidence along the way…

Some cases that we think did well, and/or had feedback were doing well:

  • College of art scholar, who has a dual appointment at the National Galleries of Scotland. She curated the Impressionism Scotland show with over 100k visitors. There was good feedback that also generated debate. It had a change on how th egallery curates shows. And on the market the works displayed went up in value – it had a real economic impact.
  • In law two researchers have been undertaking longitudinal work on young people, their lives, careers, and criminal careers. That is funded by Scottish Government. That research led to a new piece of policy based on the findings of that research. And there was a quote from Scottish Government showing a decline in youth crime, attributing that to the policy change, and which was based on research – showing that clear line of impact.
  • In sociology, a researcher wrote about the impact of research on the financial crisis for the London Review of Books, it was well received and he was named one of the most influential thinkers on the crisis; his work was translated to French; it was picked up in parliament; and Stephanie Flanders – then BBC economics editor – tweeted that this work was the most important on the financial crisis.
  • In music, researchers developed the Skoog, an instrument for disabled students to engage in music. They set up a company, they had investment. At the the time of the REF they had 6 employees, they were selling to organisations – so reaching many people. And in the cultural olympiad during the Olympics in 2012 they were also used, showing that wider impact.

So for each of these you can see there was both activity, and impact here.

In terms of RepoFringe areas I was asked to talk about the role of repositories and open access. It is potentially important. But typically we don’t see impact coming from the scholarly publication, it’s usually the activities coming from the research or from that publication. Making work open access certainly isn’t enough to just trigger impact.

Social media can be important but it needs to have high level of engagement, reach and/or significance to demonstrate more than mere dissemination. That Stephanie Flanders example wouldn’t be enough on it’s own, it works as part of demonstrating another impact, and a good way to track impact, to understand your audience… And to follow up and see what happened next…

Metrics – there is no doubt that numeric evidence was important. Our head of research said last time “numbers speak louder than adjectives” but they have to be relevant and useful. You need context. Standardised metrics/Altmetrics doesn’t work – a big report recently concluded the same. Altmetrics is about alternative metrics that can be tracked online, using DOI. A company called Altmetrics gathers that data, can be useful to track… And can be manipulated by friends with big Twitter followers.. It won’t replace case studies, but may be useful for tracking…

In terms of importance of impact… It relates to 20% of REF score; determined 26% of the funding in Scotland. Funding attracted per annum for the next 7 years:

  • 4* case study brings in £45-120k
  • 3* £9-25k
  • 2* £0
  • 4* output, for comparison, is work £7-15k…

The question that does come up is “what is impact” and yes, a single Tweet could be impact that someone has read and engaged with your work… But those big impact case studies are about making a real change and a range of impacts.

Pauline Jones (PJ), REF Manager and Head of Strategic Performance and Research Policy, University of Edinburgh

Thank you to Catriona and Anne-Sofie for introducing impact. I wanted to reinforce the idea that this is what we are doing anyway, making an impact on society, so it is important anyway, not only because of the REF.

Catriona suggested we had a “year off” but actually once REF happened we went into an intense period of evaluation and reflection, then of course the Stern review, consultation, general election… It has been quite non-stop. But actually even if that wasn’t all going on, we’d need our academics to be aware of the REF and of open access. I think open access is incredibly important, people are looking for it… Research is publicly funded… But it has required a lot of work to get up and running.

Although we are roughly at mid point between REFs, we are up and running, gathering impact, preparing to emphasise our impact. In terms of collecting evidence, depositing papers… That will happen in most universities. I think many will be doing the sort of Mock REFs/REF readiness exercises that we have been undertaking. We are also already thinking about drafting our case studies. As we get nearer to submission we’ll take decisions on inclusion… and getting everything ready.

So for REF 2021 we have a long time period over which submission is prepared. There is no period over which outputs, impacts, environment don’t count. Academics thinking now about what to include: 2017 REF readiness exercise to focus on open access and numbers; 2018 Mock REF to focus on quality. And we all have to have a CRIS system now to make that work.

What’s new here? We are still waiting for the draft to understand what’s happening. There are open access journal articles/conference proceedings. There are probably the challenges of submitting all research staff; decoupling the one-to-four staff-to-outputs ratio. That break is quite a good thing… Some researchers might struggle to create four key outputs – part time staff, staff with maternity leave, etc. But we want a sense of what that looks like from our mock/readiness work. That non-portability requirement seems useful and desirable, but speaking personally I think the researcher invests a lot – not just an institution – making that complex. Taking all those together I’m not sure the Stern idea of less complexity or burden here, not alongside those changes.

And then we have the institutional impact case studies – we had a number of interdisciplinary examples of work, so we are comfortable with that possibility. institutional environment is largely shared so doing that once for the whole university could be a really helpful reduction in work load. And each new element will have implications for how CRIS systems support REF submissions.

And as we prepare for REF 2021 we also have to look to REF 2028. We think open data will be important given the Concordat on Open Data Research (signed by HEFCE; RCUK; Universities UK; Wellcome) so we can get ready now, ready for when that happens. I’m pretty confident that open access monographs will be part of the next REF (following Monographs and Open Access HEFCE report). Then there is institutional impact – may not happen here but may be back. And then there are metrics. We have The Metric Tide: Report of the Independent Review of the Role of Metrics in Research Assessment Management.

IN terms of responsible metrics,we haven’t heard the last of them… Forum for responsible metrics’ Data and metrics to support decisions, not the sole driver; but the conversation will not end with th e metric tide. Metrics are alluring but to date they have’t worked well versus other types of evidence.

SO, how do we prepare?

  • For REF 2021 we need to be agile, support research managers to help academics deposit work, we have to help us lobby CROS system designers to have fit-for-purpose systems.
  • For REF 2028 we have to understand the benefits and challenges of making more research open
  • Be part of the conversation on responsible metrics – any bibliometrics experts in the room will stay busy.
  • And we want to have interoperability in systems…

Q&A/Discussion

Q1) How can we do something useful in terms of impact for case studies as our repository remit expands to different materials, different levels of openness, etc.

A1 – ASL) I think being easily accessible on Univesity websites, making them findable… Then also perhaps improved search functionality, and some way to categorise what comes out… If creating things other than peer reviewed publications – what is this? type information. I might have been too negative about repositories because historically our data wasn’t in those… I think actually sciences find that even more important…

Q1) For collecting evidence?

A1 – ASL) Yes. for collecting… Some have metrics that help us see how those impact have worked.

A1 – PJ) We’ve been talking about how best to use our CRIS to improve join up and understand those impacts…

A1 – CF) I think it’s also about getting that rounded view of the researcher – their outputs, publications, etc. being captured as impacts alongside the outputs… That could be useful and valuable…

Q2) A common theme was the burden of this exercise… But could be argued that it drives positive changes… How can the REF add to the sector?

A2 – CF) Wearing my personal and former job hat, as impact officer, I did see REF drive strategic investment in universities, including public engagement, that rewards, recognises, and encourages more engagement with the coomunity. There is real sharing of knowledge brought about by impact and the REF.

A2 – ASL) Totally agree.

A2 – PJ) More broadly the REF and RAE… They recognise the importance of research and supporting researchers. For us we get £75M a year through the research excellence funding. And we see the quality of research publications going up…

Q3) Do you have any comments on the academic community and how that supports the REF, particularly around data.

A3 – PJ) At Edinburgh we are very big – we submitted 1800 staff, we could have submitted up to 2500. In my previous role we had much smaller numbers of resarch staff… So they are different challenges and different systems… We have spoken to our Informatics colleagues to see what we can do. There are definitely benefits at th elevel of building a sysetm to manage this…

Q3) In an academic environment we have collegiate working practice, and need systems that work together.

A3 – PJ) We have a really distributed set up at Edinburgh, so we are constrantly having that conversation, and looking for cross cutting areas, exchanging information…

Q4) the relationship with the researcher changes here… In previous years universities talked about “their research” but it was actually all structured around the individual. In this new model that shift is big, and the role and responsibility of the organisation, the ways that schools interact with their researcher…

A4 – ASL) You do see that in pre-funding application activity with internal peer review processes that build that collegiality within the organisation…

Q5) I was intrigued with the comment that lots of impact isn’t associated with outputs… So that raises questions about the importance of outputs in the REF. Should we rebalance the value of the output and how it is valued.

A5 – ASL) Perhaps. For example when colleagues are providing evidence to government and parliament it is rare for publications to be referenced, and rare for publications to be read… I don’t think those matter… But those include methodology, rigour, evidence of quality of work. But that then becomes briefing papers etc… Otherwise you and I could just make a paper – but that would be opinion. So you need that (hard to read) academic publication, and you have to acknowledge that those are different things and have different roles – and that has to be demonstrated in the case studies.

A5 – CF) I think it’s an interesting question, especially thinking ahead to REF 2021… We are considering how those impacts o the field and impact on wider society are represented – some blue skies research won’t have impact for many years to come…

Q6) I think lay summaries of a piece of work is so crucial. Science Open and John Tennent is putting up lay summaries, you have Kudos and other things there contributing to that… The public want to understand what they are reading. I have personally sat on panels as a lay member and I know how hard it is to have that kind of lay summary is, to understand what has taken place.

A6 – ASL) You do need that lay summary of work, or briefing paper, or expert communities which are not lay people… You have to think about audiences and communicating your work widely, and target it… I think repositories are useful to access work, but it’s not enough to put it there – just as it isn’t enough to put an article out there – you have to actively reach out to your audiences.

A6 – CF) I would agree and I would add that there is such a key need to help academics to do that, to support skills for writing lay summaries… Getting it clearer benefits the researcher, their thinking, and how they tell others about their work – that truly enables knowledge exchange.

A6 – PJ) And it benefits the academic audience too. I was listening to a podcast where academics from across disciplines to see which papers were most valuable, and being readable to a lay audience was a key factor in how those papers did.

10×10 presentations (Chair: Ianthe Sutherland, University Library & Collections)

  1. National Open Data and Open Science Policies in Europe. Martin Donnelly, DCC

I’m talking about some work we’ve done at DCC with SPARC Europe looking at Open Data and Policies across Europe.

The DCC is a centre of expertise in digital curation and data management. We maintain a watching brief on funders research data policies (largely focused on the UK). SPARC Europe is a membership organisation comprising academic institutions, library consortia, funding bodies, research institutes and publishers. Their gial is advocating change in scholarly communications for the benefit of research and society. And we have been collaborating since 2016 looking at open data and open science policies across Europe.

So, what is a policy? Well the dictionary definition works, it’s a set of ideas or a plan of what to do in particular situations that has been agreed to officially by a group of people or an organisation.

In this work we looked at national policies – in some regions with a single research funder that could be the funder policy but, in the UK the AHRC wouldn’t count here as that is not a national policy across the whole country. And the last known analysis of this sort dates back to 2013 and much has changed in that time.

We began by compiling and briefing describing a list of national policies in the EU and some ERA states (IS, NO, CH). We circulated that list for comment and additions. We also sought intelligence from contacts fro DCC European projects to ask about the status of national approaches, forthcoming or exiting policies, etc. We then attempted to classify the policies.

Across the thirteen countries we found: 6 funder policies; 4 national plans or roadmaps; 2 concordat type documents; 2 laws; and one working paper. There are more than 13 there as some parallel documents. Identifying the lead, ranking or sponsoring organisation was not always straightforward, sometimes documents were co-signed by partners or groups. All of the policies discussed research data; 7 addressed open access publication explicitly; 6 addressed software, code, tools or models; 5 addressed methods, workflows or protocols, and one addressing physical (non-digital) samples.

Most policies were prescriptive or imperative. Monitoring of compliance and/or penalties are not that common. And these are new – only 2 policies pre-date 2014 but there are open preceeding open access policies. And new policies keep appearing as a result of our work… And two policies have been translated to English specifically because of this work (Estonia, Cyprus). The EC’s Open Research Data Pilot for Horizon 2020 was cited in multiple policy documents. And we hope that Brexit won’t diminish our role or engagement in European open data policy.

  1. IIIF: you can keep your head while all around are losing theirs! Scott Renton, University of Edinburgh

IIIF is the International Image Interoperability Framework which enables you to use images in your cultural heritage resources. IIIF works through two APIs. You bring in images through the Image API through IIIF compliant URLs, which have long URLs that include the region of the image, instructions for display, etc. The other API is the Presentation API which is much more about curation, including the ability to curate collections of content – so you can structure these as, say, an image of a building that is related to images of the rooms in that building.

We have images in Luna and we pushed on Luna to support IIIF and we did get success there. We have implemented IIIF in December. We made a lot of progress and have IIIF websites online. The workflows are really complex but it allows us to maintain one set of images and metadata through these embedded images, rather than having to copy and duplicate work. And those images are zoomable, draggable, etc. And Metadata games is also IIIF compliant. And it is feeding into our websites including the new St Cecilia’s Hall museum website.

Our next implementation was the Coimbra virtual implementation – which includes other people’s images. For our images, and other IIIF compliant organisations that was easy, but we had to set up our own server (named Cantaloupe) to manage those images from others.

The next challenge was the Mahabharata Scroll. It is a huge document but the IIF spec and Luna allows us to prorgamme a sequence of viewers…

And our main achievement has been Polyanno that allows annotation that can then be stored in manifests, to upload and discuss annotations. It’s proving very popular with the IIIF community. We have huge amount of images to convert to IIIF but lots of plans, lots of ideas, and lots to do…

We are also collabortion with NLS around their content, and are up to talk with others about IIIF!

  1. Reference Rot in theses: a HiberActive pilot. Nicola Osborne, EDINA, University of Edinburgh

This was my presentation – so notes from me here but some links to Site2Cite, a working demo/pilot tool for researchers to proactively archive their web citations as they are doing their research, to ensure that by the time they submit their PhD, have their work published, or begin follow up work, they still have access to those important resources.

Introducing Site2Cite: http://hiberactive.edina.ac.uk/

Try out the Site2Cite tools for yourself here: http://hiberactive.edina.ac.uk/site2cite/

You can view my full slides (slightly updated to make more sense for those who didn’t hear the accompanying talk) from the 10×10 here:

This ISG Innovation Funded pilot project builds upon our previous Andrew W. Mellon-funded Hiberlink project; a collaboration between EDINA, Los Alamos National Laboratory, and the University of Edinburgh School of Informatics. The Hiberlink project built on and worked with Herbert Van de Sompel’s and his Memento work.

  1. Lifting the lid on global research impact: implementation and analysis of a Request a Copy service. Dimity Flanagan, London School of Economics and Political Science

Apologies for missing the first few minutes of Dimity’s talk…

LSE have only recently implemented the “request a copy” button in the repository but, having done that Dimity and colleagues have been researching how it is used.

We’ve had about 500 requests so far. The most popular requests have been for international relations, law and media areas. And we see demand from organisations and governments – including requests explicitly stating that they do not subscribe to the journal and they felt it was crucial to their work. There is that potential impact here being revealed in requests for articles ahead of key meetings and events, etc.

And these requests show huge reach form organisations locally and around the world.

One thing we have noticed is that we get a lot of requests from students who can definitely access the version of record through journals subscribed to by their university – they don’t realise and that causes avoidable delay. We have also seen academics linking from reading lists to restricted items in repositories. But, on a more positive note, we’ve had lots of requests from our alumni – 70% of our alumni are international and that shows really positive impact for our work.

Overall this button and the evidence that requests provide has been really positive.

  1. What RADAR did next: developing a peer review process for research plans. Nicola Siminson, Glasgow School of Art

RADAR captures performances, exhibitions, as well as traditional articles, monographs etc. It is hosted on EPrints. And we encourage staff to add as much metadata as possible. But increasingly it is being used internally, with staff developing annual research plans (ARPs) and that feeding into allocations in the year ahead.

These ARPs arose in part from the outcome of the REF 2014 assessment. These are peer reviewed (but not openly available) ARPs aim to enable research time to be allocated more effectively with a view to maximising the number of high quality submissions to the next REF. RADAR houses the template as it played a key role in the GSA REF 2014 submissions, and staff already use and know the system.

The templates went live in 2015, and was tweaked, tried and relaunched in February 2015. The ARP template captures the research, the researchers details, and the expected impact of their work – and a submit process. The process was really quite manual so we thought carefully about how this should work… So once submitted the digital ARP went into a manual process. Once piloted we built the peer review process into RADAR, including access management that allows the researcher sole access until submitted, and then manages access back and forth as required.

We discussed this work with EPrints in Autumn 2016 and development commenced in Spring 2017. This was quite an involved process. The system was live in time for ARP panel chairs to send feedback and results.

So the process now sees ARPS submit; RADAR admin provides Head of Research with report of all ARPs submitted. Then it goes through a series of review stages and feedback stages.

So administrators can view ARPs, panels, status, etc. and there is space for reviews to be captured and the outcome to be shared.

Lessons learned here… No matter how much testing you have done, you’ll still need to tweak and flag things – it’s useful to have a keen researcher to test it and feedback on ‘those tweaks. We still need to increase prominence of summary and decision for the researcher, with more differentiated fields for peer reviews, etc. In conclusion the ARP peer reviewed process has been integrated into RADAR and will be fully tested next year. The continued development of RADAR is bearing fruit – researchers are using the repository and adding more outputs, and offering greater visibility and downloads for GSA.

Explore our repository at http://radar.gsa.ac.uk

  1. Edinburgh DataVault: Local implementation of Jisc DataVault: the value of testing. Pauline Ward, EDINA

I am Pauline Ward from the Research Data Service at the University of Edinburgh, and I am based at EDINA which is part of the University. Jisc commissioned UoE’s Library and University Collections (L&UC) team to design a service for researchers to store data for the long term with the Jisc Data Vault. And we’ve now implemented a version of this at Edinburgh – using that software from L&UC and specified and managed by EDINA.

The DataVault allows safe data storage in the University’s archival storage option, which links this data to a metadata record in Pure without having to re-enter any of the data. And, optionally, to receive a DOI for the data which can be used in publications and other outputs – depending on the context and appropriate visibility of the data. That allows preservation of data at the University. The DataVault is not for making data public – we have a service called DataShare for that.

So, let’s talk about metadata… We push that metadata to Pure and keep DataVault metadata as concise as possible. We need metadata that is usable and have some manual intervention to check and curate that.

We had a fairly extensive user testing process, to ensure documentation works well, then we also recruited academics from across the University to bring us their data and test the system to help us ensure it met their needs.

So, the interim version is out there, and we are continuing to develop and improve it.

  1. Data Management & Preservation using PURE and Archivematica at Strathclyde. Alan Morrisson, University of Strathclyde

We are governed and based in the research department. We wanted to look at both research data management and long term preservation, including reflecting on whether Pure is the right tool for the job here. Pure was already in use at Strathclyde when our Research Data Deposit Policy was being developed, so we deliberately made the policy as open as possible. Also Strathclyde is predominantly a STEM university, and we started off by surveying what else was out there… We knew the quantity and type of data coming in…

And since we opened up the service, in terms of data deposits to date we are have seen a steady increase from about 200 to 400 data sets over the last year.

In terms of our preservation and curation systems we have Pure in place and that does a lot – data storage, metadata, DOI etc. But we’ve also recently implemented Archivematica – it’s free, it’s open source, it’s compatible with Jisc DataVault. So the workflow right now is that data, metadata and related outputs are added to to Pure, and a DOI minted. This feeds the knowledgebase portal. In parallel the data from Pure goes to Archivematica where it is ingested and processed for preservation, and AIP METS file cleaned using METSflask before being stored.

The benefits of this set up is that Pure is familiar to researchers, does a good job of metadata management and related content and has a customised front end (Knowledgebase). Archivematica is well supported, open access, and designed for archiving. But those systems don’t work together, we are manually moving data across. Pure is designed for storage and presentation, not curation. Archivematica only recognises about 40% of the data.

So, in the future we are reviewing our system, perhaps using Pure for metadata only. We are keeping an eye on Jisc RDSS and considering possible Arkivum like storage. And generally looking at what is possible and most appropriate moving forward for curation and archiving.

  1. Open Access… From Oblivion… To the Spotlight? Dawn Hibbert, University of Northampton

I’ll be looking back over the last ten years… And actually ten years back I was working here in Accommodation Services, so not thinking about repositories at all!

Looking back at 2007/8 in the repository world we had our NECTAR repository. Then in 2011, Jisc funded project enabled an author deposit tool for NECTAR. At that time we had a carrot/incentive for deposit, but no stick. Which was actually a nice thing as we’ve now slipped more towards it all being about the REF.

By 2012/13 we engaged with our researchers around open access who had feedback such as “it’s in the library – you can get a copy from there” or “it’s only £30 to buy the journal I publish in, if I make my article free the journal go under” or “My work is not funded by RCUK so why should my work be open access”. We wanted everything open… But by 2014/15 (and the HEFCE announcement) we were still getting “I don’t have to give you anything until 2016” and similar… And we get that idea of “it’s all about the REF”. And it is not. Using the REF in that way, and the repository in that way overlooks the other benefits of open access.

So in 2016/17 HEFCE compliance started. Attitudes have shifted. But the focus has all been about gold APCs and the idea of the university paying. When actually we are using the HEFCE deposit and (later) open access green OA route. And for us we really want researchers to deposit much more than the open access part (we can do that later on).

So, in 2017 and beyond we are looking at emphasising the benefits, sharing that information, being positive about the opportunities, no just using the HEFCE stick. And for open access work we are looking at improving acceptance, extending open access to other outputs, and focus on visibility of research outputs – the Kudos type tool. And we are shifting the focus to Digital Preservation.

We are looking at datasets being open access too. RDM and Digital Preservation gaining ground. And when work is deposited, shared, tweeted, etc. that can really shift attitudes and show benefits and engagement for academic colleagues.

But we still see lots of money spent on PA and journal subscriptions. And we have yet to see what happens with RCUK and REF compliance.

  1. Automated metadata collection from the researcher CV Lattes Platform to aid IR ingest. Chloe Furnival, Universidade Federal de São Carlos

I am pleased to present work by myself and my colleagues from Sao Paulo in Brazil. Back in 1999 all Brail universities were required to share CVs of their research and academic staff on a platform (Curriculo Lattes) which now has over 2 million records now.

However, our University’s repository was only launched in 2016. Different to many universities using Web of Science or Scopus capturing their researchers’ work there, we saw that the Lattes CV Platform was the key and most up to date metadata – always extremely updated as required in funding. It is a really useful stepping stone to identify our staff publications for the initial repository.

So we have very well known researchers, Mena-Chalco and Cesar Jr (2013) who developed ScriptLattes for this extraction. But then the CNPq decided to implement a CAPTCHA which inhibits this Script. They alleged this was for security reasons but it created an uproar as it was seen as “our data”… So, this has all been very complicated and impacted on our plans to identify our own researchers’ work… So we went for SOAP (Simple Object Access Protocol). We also developed a proxy server to deal with CNPq limits. This is based on OpenResty platform to share access to the Lattes SOAP webservices. That lets us manage our local IP address and manage load/avoid going over capacity.

We extract data in xml format, then process in Python to generate Dublin Core. Then we use another script to eliminate duplicates using the Jaccard measure that helps detects differences… Then, once processed, it is held in DSpace. Each record in Lattes has a unique identifier as that site uses an ID number that all Brazillians are required to have to access e.g. a bank account.

So now we have the CVs of 1,166 teaching staff and researchers working at our HEI were retrieved in just 11 minutes. including metadata for 78K journal articles and proceedings papers. We had the specific objective of gaining direct and official access to public metadata held in Lattes CV.

  1. The Changing Face of Goldsmiths Research Online. Jeremiah Spillane, Goldsmiths, University of London

JS: Goldsmiths Research Online started as a vanilla install of EPrints, and it has become customised more and more over time. Important to that development have been several projects. The Jisc Kultur project created a transferable and sustainable institutional repository model for research output i the creative and applied arts, and creating facility for capturing multimedia content in repositories.

Kultur led to the Jisc Kaptur project, led by VADS working with various art colleges including Goldsmiths and GSA.

Then in 2009 we had the Defiant Objects project which looked to understand what makes some objects more difficult to deposit than others.

Jeremiah’s colleague: RAE/REF work has looked at policy versus the open access ethos – and striking the right balance there. So, the Goldsmiths website now includes content brought in from the repository. And that is now organised depending on the needs of different departments. We are also redesigning the website to better embed content to enable exploration of visual content. And the new design should be in place by autumn this year.

Speaking of design… We have been working with OJS but have been wanting to more thoroughly design OJS journals, so we have a new journal coming, Volupte, which runs on OJS in the background but uses SquareSpace at the front end – that’s a bit of an experiment at the moment.

JS: So, the repository continues to develop, whilst our end users primarily focus on their research.

Take a look at: research.goldsmiths.ac.uk

And with that Day One, and my visit to Repository Fringe 2017, is done. 

Jun 302017
 

Today I’m at ReCon 2017, giving a presentation later (flying the flag for the unconference sessions!) today but also looking forward to a day full of interesting presentations on publishing for early careers researchers.

I’ll be liveblogging (except for my session) and, as usual, comments, additions, corrections, etc. are welcomed. 

Jo Young, Director of the Scientific Editing Company, is introducing the day and thanking the various ReCon sponsors. She notes: ReCon started about five years ago (with a slightly different name). We’ve had really successful events – and you can explore them all online. We have had a really stellar list of speakers over the years! And on that note…

Graham Steel: We wanted to cover publishing at all stages, from preparing for publication, submission, journals, open journals, metrics, alt metrics, etc. So our first speakers are really from the mid point in that process.

SESSION ONE: Publishing’s future: Disruption and Evolution within the Industry

100% Open Access by 2020 or disrupting the present scholarly comms landscape: you can’t have both? A mid-way update – Pablo De Castro, Open Access Advocacy Librarian, University of Strathclyde

It is an honour to be at this well attended event today. Thank you for the invitation. It’s a long title but I will be talking about how are things are progressing towards this goal of full open access by 2020, and to what extent institutions, funders, etc. are being able to introduce disruption into the industry…

So, a quick introduction to me. I am currently at the University of Strathclyde library, having joined in January. It’s quite an old university (founded 1796) and a medium size university. Previous to that I was working at the Hague working on the EC FP7 Post-Grant Open Access Pilot (Open Aire) providing funding to cover OA publishing fees for publications arising from completed FP7 projects. Maybe not the most popular topic in the UK right now but… The main point of explaining my context is that this EU work was more of a funders perspective, and now I’m able to compare that to more of an institutional perspective. As a result o of this pilot there was a report commissioned b a British consultant: “Towards a competitive and sustainable open access publishing market in Europe”.

One key element in this open access EU pilot was the OA policy guidelines which acted as key drivers, and made eligibility criteria very clear. Notable here: publications to hybrid journals would not be funded, only fully open access; and a cap of no more than €2000 for research articles, €6000 for monographs. That was an attempt to shape the costs and ensure accessibility of research publications.

So, now I’m back at the institutional open access coalface. Lots had changed in two years. And it’s great to be back in this spaces. It is allowing me to explore ways to better align institutional and funder positions on open access.

So, why open access? Well in part this is about more exposure for your work, higher citation rates, compliant with grant rules. But also it’s about use and reuse including researchers in developing countries, practitioners who can apply your work, policy makers, and the public and tax payers can access your work. In terms of the wider open access picture in Europe, there was a meeting in Brussels last May where European leaders call for immediate open access to all scientific papers by 2020. It’s not easy to achieve that but it does provide a major driver… However, across these countries we have EU member states with different levels of open access. The UK, Netherlands, Sweden and others prefer “gold” access, whilst Belgium, Cyprus, Denmark, Greece, etc. prefer “green” access, partly because the cost of gold open access is prohibitive.

Funders policies are a really significant driver towards open access. Funders including Arthritis Research UK, Bloodwise, Cancer Research UK, Breast Cancer Now, British Heard Foundation, Parkinsons UK, Wellcome Trust, Research Councils UK, HEFCE, European Commission, etc. Most support green and gold, and will pay APCs (Article Processing Charges) but it’s fair to say that early career researchers are not always at the front of the queue for getting those paid. HEFCE in particular have a green open access policy, requiring research outputs from any part of the university to be made open access, you will not be eligible for the REF (Research Excellence Framework) and, as a result, compliance levels are high – probably top of Europe at the moment. The European Commission supports green and gold open access, but typically green as this is more affordable.

So, there is a need for quick progress at the same time as ongoing pressure on library budgets – we pay both for subscriptions and for APCs. Offsetting agreements are one way to do this, discounting subscriptions by APC charges, could be a good solutions. There are pros and cons here. In principal it will allow quicker progress towards OA goals, but it will disproportionately benefit legacy publishers. It brings publishers into APC reporting – right now sometimes invisible to the library as paid by researchers, so this is a shift and a challenge. It’s supposed to be a temporary stage towards full open access. And it’s a very expensive intermediate stage: not every country can or will afford it.

So how can disruption happen? Well one way to deal with this would be the policies – suggesting not to fund hybrid journals (as done in OpenAire). And disruption is happening (legal or otherwise) as we can see in Sci-Hub usage which are from all around the world, not just developing countries. Legal routes are possible in licensing negotiations. In Germany there is a Projekt Deal being negotiated. And this follows similar negotiations by open access.nl. At the moment Elsevier is the only publisher not willing to include open access journals.

In terms of tools… The EU has just announced plans to launch it’s own platform for funded research to be published. And Wellcome Trust already has a space like this.

So, some conclusions… Open access is unstoppable now, but still needs to generate sustainable and competitive implementation mechanisms. But it is getting more complex and difficult to disseminate to research – that’s a serious risk. Open Access will happen via a combination of strategies and routes – internal fights just aren’t useful (e.g. green vs gold). The temporary stage towards full open access needs to benefit library budgets sooner rather than later. And the power here really lies with researchers, which OA advocates aren’t always able to get informed. It is important that you know which are open and which are hybrid journals, and why that matters. And we need to think if informing authors on where it would make economic sense to publish beyond the remit of institutional libraries?

To finish, some recommended reading:

  • “Early Career Researchers: the Harbingers of Change” – Final report from Ciber, August 2016
  • “My Top 9 Reasons to Publish Open Access” – a great set of slides.

Q&A

Q1) It was interesting to hear about offsetting. Are those agreements one-off? continuous? renewed?

A1) At the moment they are one-off and intended to be a temporary measure. But they will probably mostly get renewed… National governments and consortia want to understand how useful they are, how they work.

Q2) Can you explain green open access and gold open access and the difference?

A2) In Gold Open Access, the author pays to make your paper open on the journal website. If that’s a hybrid – so subscription – journal you essentially pay twice, once to subscribe, once to make open. Green Open Access means that your article goes into your repository (after any embargo), into the world wide repository landscape (see: https://www.jisc.ac.uk/guides/an-introduction-to-open-access).

Q3) As much as I agree that choices of where to publish are for researchers, but there are other factors. The REF pressures you to publish in particular ways. Where can you find more on the relationships between different types of open access and impact? I think that can help?

A3) Quite a number of studies. For instance is APC related to Impact factor – several studies there. In terms of REF, funders like Wellcome are desperate to move away from the impact factor. It is hard but evolving.

Inputs, Outputs and emergent properties: The new Scientometrics – Phill Jones, Director of Publishing Innovation, Digital Science

Scientometrics is essentially the study of science metrics and evaluation of these. As Graham mentioned in his introduction, there is a whole complicated lifecycle and process of publishing. And what I will talk about spans that whole process.

But, to start, a bit about me and Digital Science. We were founded in 2011 and we are wholly owned by Holtzbrink Publishing Group, they owned Nature group. Being privately funded we are able to invest in innovation by researchers, for researchers, trying to create change from the ground up. Things like labguru – a lab notebook (like rspace); Altmetric; Figshare; readcube; Peerwith; transcriptic – IoT company, etc.

So, I’m going to introduce a concept: The Evaluation Gap. This is the difference between the metrics and indicators currently or traditionally available, and the information that those evaluating your research might actually want to know? Funders might. Tenure panels – hiring and promotion panels. Universities – your institution, your office of research management. Government, funders, policy organisations, all want to achieve something with your research…

So, how do we close the evaluation gap? Introducing altmetrics. It adds to academic impact with other types of societal impact – policy documents, grey literature, mentions in blogs, peer review mentions, social media, etc. What else can you look at? Well you can look at grants being awarded… When you see a grant awarded for a new idea, then publishes… someone else picks up and publishers… That can take a long time so grants can tell us before publications. You can also look at patents – a measure of commercialisation and potential economic impact further down the link.

So you see an idea germinate in one place, work with collaborators at the institution, spreading out to researchers at other institutions, and gradually out into the big wide world… As that idea travels outward it gathers more metadata, more impact, more associated materials, ideas, etc.

And at Digital Science we have innovators working across that landscape, along that scholarly lifecycle… But there is no point having that much data if you can’t understand and analyse it. You have to classify that data first to do that… Historically we did that was done by subject area, but increasingly research is interdisciplinary, it crosses different fields. So single tags/subjects are not useful, you need a proper taxonomy to apply here. And there are various ways to do that. You need keywords and semantic modeling and you can choose to:

  1. Use an existing one if available, e.g. MeSH (Medical Subject Headings).
  2. Consult with subject matter experts (the traditional way to do this, could be editors, researchers, faculty, librarians who you’d just ask “what are the keywords that describe computational social science”).
  3. Text mining abstracts or full text article (using the content to create a list from your corpus with bag of words/frequency of words approaches, for instance, to help you cluster and find the ideas with a taxonomy emerging

Now, we are starting to take that text mining approach. But to use that data needs to be cleaned and curated to be of use. So we hand curated a list of institutions to go into GRID: Global Research Identifier Database, to understand organisations and their relationships. Once you have that all mapped you can look at Isni, CrossRef databases etc. And when you have that organisational information you can include georeferences to visualise where organisations are…

An example that we built for HEFCE was the Digital Science BrainScan. The UK has a dual funding model where there is both direct funding and block funding, with the latter awarded by HEFCE and it is distributed according to the most impactful research as understood by the REF. So, our BrainScan, we mapped research areas, connectors, etc. to visualise subject areas, their impact, and clusters of strong collaboration, to see where there are good opportunities for funding…

Similarly we visualised text mined impact statements across the whole corpus. Each impact is captured as a coloured dot. Clusters show similarity… Where things are far apart, there is less similarity. And that can highlight where there is a lot of work on, for instance, management of rivers and waterways… And these weren’t obvious as across disciplines…

Q&A

Q1) Who do you think benefits the most from this kind of information?

A1) In the consultancy we have clients across the spectrum. In the past we have mainly worked for funders and policy makers to track effectiveness. Increasingly we are talking to institutions wanting to understand strengths, to predict trends… And by publishers wanting to understand if journals should be split, consolidated, are there opportunities we are missing… Each can benefit enormously. And it makes the whole system more efficient.

Against capital – Stuart Lawson, Birkbeck University of London

So, my talk will be a bit different. The arguements I will be making are not in opposition to any of the other speakers here, but is about critically addressing our current ways we are working, and how publishing works. I have chosen to speak on this topic today as I think it is important to make visible the political positions that underly our assumptions and the systems we have in place today. There are calls to become more efficient but I disagree… Ownership and governance matter at least as much as the outcome.

I am an advocate for open access and I am currently undertaking a PhD looking at open access and how our discourse around this has been coopted by neoliberal capitalism. And I believe these issues aren’t technical but social and reflect inequalities in our society, and any company claiming to benefit society but operating as commercial companies should raise questions for us.

Neoliberalism is a political project to reshape all social relations to conform to the logic of capital (this is the only slide, apparently a written and referenced copy will be posted on Stuart’s blog). This system turns us all into capital, entrepreneurs of our selves – quantification, metricification whether through tuition fees that put a price on education, turn students into consumers selecting based on rational indicators of future income; or through pitting universities against each other rather than collaboratively. It isn’t just overtly commercial, but about applying ideas of the market in all elements of our work – high impact factor journals, metrics, etc. in the service of proving our worth. If we do need metrics, they should be open and nuanced, but if we only do metrics for people’s own careers and perform for careers and promotion, then these play into neoliberal ideas of control. I fully understand the pressure to live and do research without engaging and playing the game. It is easier to choose not to do this if you are in a position of privelege, and that reflects and maintains inequalities in our organisations.

Since power relations are often about labour and worth, this is inevitably part of work, and the value of labour. When we hear about disruption in the context of Uber, it is about disrupting rights of works, labour unions, it ignores the needs of the people who do the work, it is a neo-liberal idea. I would recommend seeing Audrey Watters’ recent presentation for University of Edinburgh on the “Uberisation of Education”.

The power of capital in scholarly publishing, and neoliberal values in our scholarly processes… When disruptors align with the political forces that need to be dismantled, I don’t see that as useful or properly disruptive. Open Access is a good thing in terms of open access. But there are two main strands of policy… Research Councils have spent over £80m to researchers to pay APCs. Publishing open access do not require payment of fees, there are OA journals who are funded other ways. But if you want the high end visible journals they are often hybrid journals and 80% of that RCUK has been on hybrid journals. So work is being made open access, but right now this money flows from public funds to a small group of publishers – who take a 30-40% profit – and that system was set up to continue benefitting publishers. You can share or publish to repositories… Those are free to deposit and use. The concern of OA policy is the connection to the REF, it constrains where you can publish and what they mean, and they must always be measured in this restricted structure. It can be seen as compliance rather than a progressive movement toward social justice. But open access is having a really positive impact on the accessibility of research.

If you are angry at Elsevier, then you should also be angry at Oxford University and Cambridge University, and others for their relationships to the power elite. Harvard made a loud statement about journal pricing… It sounded good, and they have a progressive open access policy… But it is also bullshit – they have huge amounts of money… There are huge inequalities here in academia and in relationship to publishing.

And I would recommend strongly reading some history on the inequalities, and the racism and capitalism that was inherent to the founding of higher education so that we can critically reflect on what type of system we really want to discover and share scholarly work. Things have evolved over time – somewhat inevitably – but we need to be more deliberative so that universities are more accountable in their work.

To end on a more positive note, technology is enabling all sorts of new and inexpensive ways to publish and share. But we don’t need to depend on venture capital. Collective and cooperative running of organisations in these spaces – such as the cooperative centres for research… There are small scale examples show the principles, and that this can work. Writing, reviewing and editing is already being done by the academic community, lets build governance and process models to continue that, to make it work, to ensure work is rewarded but that the driver isn’t commercial.

Q&A

Comment) That was awesome. A lot of us here will be to learn how to play the game. But the game sucks. I am a professor, I get to do a lot of fun things now, because I played the game… We need a way to have people able to do their work that way without that game. But we need something more specific than socialism… Libraries used to publish academic data… Lots of these metrics are there and useful… And I work with them… But I am conscious that we will be fucked by them. We need a way to react to that.

Redesigning Science for the Internet Generation – Gemma Milne, Co-Founder, Science Disrupt

Science Disrupt run regular podcasts, events, a Slack channel for scientists, start ups, VCs, etc. Check out our website. We talk about five focus areas of science. Today I wanted to talk about redesigning science for the internet age. My day job is in journalism and I think a lot about start ups, and to think about how we can influence academia, how success is manifests itself in the internet age.

So, what am I talking about? Things like Pavegen – power generating paving stones. They are all over the news! The press love them! BUT the science does not work, the physics does not work…

I don’t know if you heard about Theranos which promised all sorts of medical testing from one drop of blood, millions of investments, and it all fell apart. But she too had tons of coverage…

I really like science start ups, I like talking about science in a different way… But how can I convince the press, the wider audience what is good stuff, and what is just hype, not real… One of the problems we face is that if you are not engaged in research you either can’t access the science, and can’t read it even if they can access the science… This problem is really big and it influences where money goes and what sort of stuff gets done!

So, how can we change this? There are amazing tools to help (Authorea, overleaf, protocol.io, figshare, publons, labworm) and this is great and exciting. But I feel it is very short term… Trying to change something that doesn’t work anyway… Doing collaborative lab notes a bit better, publishing a bit faster… OK… But is it good for sharing science? Thinking about journalists and corporates, they don’t care about academic publishing, it’s not where they go for scientific information. How do we rethink that… What if we were to rethink how we share science?

AirBnB and Amazon are on my slide here to make the point of the difference between incremental change vs. real change. AirBnB addressed issues with hotels, issues of hotels being samey… They didn’t build a hotel, instead they thought about what people want when they traveled, what mattered for them… Similarly Amazon didn’t try to incrementally improve supermarkets.. They did something different. They dug to the bottom of why something exists and rethought it…

Imagine science was “invented” today (ignore all the realities of why that’s impossible). But imagine we think of this thing, we have to design it… How do we start? How will I ask questions, find others who ask questions…

So, a bit of a thought experiment here… Maybe I’d post a question on reddit, set up my own sub-reddit. I’d ask questions, ask why they are interested… Create a big thread. And if I have a lot of people, maybe I’ll have a Slack with various channels about all the facets around a question, invite people in… Use the group to project manage this project… OK, I have a team… Maybe I create a Meet Up Group for that same question… Get people to join… Maybe 200 people are now gathered and interested… You gather all these folk into one place. Now we want to analyse ideas. Maybe I share my question and initial code on GitHub, find collaborators… And share the code, make it open… Maybe it can be reused… It has been collaborative at every stage of the journey… Then maybe I want to build a microscope or something… I’d find the right people, I’d ask them to join my Autodesk 360 to collaboratively build engineering drawings for fabrication… So maybe we’ve answered our initial question… So maybe I blog that, and then I tweet that…

The point I’m trying to make is, there are so many tools out there for collaboration, for sharing… Why aren’t more researchers using these tools that are already there? Rather than designing new tools… These are all ways to engage and share what you do, rather than just publishing those articles in those journals…

So, maybe publishing isn’t the way at all? I get the “game” but I am frustrated about how we properly engage, and really get your work out there. Getting industry to understand what is going on. There are lots of people inventing in new ways.. YOu can use stuff in papers that isn’t being picked up… But see what else you can do!

So, what now? I know people are starved for time… But if you want to really make that impact, that you think is more interested… I undesrtand there is a concern around scooping… But there are ways to do that… And if you want to know about all these tools, do come talk to me!

Q&A

Q1) I think you are spot on with vision. We want faster more collaborative production. But what is missing from those tools is that they are not designed for researchers, they are not designed for publishing. Those systems are ephemeral… They don’t have DOIs and they aren’t persistent. For me it’s a bench to web pipeline…

A1) Then why not create a persistent archived URI – a webpage where all of a project’s content is shared. 50% of all academic papers are only read by the person that published them… These stumbling blocks in the way of sharing… It is crazy… We shouldn’t just stop and not share.

Q2) Thank you, that has given me a lot of food for thought. The issue of work not being read, I’ve been told that by funders so very relevant to me. So, how do we influence the professors… As a PhD student I haven’t heard about many of those online things…

A2) My co-founder of Science Disrupt is a computational biologist and PhD student… My response would be about not asking, just doing… Find networks, find people doing what you want. Benefit from collaboration. Sign an NDA if needed. Find the opportunity, then come back…

Q3) I had a comment and a question. Code repositories like GitHub are persistent and you can find a great list of code repositories and meta-articles around those on the Journal of Open Research Software. My question was about AirBnB and Amazon… Those have made huge changes but I think the narrative they use now is different from where they started – and they started more as incremental change… And they stumbled on bigger things, which looks a lot like research… So… How do you make that case for the potential long term impact of your work in a really engaging way?

A3) It is the golden question. Need to find case studies, to find interesting examples… a way to showcase similar examples… and how that led to things… Forget big pictures, jump the hurdles… Show that bigger picture that’s there but reduce the friction of those hurdles. Sure those companies were somewhat incremental but I think there is genuinely a really different mindset there that matters.

And we now move to lunch. Coming up…

UNCONFERENCE SESSION 1: Best Footprint Forward – Nicola Osborne, EDINA

This will be me – talking about managing a digital footprint and how robust web links are part of that lasting digital legacy- so no post from me but you can view my slides on Managing Your Digital Footprint and our Reference Rot in Theses: A HiberActive Pilot here.

SESSION TWO: The Early Career Researcher Perspective: Publishing & Research Communication

Getting recognition for all your research outputs – Michael Markie, F1000

I’m going to talk about things you do as researchers that you should get credit for, not just traditional publications. This week in fact there was a very interesting article on the history of science publishing “Is the staggering profitable business of scientific publishing bad for science?”. Publishers came out of that poorly… And I think others are at fault here too, including the research community… But we do have to take some blame.

There’s no getting away from the fact that the journal is the coin of the realm, for career progression, institutional reporting, grant applications. For the REF, will there be impact factors? REF says maybe not, but institutions will be tempted to use that to prioritise. Publishing is being looked at by impact factor…

And it’s not just where you publish. There are other things that you do in your work and which you should get ore credit for. Data; software/code – in bioinformatics there are new softwares and tools that are part of the research, are they getting the recognition they should; all results – not just the successes but also the negative results… Publishers want cool and sexy stuff but realistically we are funded for this, we should be able to publish and be recognised for it; peer review – there is no credit for it, peer reviews often improve articles and warrant credit; expertise – all the authors who added expertise, including non-research staff, everyone should know who contributed what…

So I see research as being more than a journal article. Right now we just package it all up into one tidy thing, but we should be fitting into that bigger picture. So, I’m suggesting that we need to disrupt it a bit more and pubis in a different way… Publishing introduces delays – of up to a year. Journals don’t really care about data… That’s a real issue for reproducibility.  And there is bias involved in publishing, there is a real lack of transparency in publishing decisions. All of the above means there is real research waster. At the same time there is demand for results, for quicker action, for wider access to work.

So, at F1000 we have been working on ways to address these issues. We launched Wellcome Open Research, and after launching that the Bill & Melinda Gated Foundation contacted us to build a similar platform. And we have also built an open research model for UCL Child Health (at St Ormond’s Street).

The process involves sending a paper in, checking there is plagiarism and that ethics are appropriate. But no other filtering. That can take up to 7 days. Then we ask for your data – no data then no publication. Then once the publication and data deposition is made, the work is published and an open peer review and user commenting process begins, they are names and credited, and they contribute to improve that article and contribute to the article revision. Those reviewers have three options: approved, approved with reservations, or not approved as it stands. So yo get to PMC and indexed in PubMed you need two “approved” status of two “approved with reservations” and an “approved”.

So this connects to lots of stuff… For Data thats with DataCite, DigShare, Plotly, Resource Identification Initiative. For Software/code we work with code ocean, Zenodo, GitHub. For All results we work with PubMed, you can publish other formats… etc.

Why are funders doing this? Wellcome Trust spent £7m on APCs last year… So this platform is partly as a service to stakeholders with a complementary capacity for all research findings. We are testing new approach to improve science and its impact – to accelerate access and sharing of findings and data; efficiency to reduce waste and support reproducibility; alternative OA model, etc.

Make an impact, know your impact, show your impact – Anna Ritchie, Mendeley, Elsevier

A theme across the day is that there is increasing pressure and challenges for researchers. It’s never been easier to get your work out – new technology, media, platforms. And yet, it’s never been harder to get your work seen: more researchers, producing more outputs, dealing with competition. So how do you ensure you and your work make an impact? Options mean opportunities, but also choices. Traditional publishing is still important – but not enough. And there are both older and newer ways to help make your research stand out.

Publishing campus is a big thing here. These are free resources to support you in publishing. There are online lectures, interactive training courses, and expert advice. And things happen – live webinars, online lectures (e.g. Top 10 Tips for Writing a Really Terrible Journal Article!), interactive course. There are suits of materials around publishing, around developing your profile.

At some point you will want to look at choosing a journal. Metrics may be part of what you use to choose a journal – but use both quantitative and qualitative (e.g. ask colleagues and experts). You can also use Elsevier Journal Finder – you can search for your title and abstract and subject areas to suggest journals to target. But always check the journal guidance before submitting.

There is also the opportunity for article enrichments which will be part of your research story – 2D radiological data viewer, R code Viewer, Virtual Microscope, Genome Viewer, Audioslides, etc.

There are also less traditional journals: Heliyon is all disciplines so you report your original and technically sound results of primary research, regardless of perceived impact. Methodsx is entirely about methods work. Data in Brief allows you to describe your data to facilitate reproducibility, make it easier to cite, etc. And an alternative to a data article is to add datasets on Mendeley.

And you can also use Mendeley to understand your impact through Mendeley Stats. There is a very detailed dashboard for each publication – this is powered by Scopus so works for all articles indexed in Scopus. Stats like users, Mendeley users with that article in their library, citations, related works… And you can see how your article is being shared. You can also show your impact on Mendeley, with a research profile that is as comprehensive as possible –  not just your publications but with wider impacts, press mentions…. And enabling you to connect to other researchers, to other articles and opportunities. This is what we are trying to do to make Mendeley help you build your online profile as a researcher. We intend to grow those profiles to give a more comprehensive picture of you as a researcher.

And we want to hear from you. Every journal, platform, and product is co-developed with ongoing community input. So do get in touch!

How to share science with hard to reach groups and why you should bother – Becky Douglas

My background is physics, high energy gravitational waves, etc… As I was doing my PhD I got very involved in science engagement. Hopefully most of you think about science communication and public outreach as being a good thing. It does seem to be something that arise in job interviews and performance reviews. I’m not convinced that everyone should do this – not everyone enjoys or is good at it – but there is huge potential if you are enthusiastic. And there is more expectation on scientists to do this to gain recognition, to help bring trust back to scientists, and right some misunderstanding. And by the way talks and teaching don’t count here.

And not everyone goes to science festivals. It is up to us to provide alternative and interesting things for those people. There are a few people who won’t be interested in science… But there are many more people who don’t have time or don’t see the appeal to them. These people deserve access to new research… And there are many ways to communicate that research. New ideas are always worth doing, and can attract new people and get dialogue you’d never expect.

So, article writing is a great way to reach out… Not just in science magazines (or on personal blogs). Newspapers and magazines will often print science articles – reach out to them. And you can pitch other places too – Cosmo prints science. Mainstream publications are desperate for people who understand science to write about it in engaging ways – sometimes you’ll be paid for your work as well.

Schools are obvious, but they are great ways to access people from all backgrounds. You’ll do extra well if you can connect it to the current curriculum! Put the effort in to build a memorable activity or event. Send them home with something fun and you may well reach parents as well…

More unusual events would be things like theatre, for instance Lady Scientists Stitch and Bitch. Stitch and Bitch is an international thing where you get together and sew and craft and chat. So this show was a play which was about travelling back in time to gather all the key lady scientists, and they sit down to discuss science over some knitting and sewing. Because it was theatre it was an extremely diverse group, not people who usually go to science events. When you work with non scientists you get access to a whole new crowd.

Something a bit more unusual… Soapbox Science, I brought to Glasgow in 2015. It’s science busking where you talk about your cutting edge research. Often attached to science festivals but out in public, to draw a crowd from those shopping, or visiting museums, etc. It’s highly interactive. Most had not been to a science event before, they didn’t go out to see science, but they enjoyed it…

And finally, interact with local communities. WI have science events, Scouts and Guides, meet up groups… You can just contact and reach out to those groups. They have questions in their own effort. It allows you to speak to really interesting groups. But it does require lots of time. But I was based in Glasgow, now in Falkirk, and I’ve just done some of this with schools in the Goebbels where we knew that the kids rarely go on to science subjects…

So, this is really worth doing. You work, if it is tax-payer funded, should be accessible to the public. Some people don’t think they have an interest in science – some are right but others just remember dusty chalkboards and bland text books. You have to show them it’s something more than that.

What helps or hinders science communication by early career researchers? – Lewis MacKenzie

I’m a postdoc at the University of Leeds. I’m a keen science communicator and I try to get out there as much as possible… I want to talk about what helps or hinders science communication by early career researchers.

So, who are early career researchers? Well undergraduates are a huge pool of early career researchers and scientists which tend to be untapped; also PhDs; also postdocs. There are some shared barriers here: travel costs, time… That is especially the case in inaccessible parts of Scotland. There is a real issue that science communication is work (or training). And not all supervisors have a positive attitude to science communication. As well as all the other barriers to careers in science of course.

Let’s start with science communication training. I’ve been through the system as an undergraduate, PhD students and postdocs. A lot of training are (rightly) targeted at PhD students, often around writing, conferences, elevator pitches, etc. But there are issues/barriers for ECRs include… Pro-active sci comm is often not formally recognized as training/CPD/workload – especially at evenings and weekends. I also think undergraduate sci comm modules are minimal/non-existent. You get dedicated sci comm masters now, there is lots to explore. And there are relatively poor sci comm training opportunities for post docs. But across the board media skills training pretty much limited – how do you make youtube videos, podcasts, web comics, writing in a magazine – and that’s where a lot of science communication takes place!

Sci Comm in Schools includes some great stuff. STEMNET is an excellent way for ECRs, industry, retirees, etc as volunteers, some basic training, background checks, and a contact hub with schools and volunteers. However it is a confusing school system (especially in England) and curricula. How do you do age-appropriate communication. And just getting to the schools can be tricky – most PhDs and Sci Comm people won’t have a car. It’s basic but important as a barrier.

Science Communication Competitions are quite widespread. They tend to be aimed at PhD students, incentives being experience, training and prizes. But there are issues/barriers for ECRs – often conventional “stand and talk” format; not usually collaborative – even though team work can be brilliant, the big famous science communicators work with a team to put their shows and work together; intense pressure of competitions can be off putting… Some alternative formats would help with that.

Conferences… Now there was a tweet earlier this week from @LizyLowe suggesting that every conference should have a public engagement strand – how good would that be?!

Research Grant “Impact Plans”: major funders now require “impact plans” revolving around science communication. That makes time and money for science communication which is great. But there are issues. The grant writer often designate activities before ECRs are recruited. These prescriptive impact plans aren’t very inspiring for ECRS. Money may be inefficiently spent on things like expensive web design. I think we need a more agile approach to include input from ECRs once recruited.

Finally I wanted to finish with Science Communication Fellowships. These are run by people like Wellcome Trust Engagement Fellowships and the STFC. These are for the Olympic gold medallists of Sci Comm. But they are not great for ECRs. The dates are annual and inflexible – and the process is over 6 months – it is a slow decision making process. And they are intensively competitive so not very ECR friendly, which is a shame as many sci comm people are ECRs. So perhaps more institutions or agencies should offer sci comm fellowships? And  a continuous application process with shorter spells?

To sum up… ECRs at different career stages require different training and organisational support to enable science communication. And science communication needs to be recognised as formal work/training/education – not an out of hours hobby! There are good initiatives out there but there could be many more.

PANEL DISCUSSION – Michael Markie, F1000 (MM); Anna Ritchie, Mendeley, Elsevier (AR); Becky Douglas (BD); Lewis MacKenzie (LW) – chaired by Joanna Young (JY)

Q1 (JY): Picking up on what you said about Pathways to Impact statements… What advice would you give to ECRs if they are completing one of these? What should they do?

A1 (LM): It’s quite a weird thing to do… Two strands… This research will make loads of money and commercialise it; and the science communication strand. It’s easier to say you’ll do a science festival event, harder to say you’ll do press release… Can say you will blog you work once a month, or tweet a day in the lab… You can do that. In my fellowship application I proposed a podcast on biophysics that I’d like to do. You can be creative with your science communication… But there is a danger that people aren’t imaginative and make it a box-ticking thing. Just doing a science festival event and a webpage isn’t that exciting. And those plans are written once… But projects run for three years maybe… Things change, skills change, people on the team change…

A1 (BD): As an ECR you can ask for help – ask supervisors, peers, ask online, ask colleagues… You can always ask for advice!

A1 (MM): I would echo that you should ask experienced people for help. And think tactically as different funders have their own priorities and areas of interest here too.

Q2: I totally agree with the importance of communicating your science… But showing impact of that is hard. And not all research is of interest to the public – playing devil’s advocate – so what do you do? Do you broaden it? Do you find another way in?

A2 (LM): Taking a step back and talking about broader areas is good… I talk a fair bit about undergraduates as science communicators… They have really good broad knowledge and interest. They can be excellent. And this is where things like Science Soapbox can be so effective. There are other formats too.. Things like Bright Club which communicates research through comedy… That’s really different.

A2 (BD) I would agree with all of that. I would add that if you want to measure impact then you have to think about it from the outset – will you count people, some sort of voting or questionnaires. YOu have to plan this stuff in. The other thing is that you have to pitch things carefully to your audience. If I run events on gravitational waves I will talk about space and black holes… Whereas with a 5 year old I ask about gravity and we jump up and down so they understand what is relevant to them in their lives.

A2 (LM): In terms of metrics for science communication… At the British Science Association conference a few years back and this was a major theme… Becky mentioned getting kids to post notes in boxes at sessions… Professional science communicators think a great deal about this… Maybe not as much us “Sunday Fun Run” type people but we should engage more.

Comment (AR): When you prepare an impact statement are you asked for metrics?

A2 (LM): Not usually… They want impact but don’t ask about that…

A2 (BD): Whether or not you are asked for details of how something went you do want to know how you did… And even if you just ask “Did you learn something new today?” that can be really helpful for understanding how it went.

Q3: I think there are too many metrics… As a microbiologist… which ones should I worry about? Should there be a module at the beginning of my PhD to tell me?

A3 (AR): There is no one metric… We don’t want a single number to sum us up. There are so many metrics as one number isn’t enough, one isn’t enough… There is experimentation going on with what works and what works for you… So be part of the conversation, and be part of the change.

A3 (MM): I think there are too many metrics too… We are experimenting. Altmetrics are indicators, there are citations, that’s tangible… We just have to live with a lot of them all at once at the moment!

UNCONFERENCE SESSION 2: Preprints: A journey through time – Graham Steel

This will be a quick talk plus plenty of discussion space… From the onset of thinking about this conference I was very keen to talk about preprints…

So, who knows what a preprint is? There are plenty of different definitions out there – see Neylon et al 2017. But we’ll take the Wikipedia definition for now. I thought preprints dates to the 1990s. But I found a paper that referenced a pre-print from 1922!

Lets start there… Preprints were ticking along fine… But then a fightback began, In 1966 preprinte were made outlaws when Nature wanted to take “lethal steps” to end preprints. In 1969 we had a thing called the “Inglefinger Rule” – we’ll come back to that later… Technology wise various technologies ticked along… In 1989 Tim Berners Lee came along, In 1991 Cern set up, also ArXiv set up and grew swiftly… About 8k prepreints per month are uploaded to ArXiv each month as of 2016. Then, in 2007-12 we had Nature Preprints…

But in 2007, the fightback began… In 2012 the Ingelfinger rule was creating stress… There are almost 35k journals, only 37 still use the Ingelfinger rule… But they include key journals like Cell.

But we also saw the launch of BioaXiv in 2013. And we’ve had an explosion of preprints since then… Also 2013 there was a £5m Centre for Open Science set up. This is a central place for preprints… That is a central space, with over 2m preprints so far. There are now a LOT of new …Xiv preprint sites. In 2015 we saw the launch of the ASAPbio movement.

Earlier this year Mark Zuckerberg invested billions in boiXiv… But everything comes at a price…

Scottish spends on average £11m per year to access research through journals. The best average for APCs I could find is $906. Per pre-print it’s $10. If you want to post a pre-print you have to check the terms of your journal – usually extremely clear. Best to check in SHERPA/ROMEO.

If you want to find out more about preprints there is a great Twitter list, also some recommended preprints reading. Find these slides: slideshare.net/steelgraham and osf.io/zjps6/.

Q&A

Q1: I found Sherpa/Romeo by accident…. But really useful. Who runs it?

A1: It’s funded by Jisc

Q2: How about findability…

A2: ArXiv usually points to where this work has been submitted. And you can go back and add the DOI once published.

Q2: It’s acting as a static archive then? To hold the green copy

A2: And there is collaborative activity across that… And there is work to make those findable, to share them, they are shared on PubMed…

Q2: One of the problems I see is purely discoverability… Getting it easy to find on Google. And integration into knowledgebases, can be found in libraries, in portals… Hard for a researcher looking for a piece of research… They look for a subject, a topic, to search an aggregated platform and link out to it… To find the repository… So people know they have legal access to preprint copies.

A2: You have COAR at OU which aggregates preprints, suggests additional items when you search. There is ongoing work to integrate with CRIS systems, frequently commercial so interoperability here.

Comment: ArXiv is still the place for high energy physics so that is worth researchers going directly too…

Q3: Can I ask about preprints and research evaluation in the US?

A3: It’s an important way to get the work out… But the lack of peer review is an issue there so emerging stuff there…

GS: My last paper was taking forever to come out, we thought it wasn’t going to happen… We posted to PeerJ but discovered that that journal did use the Inglefinger Rule which scuppered us…

Comment: There are some publishers that want to put preprints on their own platform, so everything stays within their space… How does that sit/conflict with what libraries do…

GS: It’s a bit “us! us! us!”

Comment: You could see all submitted to that journal, which is interesting… Maybe not health… What happens if not accepted… Do you get to pull it out? Do you see what else has been rejected? Could get dodgy… Some potential conflict…

Comment: I believe it is positioned as a separate entity but with a path of least resistance… It’s a question… The thing is.. If we want preprints to be more in academia as opposed to publishers… That means academia has to have the infrastructure to do that, to connect repositories discoverable and aggregated… It’s a potential competitive relationship… Interesting to see how it plays out…

Comment: For Scopus and Web of Science… Those won’t take preprints… Takes ages… And do you want to give up more rights to the journals… ?

Comment: Can see why people would want multiple copies held… That seems healthy… My fear is it requires a lot of community based organisation to be a sustainable and competitive workflow…

Comment: Worth noting the radical “platinum” open access… Lots of preprints out there… Why not get authors to submit them, organise into free, open journal without a publisher… That’s Tim Garrow’s thing… It’s not hard to put together a team to peer review thematically and put out issues of a journal with no charges…

GS: That’s very similar to open library of humanities… And the Wellcome Trust & Gates Foundation stuff, and big EU platform. But the Gates one could be huge. Wellcome Trust is relatively small so far… But EU-wide will be major ramifications…

Comment: Platinum is more about overlay journals… Also like Scope3 and they do metrics on citations etc. to compare use…

GS: In open access we know about green, gold and with platinum it’s free to author and reader… But use of words different in different contexts…

Q4: What do you think the future is for pre-prints?

A4 – GS: There is a huge boom… There’s currently some duplication of central open preprints platform. But information is clear on use and uptake is on the rise… It will plateau at some point like PLoSOne. They launched 2006 and they probably plateaued around 2015. But it is number 2 in the charts of mega-journals, behind Scientific Reports. They increased APCs (around $1450) and that didn’t help (especially as they were profitable)…

SESSION THREE: Raising your research profile: online engagement & metrics

Green, Gold, and Getting out there: How your choice of publisher services can affect your research profile and engagement – Laura Henderson, Editorial Program Manager, Frontiers

We are based in Lausanne in Switzerland. We are fully digital, fully open access publisher. All of 58 journals are published under CC-BY licenses. And the organisation was set up scientists that wanted to change the landscape. So I wanted to talk today about how this can change your work.

What is traditional academic publishing?

Typically readers pay – journal subscriptions via institution/library or pay per view. Given the costs and number of articles they are expensive – ¢14B journals revenue in 2014 works out at $7k per article. It’s slow too.. Journal rejection cascade can take 6 months to a year each time. Up to 1 million papers – valid papers – are rejected every year. And these limit access to research around 80% of research papers are behind subscription paywalls. So knowledge gets out very slowly and inaccessibly.

By comparison open access… Well Green OA allows you to publish an dthen self-archive your paper in a repository where it can be accessed for free. you can use an institutional or central repository, or I’d suggest both. And there can be a delay due to embargo. Gold OA makes research output immediately available from th epublisher and you retain the copyright so no embargoes. It is fully discoverable via indexing and professional promotion services to relevant readers. No subscription fee to reader but usually involves APCs to the institution.

How does Open Access publishing compare? Well it inverts the funding – institution/grant funder supports authors directly, not pay huge subscrition fees for packages dictates by publishers. It’s cheaper – Green OA is usually free. Gold OA average fee is c. $1000 – $3000 – actually that’s half what is paid for subscription publishing. We do see projections of open access overtaking subscription publishing by 2020.

So, what benefits does open access bring? Well there is peer-review; scalable publishing platforms; impact metrics; author discoverability and reputation.

And I’d now like to show you what you should look for from any publisher – open access or others.

Firstly, you should expect basic services: quality assurance and indexing. Peter Suber suggests checking the DOAJ – Directory of Open Access Journals. You can also see if the publisher is part of OASPA which excludes publishers who fail to meet their standards. What else? Look for peer review nad good editors – you can find the joint COPE/OASPA/DOAJ Principles of Transaparancy and Best Practice in Scholarly Publishing. So you need to have clear peer review proceses. And you need a governing board and editors.

At Frontiers we have an impact-neutral peer review oricess. We don’t screen for papers with highest impact. Authors, reviewers and handling Associate Editor interact directly with each other in the online forum. Names of editors and reviewers publishhed on final version of paper. And this leads to an average of 89 days from submission to acceptance – and that’s an industry leading timing… And that’s what won an ASPLP Innovation Award.

So, what are the extraordinary services a top OA publisher can provide? Well altmetrics are more readily available now. Digital articles are accessible and trackable. In Frontiers our metrics are built into every paper… You can see views, downloads, and reader demographics. And that’s post-publication analytics that doesn’t rely on impact factor. And it is community-led imapact – your peers decide the impact and importance.

How discoverable are you? We launched a bespoke built-in networking profile for every author and user: Loop. Scrapes all major index databases to find youe work – constatly updating. It’s linked to Orchid and is included in peer review process. When people look at your profile you can truly see your impact in the world.

In terms of how peers find your work we have article alerts going to 1 million people, and a newsletter that goes to 300k readers. And our articles have 250 million article views and downloads, with hotspots in Mountain View California, and in Shendeng, and areas of development in the “Global South”.

So when you look for a publisher, look for a publisher with global impact.

What are all these dots and what can linking them tell me? – Rachel Lammey, Crossref

Crossref are a not for profit organisation. So… We have articles out there, datasets, blogs, tweets, Wikipedia pages… We are really interested to understand these links. We are doing that through Crossref Event Data, tracking the conversation, mainly around objects with a DOI. The main way we use and mention publications is in the citations of articles. That’s the traditional way to discuss research and understand news. But research is being used in lots of different ways now – Twitter and Reddit…

So, where does Crossref fit in? It is the DOI registration agency for scholarly content. Publishers register their content with us. URLs do change and do break… And that means you need something ore persistent so it can still be used in their research… Last year at ReCon we tried to find DOI gaps in reference lists – hard to do. Even within journals publications move around… And switch publishers… The DOI fixes that reference. We are sort of a switchboard for that information.

I talked about citations and references… Now we are looking beyong that. It is about capturing data and relationships so that understanding and new services (by others) can be built… As such it’s an API (Application Programming Interface) – it’s lots of data rather than an interface. SO it captures subject, relation, object, tweet, mentions, etc. We are generating this data (As of yesterday we’ve seen 14 m events), we are not doing anything with it so this is a clear set of data to do further work on.

We’ve been doing work with NISO Working Group on altmetrics, but again, providing the data not the analysis. So, what can this data show? We see citation rings/friends gaming the machine; potential peer review scams; citation patterns. How can you use this data? Almost any way. Come talk to us about Linked Data; Article Level Metrics; general discoverability, etc.

We’ve done some work ourselves… For instant the Live Data from all sources – including Wikipedia citing various pages… We have lots of members in Korea, and started looking just at citations on Korean Wikipedia. It’s free under a CC0 license. If you are interested, go make something cool… Come ask me questions… And we have a beta testing group and we welcome you feedback and experiments with our data!

The wonderful world of altmetrics: why researchers’ voices matter – Jean Liu, Product Development Manager, Altmetric

I’m actually five years out of graduate school, so I have some empathy with PhD students and ECRs. I really want to go through what Altmetrics is and what measures there are. It’s not controversial to say that altmetrics have been experiencing a meteoric rise over the last few years… That is partly because we have so much more to draw upon than the traditional journal impact factors, citation counts, etc.

So, who are altmetrics.com? We have about 20 employees, founded in 2011 and all based in London. And we’ve started to see that people re receptive to altmetrics, partly because of the (near) instant feedback… We tune into the Twitter firehose – that phrase is apt! Altmetrics also showcase many “flavours” of attention and impact that research can have – and not just articles. And the signals we tracked are highly varies: policy documents, news, blogs, Twitter, post-publication peer review, Facebook, Wikipedia, LinkedIn, Reddit, etc.

Altmetrics also have limitations. They are not a replacement for peer review or citation-based metrics. They can be gamed – but data providers have measures in place to guard against this. We’ve seen interesting attempts at gamification – but often caught…

Researchers are not only the ones who receive attention in altmetrics, but they are also the ones generating attention that make up altmetrics – but not all attention is high quality or trustworthy. We don’t want to suggest that researchers should be judged just on altmetrics…

Meanwhile Universities are asking interesting questions: how an our researchers change policy? Which conference can I send people to which will be most useful, etc.

So, lets see the topic of “diabetic neuropathy”. Looking around we can see a blog, an NHS/Nice guidance document, and a The Conversation. A whole range of items here. And you can track attention over time… Both by volume, but also you can look at influencers across e.g. News Outlets, Policy Outlets, Blogs and Tweeters. And you can understand where researcher voices feature (all are blogs). And I can then compare news and policy and see the difference. The profile for News and Blogs are quite different…

How can researchers voices be heard? Well you can write for a different audience, you can raise the profile of your work… You can become that “go-to” person. You also want to be really effective when you are active – altmetrics can help you to understand where your audience is and how they respond, to understand what is working well.

And you can find out more by trying the altmetric bookmarking browser plugin, by exploring these tools on publishing platforms (where available), or by taking a look.

How to help more people find and understand your work – Charlie Rapple, Kudos

I’m sorry to be the last person on the agenda, you’ll all be overwhelmed as there has been so much information!

I’m one of the founders of Kudos and we are an organisation dedicated to helping you increase the reach and impact of your work. There is such competition for funding, a huge growth in outputs, there is a huge fight for visibility and usage, a drive for accountability and a real cult of impact. You are expected to find and broaden the audience for your work, to engage with the public. And that is the context in which we set up Kudos. We want to help you navigate this new world.

Part of the challenge is knowing where to engage. We did a survey last year with around 3000 participants to ask how they share their work – conferences, academic networking, conversations with colleagues all ranked highly; whilst YouTube, slideshare, etc. are less used.

Impact is built on readership – impacts cross a variety of areas… But essentially it comes down to getting people to find and read your work. So, for me it starts with making sure you increase the number of people reaching and engaging with your work. Hence the publication is at the centre – for now. That may well be changing as other material is shared.

We’ve talked a lot about metrics, there are very different ones and some will matter more to you than others. Citations have high value, but so do mentions, clicks, shares, downloads… Do take the time to think about these. And think about how your own actions and behaviours contribute back to those metrics… So if you email people about your work, track that to see if it works… Make those connections… Everyone has their own way and, as Nicola was saying in the Digital Footprint session, communities exist already, you have to get work out there… And your metrics have to be about correlating what happens – readership and citations. Kudos is a management tool for that.

In terms of justifying time here is that communications do increase impact. We have been building up data on how that takes place. A team from Nanyang Technological Institute did a study of our data in 2016 and they saw that the Kudos tools – promoting their work – they had 23% higher growth in downloads of full text on publisher sites. And that really shows the value of doing that engagement. It will actually lead to meaningful results.

So a quick look at how Kudos works… It’s free for researchers (www.growkudos.com) and it takes about 15 minutes to set up, about 10 minutes each time you publish something new. You can find a publication, you can use your ORCID if you have one… It’s easy to find your publication and once you have then you have page for that where you can create a plain language explanation of your work and why it is important – that is grounded in talking to researchers about what they need. For example: http://bit.ly/plantsdance. That plain text is separate from the abstract. It’s that first quick overview. The advantage of this is that it is easier for people within the field to skim and scam your work; people outside your field in academia can skip terminology of your field and understand what you’ve said. There are also people outside academia to get a handle on research and apply it in non-academic ways. People can actually access your work and actually understand it. There is a lot of research to back that up.

Also on publication page you can add all the resources around your work – code, data, videos, interviews, etc. So for instance Claudia Sick does work on baboons and why they groom where they groom – that includes an article and all of that press coverage together. That publication page gives you a URL, you can post to social media from within Kudos. You can copy the trackable link and paste wherever you like. The advantage to doing this in Kudos is that we can connect that up to all of your metrics and your work. You can get them all in one place, and map it against what you have done to communicate. And we map those actions to show which communications are more effective for sharing… You can really start to refine your efforts… You might have built networks in one space but the value might all be in another space.

Sign up now and we are about to launch a game on building up your profile and impact, and scores your research impact and lets you compare to others.

PANEL DISCUSSION – Laura Henderson, Editorial Program Manager, Frontiers (LH); Rachel Lammey, Crossref (RL); Jean Liu, Product Development Manager, Altmetric (JL); Charlie Rapple, Kudos (CR). 

Q1: Really interesting but how will the community decide which spaces we should use?

A1 (CR): Yes, in the Nangyang work we found that most work was shared on Facebook, but more links were engaged with on Twitter. There is more to be done, and more to filter through… But we have to keep building up the data…

A1 (LH): We are coming from the same sort of place as Jean there, altmetrics are built into Frontiers, connected to ORCID, Loop built to connect to institutional plugins (totally open plugin). But it is such a challenge… Facebook, Twitter, LinkedIn, SnapChat… Usually personal choice really, we just want to make it easier…

A1 (JL): It’s about interoperability. We are all working in it together. You will find certain stats on certain pages…

A1 (RL): It’s personal choice, it’s interoperability… But it is about options. Part of the issue with impact factor is the issue of being judged by something you don’t have any choice or impact upon… And I think that we need to give new tools, ways to select what is right for them.

Q2: These seem like great tools, but how do we persuade funders?

A2 (JL): We have found funders being interested independently, particularly in the US. There is this feeling across the scholarly community that things have to change… And funders want to look at what might work, they are already interested.

A2 (LH): We have an office in Brussels which lobbies to the European Commission, we are trying to get our voice for Open Science heard, to make difference to policies and mandates… The impact factor has been convenient, it’s well embedded, it was designed by an institutional librarian, so we are out lobbying for change.

A2 (CR): Convenience is key. Nothing has changed because nothing has been convenient enough to replace the impact factor. There is a lot of work and innovation in this area, and it is not only on researchers to make that change happen, it’s on all of us to make that change happen now.

Jo Young (JY): To finish a few thank yous… Thank you all for coming a lot today, to all of our speakers, and a huge thank you for Peter and Radic (our cameramen), to Anders, Graham and Jan for work in planning this. And to Nicola and Amy who have been liveblogging, and to all who have been tweeting. Huge thanks to CrossRef, Frontiers, F1000, JYMedia, and PLoS.

And with that we are done. Thanks to all for a really interesting and busy day!

 

Apr 052017
 
Cakes at the CIGS Web 2.0 and Metadata Event 2017

Today I’m at the Cataloguing and Indexing Group Scotland event – their 7th Metadata & Web 2.0 event – Somewhere over the Rainbow: our metadata online, past, present & future. I’m blogging live so, as usual, all comments, corrections, additions, etc. are welcome. 

Paul Cunnea, CIGS Chair is introducing the day noting that this is the 10th year of these events: we don’t have one every year but we thought we’d return to our Wizard of Oz theme.

On a practical note, Paul notes that if we have a fire alarm today we’d normally assemble outside St Giles Cathedral but as they are filming The Avengers today, we’ll be assembling elsewhere!

There is also a cupcake competition today – expect many baked goods to appear on the hashtag for the day #cigsweb2. The winner takes home a copy of Managing Metadata in Web-scale Discovery Systems / edited by Louise F Spiteri. London : Facet Publishing, 2016 (list price £55).

Engaging the crowd: old hands, modern minds. Evolving an on-line manuscript transcription project / Steve Rigden with Ines Byrne (not here today) (National Library of Scotland)

Ines has led the development of our crowdsourcing side. My role has been on the manuscripts side. Any transcription is about discovery. For the manuscripts team we have to prioritise digitisation so that we can deliver digital surrogates that enable access, and to open up access. Transcription hugely opens up texts but it is time consuming and that time may be better spent on other digitisation tasks.

OCR has issues but works relatively well for printed texts. Manuscripts are a different matter – handwriting, ink density, paper, all vary wildly. The REED(?) project is looking at what may be possible but until something better comes along we rely on human effort. Generally the manuscript team do not undertake manual transcription, but do so for special exhibitions or very high priority items. We also have the challenge that so much of our material is still under copyright so cannot be done remotely (but can be accessed on site). The expected user community generally can be expected to have the skill to read the manuscript – so a digital surrogate replicates that experience. That being said, new possibilities shape expectations. So we need to explore possibilities for transcription – and that’s where crowd sourcing comes in.

Crowd sourcing can resolve transcription, but issues with copyright and data protection still have to be resolved. It has taken time to select suitable candidates for transcription. In developing this transcription project we looked to other projects – like Transcribe Bentham which was highly specialised, through to projects with much broader audiences. We also looked at transcription undertaken for the John Murray Archive, aimed at non specialists.

The selection criteria we decided upon was for:

  • Hands that are not too troublesome.
  • Manuscripts that have not been re-worked excessively with scoring through, corrections and additions.
  • Documents that are structurally simple – no tables or columns for example where more complex mark-up (tagging) would be required.
  • Subject areas with broad appeal: genealogies, recipe book (in the old crafts of all kinds sense), mountaineering.

Based on our previous John Murray Archive work we also want the crowd to provide us with structure text, so that it can be easily used, by tagging the text. That’s an approach that is borrowed from Transcribe Bentham, but we want our community to be self-correcting rather than doing QA of everything going through. If something is marked as finalised and completed, it will be released with the tool to a wider public – otherwise it is only available within the tool.

The approach could be summed up as keep it simple – and that requires feedback to ensure it really is simple (something we did through a survey). We did user testing on our tool, it particularly confirmed that users just want to go in, use it, and make it intuitive – that’s a problem with transcription and mark up so there are challenges in making that usable. We have a great team who are creative and have come up with solutions for us… But meanwhile other project have emerged. If the REED project is successful in getting machines to read manuscripts then perhaps these tools will become redundant. Right now there is nothing out there or in scope for transcribing manuscripts at scale.

So, lets take a look at Transcribe NLS

You have to login to use the system. That’s mainly to help restrict the appeal to potential malicious or erroneous data. Once you log into the tool you can browse manuscripts, you can also filter by the completeness of the transcription, the grade of the transcription – we ummed and ahhed about including that but we though it was important to include.

Once you pick a text you click the button to begin transcribing – you can enter text, special characters, etc. You can indicate if text is above/below the line. You can mark up where the figure is. You can tag whether the text is not in English. You can mark up gaps. You can mark that an area is a table. And you can also insert special characters. It’s all quite straight forward.

Q&A

Q1) Do you pick the transcribers, or do they pick you?

A1) Anyone can take part but they have to sign up. And they can indicate a query – which comes to our team. We do want to engage with people… As the project evolves we are looking at the resources required to monitor the tool.

Q2) It’s interesting what you were saying about copyright…

A2) The issues of copyright here is about sharing off site. A lot of our manuscripts are unpublished. We use exceptions such as the 1956 Copyright Act for old works whose authors had died. The selection process has been difficult, working out what can go in there. We’ve also cheated a wee bit

Q3) What has the uptake of this been like?

A3) The tool is not yet live. We thin it will build quite quickly – people like a challenge. Transcription is quite addictive.

Q4) Are there enough people with palaeography skills?

A4) I think that most of the content is C19th, where handwriting is the main challenge. For much older materials we’d hit that concern and would need to think about how best to do that.

Q5) You are creating these documents that people are reading. What is your plan for archiving these.

A5) We do have a colleague considering and looking at digital preservation – longer term storage being more the challenge. As part of normal digital preservation scheme.

Q6) Are you going for a Project Gutenberg model? Or have you spoken to them?

A6) It’s all very localised right now, just seeing what happens and what uptake looks like.

Q7) How will this move back into the catalogue?

A7) Totally manual for now. It has been the source of discussion. There was discussion of pushing things through automatically once transcribed to a particular level but we are quite cautious and we want to see what the results start to look like.

Q8) What about tagging with TEI? Is this tool a subset of that?

A8) There was a John Murray Archive, including mark up and tagging. There was a handbook for that. TEI is huge but there is also TEI Light – the JMA used a subset of the latter. I would say this approach – that subset of TEI Light – is essentially TEI Very Light.

Q9) Have other places used similar approaches?

A9) TRanscribe Bentham is similar in terms of tagging. The University of Iowa Civil War Archive has also had a similar transcription and tagging approach.

Q10) The metadata behind this – how significant is that work?

A10) We have basic metadata for these. We have items in our digital object database and simple metadata goes in there – we don’t replicate the catalogue record but ensure it is identifiable, log date of creation, etc. And this transcription tool is intentionally very basic at th emoment.

Coming up later…

Can web archiving the Olympics be an international team effort? Running the Rio Olympics and Paralympics project / Helena Byrne (British Library)

I am based at the UK Web Archive, which is based at the British Library. The British Library is one of the six legal deposit libraries. The BL are also a member of the International Internet Preservation Consortium – as are the National Library of Scotland. The Content Development Group works on any project with international relevance and a number of interested organisations.

Last year I was lucky enough to be lead curator on the Olympics 2016 Web Archiving project. We wanted to get a good range of content. Historically our archives for Olympics have been about the events and official information only. This time we wanted the wider debate, controversy, fandom, and the “e-Olympics”.

We received a lot of nominations for sites. This is one of the biggest we have been involved in. There was 18 IIPC members involved in the project, but nominations also came from wider nominations. We think this will be a really good resource for those researching the events in Rio. We had material in 34 languages in total. English was the top language collected – reflecting IIPC memberships to some extent. In terms of what we collected it included Official IOC materials – but few as we have a separate archive across Games for these. But subjects included athletes, teams, gender, doping, etc. There were a large number of website types submitted. Not all material nominated were collected – some incomplete metadata, unsuccessful crawls, duplicate nominations, and the web is quite fragile still and some links were already dead when we reached them.

There were four people involved here, myself, my line manager, the two IIPC chairs, and the IIPC communications person (also based at BL). We designed a collection strategy to build engagement as well as content. The Olympics is something with very wide appeal and lots of media coverage around the political and Zika situation so we did widen the scope of collection.

Thinking about our user we had collaborative tools that worked with contributors context: Webex, Google Drive and Maps, and Slack (free for many contexts) was really useful. Chapter 8 in “Altmetrics” is great for alternatives to Google – it is important to have those as it’s simply not accessible in some locations.

We used mostly Google Sheets for IIPC member nominations – 15 fields, 6 of which were obligatory. For non members we used a (simplified) Google Form – shared through social media. Some non IIPC member organisations used this approach – for instance a librarian in Hawaii submitted lots of pacific islands content.

In terms of communicating the strategy we developed instructional videos (with free tools – Screencastomatic and Windows Movie Maker) with text and audio commentary, print summaries, emails, and public blog posts. Resources were shared via Google Drive so that IIPC members could download and redistributed.

No matter whether IIPC member or through the nomination form, we wanted six key fields:

  1. URL – free form
  2. Event – drop down option
  3. Title – free form (and English translation option if relevant)
  4. Olympic/Paralympic sport – drop down option
  5. Country – free form
  6. Contributing organisation – free form (for admin rather than archive purposes)

There are no international standards for cataloguing web archive data. OCLC have a working group looking at this just now – they are due to report this year. One issue that has been raised is the context of those doing the cataloguing – cataloguing versus archiving.

Communications are essential on a regular basis – there was quite a long window of nomination and collection across the summer. We had several pre-event crawl dates, then also dates during and after both the Olympics and the Paralympics. I would remind folk about this, and provide updates on that, on what was collected, to share that map of content collected. We also blogged the projects to engage and promote what we were doing. The Participants enjoyed the updates – it helped them justify time spent on the project to their own managers and organisations.

There were some issues along the way…

  • The trailing backslash is required for the crawler – so if there is no trailing backslash the crawler takes everything it can find – attempting all of BBC or Twitter is a problem.
  • Not tracking the date of nomination – e.g. organisations adding to the spreadsheet without updating date of nomination – that was essential to avoid duplication so that’s a tip for Google forms.
  • Some people did not fill in all of the six mandatory fields (or didn’t fill them in completely.
  • Country name vs Olympic team name. That is unexpectedly complex. Team GB includes England, Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland… But Northern Ireland can also compete in Ireland. Palestine isn’t recognised as a country in all places, but it is in the Olympics. And there was a Refugee Team as well – with no country to tie to. Similar issues of complexity came out of organisation names – there are lots of ways to write the name of the British Library for instance.

We promoted the project with four blog posts sharing key updates and news. We had limited direct contact – mostly through email and Slack/messaging. We also had a unique hashtag for the collection #Rio2016WA – not catchy but avoids confusion with Wario (Nintendo game) – and Twitter chat, a small but international chat.

Ethically we only crawl public sites but the IIPC also have a take down policy so that anyone can request their site be removed.

Conclusions… Be aware of any cultural differences with collaborators. Know who your users are. Have a clear project plan, available in different mediums. And communicate regularly – to keep enthusiasm going. And, most importantly, don’t assume anything!

Finally… Web Archiving Week is in London in June, 12th-16th 2017. There is a “Datathon” but the deadline is Friday! Find out more at http://netpreserve.org/general-assembly/2017/overview. And you can find out more about the UK Web Archive via our website and blog: webarchive.org.uk/blog. You can also follow us and the IIPC on Twitter.

Explore the Olympics archive at: https://archive-it.org/collections/7235

Q&A

Q1) For British Library etc… Did you use a controlled vocabulary

A1) No but we probably will next time. There were suggestions/autocomplete. Similarly for countries. For Northern Irish sites I had to put them in as Irish and Team GB at the same time.

Q2) Any interest from researchers yet? And/or any connection to those undertaking research – I know internet researchers will have been collecting tweets…

A2) Colleagues in Rio identified a PhD project researching the tweets – very dynamic content so hard to capture. Not huge amount of work yet. I want to look at the research projects that took place after the London 2012 Olympics – to see if the sites are still available.

Q3) Anything you were unable to collect?

A3) In some cases articles are only open for short periods of time – we’d do more regular crawls of those nominations next time I think.

Q4) What about Zika content?

A4) We didn’t have a tag for Zika, but we did have one for corruption, doping, etc. Lots of corruption post event after the chair of the Irish Olympic Committee was arrested!

Statistical Accounts of Scotland / Vivienne Mayo (EDINA)

I’m based at EDINA and we run various digital services and projects, primarily for the education sector. Today I’m going to talk about the Statistical Accounts of Scotland. These are a hugely rich and valuable collection of statistical data that span both the agricultural and industrial revolutions in Scotland. The online service launched in 2001 but was thoroughly refreshed and relaunched next year.

There are two accounts. The first set was created (1791-1799) by Sir John Sinclair of Ulbster. He had a real zeal for agricultural data. There had been attempts to collect data in the 16th and 17th centuries. So Sir John set about a plan to get every minister in Scotland to collect data on their parishes. He was inspired by German surveys but also had his own ideas for his project:

“an inquiry into the state of a country, for the purpose of ascertaining the quantum of happiness enjoyed by its inhabitants, and the means of its future improvement”

He also used the word “Statistics” as a kind of novel, interesting term – it wasn’t in wide use. And the statistics in the accounts are more qualitative then the quantitative data we associate with the word today.

Sir John sent minister 160 questions, then another 6, then another set a year late so that there were 171 in total. So you can imagine how delighted they were to receive that. And the questions (you can access them all in the service) were hard to answer – asking about the wellbeing of parishioners, how their circumstances could be ameliorated… But ministers were paid by the landowners who employed their parishioners so that data also has to be understood in context. There were also more factual questions on crops, pricing, etc.

It took a long time – 8 years – to collect the data. But it was a major achievement. And these accounts were part of a “pyramid” of data for the agricultural reports. He had country reports, but also higher level reports. This was at the time of the Enlightenment and the idea was that with this data you could improve the condition of life.

Even though the ministers did complete their returns, for some it was struggle – and certainly hard to be accurate. Population tables were hard to get correct, especially in the context of scepticism that this data might be used to collect taxes or other non-beneficial purposes.

The Old Account was a real success. And the Church of Scotland commissioned a New Account from 1834-45 as a follow up to that set of accounts.

The online service was part of one of the biggest digitisation projects in Scotland in the late 1990s, with the accounts going live in 2001. But much had changed since then in terms of functionality that any user might expect. In this new updated service we have added the ability to tag, to annotate, to save… Transcriptions have been improved, the interface has been improved. We have also made it easier to find associated resources – selected by our editorial board drawn from libraries, archives, specialists on this data.

When Sir John published the Old Accounts he printed them in volumes as they were received – that makes it difficult to browse and explore those. And there can be multiple accounts for the same parish. So we have added a way to browse each of the 21 volumes so that it is easier to find what you need. Place is key for our users and we wanted to make the service more accessible. Page numbers were an issue too – our engineers provide numbering of sections – so if you look for Portpatrick – you can find all of the sections and volumes where that area occurs. Typically sections are a parish report, but it can be other types of content too – title pages, etc.

Each section is associated with a Parish – which is part of a county. And there may be images (illustrations such as coal seams, elevations of notable buildings in the parish, etc.). Each section is also associated with pages – including images of the pages – as well as transcripts and indexed data used to enable searching.

So, if I search for tea drinking… Described as a moral menace in some of the earlier accounts! When you run a search like this identifies associated sections, the related resources, and associated words – those words that often occur with the search term. For tea-drinking “twopenny” is often associated… Following that thread I found a county of forfar from 1793… And this turns out to be the slighly alarming sounding home brew…

“They make their own malt, and brew it into that kind of drink called Two-penny which, till debased in consequence of multiplied taxes, was long the favourite liquor of all ranks of people in Dundee.”

When you do look at a page like this you can view the transcription – which tends to be easier to read than the scanned pages with their flourishes and “f” instead of “s”. You can tag, annotate, and share the pages. There are lots of ways to explore and engage with the text.

There are lots of options to search the service – simple search, advanced search, and new interactive maps of areas and parishes – these use historic maps from the NLS collections and are brand new to the service.

With all these new features we’d love to hear your feedback when you do take a look at the service – do let us know how you find it.

I wanted to show an example of change and illustration here. In the old Accounts of Dumfries (Vol 5, p. 119) talks about the positive improvements to housing and the idea of “improvement” as a very positive thing. We also see an illustration from the New Accounts of old habitations and new modern house of the small tenants – but that was from a Parish owned by the Duke of Sutherland who had a notorious reputation as a brutal landlord for clearing land and murdering tenants to make these “improvements”. So, again one has to understand the context of this content.

Looking at Dumfries in the Old Accounts things looked good, some receiving poor support. The increase in industry means that by the New Accounts the population has substantially grown, as has poverty. The minister also comments on the impact of the three inns in town, the increase in poaching. Transitory population can also effect health – there is a vivid account of a cholera outbreak from 15th Sept – 27th Nov in 1832. That seems relatively recent but at that point they thought transmission was through the air, they didn’t realise it was water born until some time later.

Some accounts, like that one, are highly descriptive. But many are briefer or less richly engaging. Deaths are often carefully captured. The minister for Dumfries put together a whole table of deaths – causes of which include, surprisingly, teething. And there are also records of healthcare and healthcare costs – including one individual paying for several thousand children to be inoculated against smallpox.

Looking at the schools near us here in central Edinburgh there was free education for some poor children. But schooling mostly wasn’t free. The costs for one child for reading and writing, if you were a farm labourer, it would be a 12th of your salary. To climb the social ladder with e.g. French, Latin, etc. the teaching was far more expensive. And indeed there is a chilling quote in the New Accounts from Cadder, County of Lanark (Vol 8, P. 481) spoke of attitudes that education was corrupting for the poor. This was before education became mandatory (in 1834).

There is also some colourful stuff in the Accounts. There is a lot of witchcraft, local stories, and folk stories. One of my colleagues found a lovely story about a tradition that the last person buried in one area “manned the gates” until the next one arrived. Then one day two people died and there were fisticuffs!

I was looking for something else entirely and, in Fife, a story of a girl who set sale from Greenock, was captured by pirates, was sold into a Hareem, and became a princess in Morroco – there’s a book called The Fourth Queen based on that story.

There is an anvil known as the “Reformation Cloth” – pre-reformation there was a blacksmith thought the catholic priest was having an affair with his wife… And took his revenge by attacking the offending part of the minister on that anvil. I suspect that there may have been some ministerial stuff at play here too – the parish minister notes that “no other catholic minister replaced him” – but it is certainly colourful.

And that’s all I wanted to share today. Hopefully I’ve peaked your interest. You can browse the accounts for free and then some of the richer features are part of our subscription service. Explore the Statistical Accounts of Scotland at: http://stataccscot.edina.ac.uk/. You can also follow us on Twitter, Facebook, etc.

Q&A

Q1) SOLR indexing and subject headings – can you say more?

A1) They used subject headings from original transcriptions. And then there was some additions made based on those.

Comment) The Accounts are also great for Wikipedia editing! I found references to Christian Shaw, a thread pioneer I was looking to build a page about. In the Accounts as she was mentioned in a witchcraft trial that is included there. It can be a really useful way to find details that aren’t documented elsewhere.

Q2) You said it was free to browse – how about those related resources?

A2) Those related resources are part of the subscription services.

Q3) Any references to sports and leisure?

A3) Definitely to festivals, competitions, events etc. As well as some regular activities in the parish.

Beyond bibliographic description: emotional metadata on YouTube / Diane Pennington (University of Strathclyde)

I want to start with this picture of a dog in a dress…. How do you feel when you see this picture? How do you think she was feeling? [people in the room guess the pup might be embarrassed].

So, this is Tina, she’s my dog. She’s wearing a dress we had made for her when we got married… And when she wears it she always looks so happy… And people, when I shared it on social media, also thought she looked happy. And that got me curious about emotion and emotional responses… That isn’t accommodated in bibliographic metadata. As a community we need to think about how this material makes us feel, how else can we describe things? When you search for music online mood is something you might want to see… But usually it’s recommendations like “this band is similar to…”. My favourite band is U2 and I get recommended Coldplay… And that makes me mad, they aren’t similar!

So, when we teach and practice ILS, we think about information as text that sits in a database, waiting for a user to write a query and get a match. The problem is that there are so many other ways that people also want to look for information – not just bibliographic information, full text, but in other areas too, like bodily – what pain means (Yates 2015); photographs, videos, music (Rasmussen Neal, 2012) – where the full text doesn’t include the search terms or keywords inherantly; “matter and energy” (Bates, 2006) – that there is information everywhere and the need to think more broadly to describe this.

I’ve been working in this area for a while and I started looking at Flickr, at pictures that are tagged “happy”. Those tend to include smiling people, holiday photos, sunny days, babies, cute animals. Relevance rankings showed “happy” more often, people engaged and liked more with happy photos… But music is different. We often want music that matches our mood… There were differences to tags and understanding music… Heavy metal sounds angy, slower or minor key music sounds sad…

So, the work I’m talking about you can also find in an article published last year.

My work was based on the U2 song, Song for Someone. And there are over 150 fan videos created for this song.. And if I show you this one (by Dimas Fletcher) you’ll see it is high production values… The song was written by Bono for his wife – they’ve been together since they were teenagers, and it’s very slow and emotional, and reminisces about being together. So this video is a really different interpretation.

Background to this work, and theoretical framework for it, includes:

  • “Basic emotions” from cognition, psychology, music therapy (Ekman, 1992)
  • Emotional Information Retrieval
  • omains of fandom and aca-fandom (Stein & Busse, 2009; Bennett, 2014)
  • Online participatory culture, such as writing fan fiction or making cover versions of videos for loves songs (Jenkins, 2013)
  • U2 acadeic study – and u2conference.com
  • Intertexuality as a practic in online participatory culture (Varmacelli 2013?)

So I wanted to do a discourse analysis (Budd & Raber 1996, Iedema 2003) applied to intertextuality. And I wanted to analyse the emotional information conveyed in 150 YouTUbe cover videos of U2’s Song for Someone. And also a quantitative view of views, comments, likes and dislikes – indicating response to them.

The producers of these videos created lots of different types of videos. Some were cover versions. Some were original versions of the song with new visual content. Some were tutorials on how to play the song. And then there were videos exhibiting really deep personal connections with the song.

So the cover versions are often very emotional – a comment says that. That emotion level is metadata. There are videos in context – background details, kids dancing, etc. But then some are filmed out of a plane window. The tutorials include people, some annotated “kareoke piano” tutorials…

Intertextuality… You need to understand your context. So one of the videos shows a guy in a yellow cape who is reaching and touching the Achtung Baby album cover before starting to sing. In another video a person is in the dark, in shadow… But here Song for Someone lyrics and title on the wall, but then playing and mashing up with another song. In another video the producer and his friend try to look like U2.

Then we have the producers comments and descriptions that add greatly to understanding those videos. Responses from consumers – more likes than dislikes; almost all positive comments – this is very different from some Justin Bieber YouTube work I did a while back. You see comments on the quality of the cover, on the emotion of the song.

The discussion is an expression of emotion. The producers show tenderness, facial expressions, surrounds, music elements. And you see social construction here…

And we can link this to something like FRBR… U2 as authoritative version, and FRBR relationships… Is there a way we can show the relationship between Songs of Innocence by William Blake, Songs of Innocence as an album, cover versions, etc.

As we move forward there is so much more we need to do when we design systems for description that accommodate more than just keywords/bibliographic records. There is no full text inherent in a video or other non-textual document – an indexing problem. And we need to account for not only emotion, but also socially constructed and individually experienced emotional responses to items. Ultimate goal – help people to find things in meaningful ways to even potentially be useful in therapies (Hanser 2010).

Q&A

Q1) Comment more than a question… I work with film materials in the archive, and we struggle to bring that alive, but you do have some response from the cataloguer and their reactions – and reactions at the access centre – and that could be part of the record.

A1) That’s part of archives – do we need it in every case… Some of the stuff I study gets taken down… Do we need to archive (some of) them?

Q1) Also a danger that you lose content because catalogue records are not exciting enough… Often stuff has to go on YouTube to get seen and accessed – but then you lose that additional metadata…

A1) We do need to go where our audience is… Maybe we do need to be on YouTube more… And maybe we can use Linked Data to make things more findable. Catalogue records rarely come up high enough in search results…

Q2) This is a really subjective way to mark something up… So, for instance, Songs of Innocence was imposed on my iPhone and I respond quite negatively to that… How do you catalogue emotion with that much subjectivity at play?

A2) This is where we have happy songs versus individual perspectives… Most people think The Beatles’ Here Comes the Sun is mostly seen is happy… But if someone broke up with you during it…  How do we build into algorithms to tune into those different opinions..

Q3) How do producers choose to tag things – the lyrics, the tune, their reaction… But you kind of answered that… I mean people have Every Breath You Take by the Police as their first song at a wedding but it’s about a jilted lover stalking his ex…

A3) We need to think about how we provide access, and how we can move forward with this… My first job was in a record store and people would come in and ask “can I buy this record that was on the radio at about 3pm” and that was all they could offer… We need those facets, those emotions…

Q4) I had the experience of seeing quite a neutral painting but then with more context that painting meant something else entirely… So how do we account for that, that issue of context and understanding of the same songs in different ways…

A4) There isn’t one good solution to that but part of the web 2.0 approach is about giving space for the collective and the individual perspective.

Q5) How about musical language?

A5) Yeah.. I took an elective on musical librarianship. My tutor there showed me the tetrachords in Dido & Aeneid as a good example of an opera that people respond in very particular ways. There are musical styles that map to particular emotions.

Our 5Rights: digital rights of children and young people / Dev Kornish, Dan Dickson, Bethany Wilson (5Rights Youth Commission)

We are from Young Scot and Young Scot

1 in 5 young people have missed food or sleep because of the internet.

How many unemployed young people struggle with entering work due to the lack of digital skills? It’s 1 in 10 who struggle with CVs, online applications, and jobs requiring digital skills.

How young do people start building their digital footprint? Before birth – an EU study found that 80% of mothers had shared images, including scans, of their children.

Bethany: We are passionate about our rights and how our rights can be maintained in a digital world. When it comes to protecting young people online it can be scary… But that doesn’t mean we shouldn’t use the internet or technology, when used critically The 5Rights campaign aims to do ensure we have that understanding.

Dan: The UNCRC outlines rights and these are: the right to remove; the right to know – who has your data and what they are doing with it; the right to safety and support; the right to informed and conscious use – we should be able to opt out or remove ourselves if we want to; right to digital literacy – to use and to create.

Bethany: Under the right to remove, we do sometimes post things we shouldn’t but we should be able to remove things if we want to. In terms of the right to know – we don’t read the terms and conditions but we have the right to be informed, we need support. The right to safety and support requires respect – dismissing our online life can make us not want to talk about it openly with you. If you speak to us openly and individually then we will appreciate your support but restrictions cannot be too restrictive. Technology is designed to be addictive and that’s a reality we need to engage with. Technology is a part of most aspects of our lives, teaching and curriculum should reflect that. It’s not just about coding, it’s about finding information, and to understand what is reliable, what sources we can trust. And finally you need to listen to us, to our needs, to be able to support us.

And a question for us: What challenges have you encountered when supporting young people online? [a good question]

And a second question: What can you do in your work to realise young people’s rights in the digital world?

Q1) What digital literacy is being taught in schools right now?

A1) It’s school to school, depends on the educational authority. Education Scotland have it as a priority but only over the last year… It depends…

Q2) My kid’s 5 and she has library cards…

Comment) The perception is that kids are experts by default

A2 – Dan) That’s not the case but there is that perception of “digital natives” knowing everything. And that isn’t the case…

Dan: Do you want to share what you’ve been discussing?

Comment: It’s not just an age thing… Some love technology, some hate it… But it’s hard to be totally safe online… How do you protect people from that…

Dan: It is incredibly difficult, especially in education.

Comment [me]: There is a real challenge when the internet is filtered and restricted – it is hard to teach real world information literacy and digital literacy when you are doing that in an artificial school set up. That was something that came up in the Royal Society of Edinburgh Digital Participation Inquiry I was involved in a few years ago. I also wanted to add that we have a new MOOC on Digital Footprints that is particularly aimed at those leaving school/coming into university.

Bethany: We really want that deletion when we use our right to remove to be proper deleted. We really want to know where our data is held. And we want everyone to have access to quality information online and offline. And we want to right to disengage when we want to. And we want digital literacy to be about more than just coding, but also what we do and can do online.

Dan: We invite you all to join our 5Rights Coalition to show your support and engagement with this work. We are now in the final stages of this work and will be publishing our report soon. We’ve spoken to Google, Facebook, Education Scotland, mental health organisations, etc. We hope our report will provide great guidance for implementing the 5Rights.

You can find out more and contact us: 5Rights@young.scot, #5RightsYC, http://young.scot/5rights.

Q&A

Q1) Has your organisation written any guidance for librarians in putting these rights into action?

A1) Not yet but that report should include some of that guidance.

Playing with metadata / Gavin Willshaw and Scott Renton (University of Edinburgh)

Gavin: Scott and I will be talking about our metadata games project which we’ve been working on for the last few years. My current focus is on PhD digitisation but I’m also involved in this work. I’ll give an overview, what we’ve learned… And then Scott will give more of an idea of the technical side of things.

A few years ago we had 2 full time photographers working on high quality digital images. Now there are three photographers, 5 scanning assistants, and several specialists all working in digitisation. And that means we have a lot more digital content. A few years ago we launched collections.ed.ac.uk which is the one stop shop into our digital collections. You can access the images at: http://images.is.ed.ac.uk/. We have around 30k images, and most are CC BY licenced at high resolution.

Looking at the individual images we tend to have really good information of the volume the image comes from, but prior to this project we had little information on what was actually in the image. That made them hard to find. We didn’t really have anyone to catalogue this. A lot of these images are as much as 10 years old – for projects but not neccassarily intended to go online. So, we decided to create this game to improve the description of our collections…

The game has a really retro theme – we didn’t want to spend too long on the design side of things, just keep it simple. And the game is open to everyone.

So, stage 1: tag. You harvest initial tags, it’s an open text box, there is no quality review, and there are points for tags entered. We do have some safety measures to avoid swear or stop words.

Stage 2: vote. You vote on the quality of others’ tags. It’s a closed system – good/bad/don’t know. That filters out any initial gobbldegook. You get points…

The tags are QAed and imported into our image management system. We make a distinction between formal metadata and crowdsourced tags. We show that on the record and include a link to the tool – so others can go and play.

We don’t see crowdsourcing as being just about free labour, but about communities of people with an interest and knowledge. We see it as a way to engage and connect with people beyond the usual groups – members of the public, educators, anyone really. People playing the game range from 7 to 70’s and we are interest to have the widest audience possible. And obviously the more people use the system, the more tags and participation we get. We also get feedback for improvements – some features in the game came from feedback. In theory it frees up staff time, but it takes time to run. But it lets us reach languages, collections, special knowledge that may not be in our team.

To engage our communities we took the games on tour across our sites. We’ve also brought the activity into other events – Innovative Learning Week/Festival of Creative Learning; Ada Lovelace Day; exhibitions – e.g. the Where’s Dolly game that coincided with the Towards Dolly exhibition. Those events are vital to get interest – it doesn’t work to expect people to just find it themselves.

In terms of motivation people like to do something good, some like to share their skills, and some just enjoy it because it is fun and a wee bit competitive. We’ve had a few (small) prizes… We also display real time high scores at events which gets people in competitive mode.

This also fits into an emerging culture of play in Library and Information Services… Looking at play in learning – it being ok to try things whether or not they succeed. These have included Board Game Jam sessions using images from the collections, learning about copyright and IP in a fun context. Ada Lovelace day I’ve mentioned – designing your own Raspberry Pi case out of LEGO, Making music… And also Wikipedia Editathons – also fun events.

There is also an organisatoin called Tiltfactor who have their own metadata games looking at tagging and gaming. They have Zen Tag – like ours. But also Nextag for video and audio. And also Guess What! a multiplier game of description. We put about 2000 images into the metadatagames platform Tiltfactor run and got huge numbers of tags quickly. They are at quite a different scale.

We’ve also experimented with Lady Grange’s correspondence in the Zooniverse platform, where you have to underline or indicate names and titles etc.

We’ve also put some of our images into Crowdcrafting to see if we can learn more about the content of images.

There are Pros and Cons here…

Pros:

  • Hosted service
  • Easy to create an account
  • Easy to set up and play
  • Range of options – not just tagging
  • Easy to load in images from Dropbox/Flickr

Cons

  • Some limitations of what you can do
  • Technical expertise needed for best value – especially in platforms like Crowdcrafting.

What we’ve learned so far is that it is difficult to create engaging platform but combining with events and activities – with target theme and collections – work well. Incentives and prizes help. Considerable staff time is needed. And crowdsourced tags are a compliment rather than an alternative to the official record.

Scott: So I’ll give the more technical side of what we’ve done. Why we needed them, how we built them, how we got on, and what we’ve learned.

I’ve been hacking away at workflows for a good 7 years. We have a reader who sees something they want, and they request the photograph of the page. They don’t provide much information – just about what is needed. These make for skeleton records – and we now have about 30k of these. It also used to be the case that buying a high end piece of kit can be easier to buy in for a project than a low level cataloguer… That means we end up with data being copied and pasted in by photographers rather than good records.

We have all these skeletons… But we need some meat on our bones… If we take an image from the Incunabula we want to know that there’s a skeleton on a horse with a scyth. Now the image platform we have does let us annotate an image – but it’s hidden away and hard to use. We needed something better and easier. That’s where we came up with an initial front end. When I came in it was a module for us to use. It was Gavin that said “hey, this should be a game”. So the nostalgic computer games thing is weirdly appealing (like the Google Maps Pacman Aprils Fool!). So it’s super simple, you put in a few words…

And it is truly lo-fi. It’s LAMP (Linux, Apache, MySQL, PHP) – not cool! Front end design retrofit. Authentication added to let students and staff login. In terms of design decisions we have a moderation module, we have a voting module, we have a scoreboard, we have stars for high contributors. And now more complex games: set no of items, clock, featured items, and Easter Eggs within the game. For instance in the Dolly the Sheep game we hid a few images with hideous comic sans that you could stumble upon if you tagged enough images!

Where we do have moderation, voting module, thresholds, demarcation… Tiltfactor told us we’re the only library putting data back in from the crowd to our system – people are really nervous about this but we demarcate it really carefully.

We now have a codebase we can clone. We skin it up differently for particular events or exhibitions – like Dolly – but it’s all the same idea with different design and collections. This all connects up through (authenticated) APIs back into the image management system (Luna).

So, how have we gotten on?

  • 283 users
  • 34070 tags in system
  • 15616 tags from our game
  • 18454 tags from Tiltfactor metadata games pushed in
  • 6212 tags pushed back into our system – that’s because of backlog in the moderation (upvotes may be good enough).

So, what next? Well we have MSc projects coming up. We are having a revamp with an intern signed up for the summer – responsiveness, links to social media, more gamification, more incentives, authentication for non UoE users, etc.

And also we are excited about IIIF – about beautification of websites with embedded viewers, streamlining (thumbnails through URL; photoshopping through URL etc) and annotations. You can do deep zoom into images without having to link out to do that with an image.

We also have the Polyglot Project – coming soon – which is a paleography project for manuscripts in our collections of any age, in any language. We asked an intern to find a transcription and translation module using IIIF. She’s come up with something fantastic… Ways to draw around text, for users to add in annotations, to discuss annotations, etc. She’s got 50-60 keyboards so almost all languages supported. Not sure how to bring back into core systems but really excited about this.

That’s basically where we’ve gotten to. And if you want to try the games, come and have a play.

Q&A

Q1) That example you showed for IIIF tagging has words written in widely varied spellings… You wouldn’t key it in as written in the document.

A1 – Scott) We do have a project looking at this. We have a girl looking for dictionaries to find variance and different spellings.

A1 – Gavin) There are projects like Transcribe Bentham who will have faced that issue…

Comment – Paul C) It’s a common issue… Methods like fuzzy searching help with that…

Q2) I’m quite interested about how you identify parts of images, and how you feed that back to the catalogue?

A2 – Scott) Right now I think the scope of the project is… Well it will be interesting to see how best to feed into catalogue records. Still to be addressed.

Q3 – Paul C) You built this in-house… How open is it? Can others use it?

A3 – Gavin) It is using Luna image management system…

A3 – Scott) It’s based on Luna for derivatives and data. It’s on Github and it is open. The website is open to everyone. You login through EASE – you can join as an “EASE Friend” if you aren’t part of the University. Others can use the code if they want it…

And finally it was me up to present…

Managing your Digital Footprint : Taking control of the metadata and tracks and traces that define us online / Nicola Osborne (EDINA)

Obviously I didn’t take notes on my session, but you can explore the slides below:

Look out for a new blogpost very soon on some of the background to our new Digital Footprint MOOC, which launched on Monday 3rd April. You can join the course now, or sign up to join the next run of the course next month, here: https://goo.gl/jgHLQs

And with that the event drew to a close with thank you’s to all of the organisers, speakers, and attended!

 

 April 5, 2017  Posted by at 11:08 am Events Attended, LiveBlogs, Presentation and Performance Tagged with:  No Responses »
Mar 152017
 

Today I’m still in Birmingham for the Jisc Digifest 2017 (#digifest17). I’m based on the EDINA stand (stand 9, Hall 3) for much of the time, along with my colleague Andrew – do come and say hello to us – but will also be blogging any sessions I attend. The event is also being livetweeted by Jisc and some sessions livestreamed – do take a look at the event website for more details. As usual this blog is live and may include typos, errors, etc. Please do let me know if you have any corrections, questions or comments. 

Part Deux: Why educators can’t live without social media – Eric Stoller, higher education thought-leader, consultant, writer, and speaker.

I’ve snuck in a wee bit late to Eric’s talk but he’s starting by flagging up his “Educators: Are you climbing the social media mountain?” blog post. 

Eric: People who are most reluctant to use social media are often those who are also reluctant to engage in CPD, to develop themselves. You can live without social media but social media is useful and important. Why is it important? It is used for communication, for teaching and learning, in research, in activisim… Social media gives us a lot of channels to do different things with, that we can use in our practice… And yes, they can be used in nefarious ways but so can any other media. People are often keen to see particular examples of how they can use social media in their practice in specific ways, but how you use things in your practice is always going to be specific to you, different, and that’s ok.

So, thinking about digital technology… “Digital is people” – as Laurie Phipps is prone to say… Technology enhanced learning is often tied up with employability but there is a balance to be struck, between employability and critical thinking. So, what about social media and critical thinking? We have to teach students how to determine if an online source is reliable or legitimate – social media is the same way… And all of us can be caught out. There was piece in the FT about the chairman of Tesco saying unwise things about gender, and race, etc. And I tweeted about this – but I said he was the CEO – and it got retweeted and included in a Twitter moment… But it was wrong. I did a follow up tweet and apologised but I was contributing to that..

Whenever you use technology in learning it is related to critical thinking so, of course, that means social media too. How many of us here did our educational experience completely online… Most of us did our education in the “sage on the stage” manner, that’s what was comfortable for us… And that can be uncomfortable (see e.g. tweets from @msementor).

If you follow the NHS on Twitter (@NHS) then you will know it is phenomenal – they have a different member of staff guest posting to the account. Including live tweeting an operation from the theatre (with permissions etc. of course) – if you are medical student this would be very interesting. Twitter is the delivery method now but maybe in the future it will be Hololens or Oculus Rift Live or something. Another thing I saw about a year ago was Phil Baty (Inside Higher Ed – @Phil_Baty) talked about Liz Barnes revealing that every academic at Staffordshire will use social media and will build it into performance management. That really shows that this is an organisation that is looking forward and trying new things.

Any of you take part in the weekly #LTHEchat. They were having chats about considering participation in that chat as part of staff appraisal processes. That’s really cool. And why wouldn’t social media and digital be a part of that.

So I did a Twitter poll asking academics what they use social media for:

  • 25% teaching and learning
  • 26% professional development
  • 5% research
  • 44% posting pictures of cats

The cool thing is you can do all of those things and still be using it in appropriate educational contexts. Of course people post pictures of cats.. Of course you do… But you use social media to build community. It can be part of building a professional learning environment… You can use social media to lurk and learn… To reach out to people… And it’s not even creepy… A few years back and I could say “I follow you” and that would be weird and sinister… Now it’s like “That’s cool, that’s Twitter”. Some of you will have been using the event hashtag and connecting there…

Andrew Smith, at the Open University, has been using Facebook Live for teaching. How many of your students use Facebook? It’s important to try this stuff, to see if it’s the right thing for your practice.

We all have jobs… Usually when we think about networking and professional networking we often think about LinkedIn… Any of you using LinkedIn? (yes, a lot of us are). How about blogging on LinkedIn? That’s a great platform to blog in as your content reaches people who are really interested. But you can connect in all of these spaces. I saw @mdleast tweeting about one of Anglia Ruskin’s former students who was running the NHS account – how cool is that?

But, I hear some of you say, Eric, this blurs the social and the professional. Yes, of course it does. Any of you have two Facebook accounts? I’m sorry you violate the terms of service… And yes, of course social media blurs things… Expressing the full gamut of our personality is much more powerful. And it can be amazing when senior leaders model for their colleagues that they are a full human, talking about their academic practice, their development…

Santa J. Ono (@PrezOno/@ubcprez) is a really senior leader but has been having mental health difficulties and tweeting openly about that… And do you know how powerful that is for his staff and students that he is sharing like that?

Now, if you haven’t seen the Jisc Digital Literacies and Digital Capabilities models? You really need to take a look. You can use these to use these to shape and model development for staff and students.

I did another poll on Twitter asking “Agree/Disagree: Universities must teach students digital citizenship skills” (85% agree) – now we can debate what “digital citizenship” means… If any of you have ever gotten into it with a troll online? Those words matter, they effect us. And digital citizenship matter.

I would say that you should not fall in love with digital tools. I love Twitter but that’s a private company, with shareholders, with it’s own issues… And it could disappear tomorrow… And I’d have to shift to another platform to do the things I do there…

Do any of you remember YikYak? It was an anonymous geosocial app… and it was used controversially and for bullying… So they introduced handles… But their users rebelled! (and they reverted)

So, Twitter is great but it will change, it will go… Things change…

I did another Twitter poll – which tools do your students use on a daily basis?

  • 34% snapchat
  • 9% Whatsapp
  • 19% Instagram
  • 36% use all of the above

A lot of people don’t use Snapchat because they are afraid of it… When Facebook first appeared that response was it’s silly, we wouldn’t use it in education… But we have moved that there…

There is a lot of bias about Snapchat. @RosieHare posted “I’m wondering whether I should Snapchat #digifest17 next week or whether there’ll be too many proper grown ups there who don’t use it.” Perhaps we don’t use these platforms yet, maybe we’ll catch up… But will students have moved on by then… There is a professor in the US who was using Snapchat with his students every day… You take your practice to where your students are. According to global web index (q2-3 2016) over 75% of teens use Snapchat. There are policy challenges there but students are there every day…

Instagram – 150 M people engage with daily stories so that’s a powerful tool and easier to start with than Snapchat. Again, a space where our students are.

But perfection leads to stagnation. You have to try and not be fixated on perfection. Being free to experiment, being rewarded for trying new things, that has to be embedded in the culture.

So, at the end of the day, the more engaged students are with their institution – at college or university – the more successful they will be. Social media can be about doing that, about the student experience. All parts of the organisation can be involved. There are so many social media channels you can use. Maybe you don’t recognise them all… Think about your students. A lot will use WhatsApp for collaboration, for coordination… Facebook Messenger, some of the asian messaging spaces… Any of you use Reddit? Ah, the nerds have arrived! But again, these are all spaces you can develop your practice in.

The web used to involve having your birth year in your username (e.g. @purpledragon1982), it was open… But we see this move towards WhatsApp, Facebook Messenger, WeChat, these different types of spaces and there is huge growth predicted this year. So, you need to get into the sandbox of learning, get your hands dirty, make some stuff and learn from trying new things #alldayeveryday

Q&A

Q1) What audience do you have in mind… Educators or those who support educators? How do I take this message back?

A1) You need to think about how you support educators, how you do sneaky teaching… How you do that education… So.. You use the channels, you incorporate the learning materials in those channels… You disseminate in Medium, say… And hopefully they take that with them…

Q2) I meet a strand of students who reject social media and some technology in a straight edge way… They are in the big outdoors, they are out there learning… Will they not be successful?

A2) Of course they will. You can survive, you can thrive without social media… But if you choose to engage in those channels and spaces… You can be succesful… It’s not an either/or

Q3) I wanted to ask about something you tweeted yesterday… That Prensky’s idea of digital natives/immigrants is rubbish…

A3) I think I said “#friendsdontletfriendsprensky”. He published that over ten years ago – 2001 – and people grasped onto that. And he’s walked it back to being about a spectrum that isn’t about age… Age isn’t a helpful factor. And people used it as an excuse… If you look at Dave White’s work on “visitors and residents” that’s much more helpful… Some people are great, some are not as comfortable but it’s not about age. And we do ourselves a disservice to grasp onto that.

Q4) From my organisation… One of my course leaders found their emails were not being read, asked students what they should use, and they said “Instagram” but then they didn’t read that person’s posts… There is a bump, a challenge to get over…

A4) In the professional world email is the communications currency. We say students don’t check email… Well you have to do email well. You send a long email and wonder why students don’t understand. You have to be good at communicating… You set norms and expectations about discourse and dialogue, you build that in from induction – and that can be email, discussion boards and social media. These are skills for life.

Q5) You mentioned that some academics feel there is too much blend between personal and professional. From work we’ve done in our library we find students feel the same way and don’t want the library to tweet at them…

A5) Yeah, it’s about expectations. Liverpool University has a brilliant Twitter account, Warwick too, they tweet with real personality…

Q6) What do you think about private social communities? We set up WordPress/BuddyPress thing for international students to push out information. It was really varied in how people engaged… It’s private…

A6) Communities form where they form. Maybe ask them where they want to be communicated with. Some WhatsApp groups flourish because that’s the cultural norm. And if it doesn’t work you can scrap it and try something else… And see what

Q7) I wanted to flag up a YikYak study at Edinburgh on how students talk about teaching, learning and assessment on YikYak, that started before the handles were introduced, and has continued as anonymity has returned. And we’ll have results coming from this soon…

A7) YikYak may rise and fall… But that functionality… There is a lot of beauty in those anonymous spaces… That functionality – the peers supporting each other through mental health… It isn’t tools, it’s functionality.

Q8) Our findings in a recent study was about where the students are, and how they want to communicate. That changes, it will always change, and we have to adapt to that ourselves… Do you want us to use WhatsApp or WeChat… It’s following the students and where they prefer to communicate.

A8) There is balance too… You meet students where they are, but you don’t ditch their need to understand email too… They teach us, we teach them… And we do that together.

And with that, we’re out of time… 

Are you future ready? Preparing Students fro living and working in the digital world

Introduction –  Lisa Gray, senior co-design manager, Jisc.

Connected Curricula model is about ensuring that employability is built into the curricuum, in T-profile curricule; employer engagement; and assessment for learning. That assessment is about assessing throughout the student experience as they progress through the curriculum.

The Jisc employability toolkit talks more about how this can be put into action. Looking at Technology for employability aspects include enhanced authentic and simulated learning experiences; enhanced lifelong learning and employability; and digital communications and engagement with employers; enhanced employability skills development – and learner skills diagnostics and self-led assessment; employer focused digital literacy development.

The employable student in the digital age model. The toolkit unpicks the capabilities that map into that context.

You can find out more, along with other resources, at: http://ji.sc/

The Employer View: Preparing students for a digital world – Deborah Edmondson, talent director, Cohesion Recruitment

We manage early talent recruitment processes. Whilst it is clear that automation is replacing some roles, it won’t replace creativity, emotional awareness, and similar skills and expertise.

Graduate vacancies are reducing this year – this has been the third time in the last four years. Some of that is associated with Brexit – especially in construction – but also represents a rise in apprentice roles. Many employers are replacing existing training programmes to the new Apprenticeship model (and levy). Recruitment is typically, for early talent, online application, video interview, psychometric testing, assessment centre. Some employers gamify that process. And we are also seeing a big influence of parental role as well.

Employers have had to up their own digital skills in order to recruit graduates. We’ve had to ensure application forms are online and mobile enabled. And we know that online forms are not the best predictor of who will succeed in graduate recruitment so we’ve reduced or removed them. Video interviews are becoming much more frequent as they give the best idea of a candidates skills, confidence, communication. We still see psychometric testing but there is less focus there, it’s more about contextual recruitment and focusing less on scores, more on the context of that student and achievement. We are also starting to see virtual reality in final stages of recruitment – this is about understanding authentic reactions and responses rather than pre-prepared responses.

So, what do employers want in terms of digital skills? It’s not about skills a lot of the time, often it’s about willingness to use digital skills and capabilities. There are nine key attributes and I’d particularly like to draw your attention to business communications. Students often focus on immediacy… But realities of business and their tools is that things can move slowly, so graduates need real flexibility. The other area I wanted to raise is etiquette: one client mentioned a graduate recruited colleague sending multiple chasers in a single email – that’s just annoying. Similarly use of text speak – wholly inappropriate. Also hiding behind the screen – only emailing and reluctant to call or meet face to face…

Graduates have great skills but they are also described as entitled, hard to manage, etc. So, how can universities help? Well expectations – around success and job satisfaction, as well as about the kinds of technologies they will be using. There isn’t immediacy or instant gratification in the world of work, patience is required. It is about business communication – that emails are long enough, professional enough, and that text speak or emoji in emails – or phrases like “in my oils” which won’t mean much to employers! We also need graduates who are able and willing to have conversations, face to face conversations, phone conversations – they have to be able to talk about their work. And with digital footprint – this can come back to haunt you. We have recruiters looking for high security roles that even check online purchase history – if it’s out there, we will find it. And it’s about perceptions too – those with ambitious career plans have to bear that in mind in how they present themselves from day one. And Excel – it’s important in business but not all students have experience of it. Research… graduates need to be professional on LinkedIn (including photographs) and be able to do the research, to understand the employer, but not to be too stalkery. And it’s about employer interaction – we receive abusive, sweary, etc. responses to rejections but graduates need to be asking for feedback and being graceful in dealing with rejection.

Note: for those interested in digital footprint you should take a look at our new #dfmooc which launches next month and is already open for registration: https://www.coursera.org/learn/digital-footprint.

SERC – Kieran McKenna, South Eastern Regional College

At SERC a students first few weeks are abou entrepreneurship, with guest speakers, student volunteers, and project based learning built around PBL/Enterprise Fairs. We see success in a number of areas and skills contests because of this model. We use the CAST/CAPS approach – Conference for Advancement of Science and Technology – with students working with industry standard PBL and enterprise learning. We also take a “whole-brain learning” approach – ensuring students understand how they learn best.

So, now we will look at three ways we have enabled this. We created a Whole Brain eLearning resource – called EntreBRAINeur – where students understand typical skills of entrepreneurs, have information about the brain, and answer questions that report back to them on their left brain/right brain placement, their learning styles… One message to take home is the language we use.. That the following information “may be of benefit to your working styles” – encouraging the learner in a positive way. The learner knows best how they learn best. And we link results with activity planning – so you can look at a group with their right/left brain dominance.

So, with that, we are going to see a short video on this…

So, having created this tool we set up an enterprise portal. This has objectives including sharing enterprise and entrepreneurship best practice across multiple campuses. So the PBL activities create a web presence and they are explaining how they undertook the PBL design cycle, and they are looking for votes on their projects. They are then assessed against creativity; innovation, team working; and solutions matching the challenge.

So, are we future ready? Looking at students who completed the e-resource found that only about 10% of our students have an entrepreneurial mindset… But we are confident that the tools, the learning tools, the peer assessment will give our students the edge they need.

Self-designed learning and “future proofing” graduates – Ian Pirie, Emeritus Professor, University of Edinburgh

I am going to talk about self-designed learning. We are two years into a pilot programme in Edinburgh where students literally design their own project, it is approved, they manage it, it is assessed, and ends up in an eportfolio online. Edinburgh is a large university – 3 colleges, 22 schools – and we don’t always do things the same way. We had a number of factors colliding – we have a QAA Enhancement theme around learning and a large careers team which was looking for more self-led opportunities; and employers were also saying they valued graduates but felt some skills could be stronger; and for students in e.g. humanities your tutor would tell you what you must do, but you also have a choice of modules – from over 8.5k courses which is quite intimidating.. And staff also wanted to teach their specialist areas which is a challenge.

So I’ll talk in four areas here…

A rapidly changing world… Students can now access all information very quickly, globally, 24/7. It often isn’t the students ability to use technology, it’s often universities and employers that can fall behind. For education the challenge can be that the kind of teaching we are used to doing isn’t necessarily fit for purpose. Traditionally teaching is information rich and assessed a few times in a semester, and that isn’t what they need and frustrating. And we also see a socially mobile environment – university and private coffee shops used socially and professionally by students. And in fact the Kaplan Graduate Recruitment Report 2014 suggests 1 in 2 will become future leaders – and 60% of businesses are looking for graduates with leadership skills.

Looking at the CBI Survey Data – as already mentioned earlier – really isn’t about the subject area. It is about having studied to a particular level… Not what you have learned in the course in terms of subject content. So how can that be taught? And when we survey our own students we find frustration amongst some students about the way they are taught. And indeed the importance of understanding that equality doesn’t mean treating everyone the same – there is a lot of literature here and it is hard to see how we implement this, particularly at scale.

Students are consistently very clear about what they would like… They would like to be treated professionally and individually, they want clarity about what is expected of them and what they can expect in return. They want clarity in assessment critiera with associated timely and effective feedback – an issue across the sector. They also want an academic community comprised of vertical peer groups and academic staff. They want 24/7 access to online information, ideally in one place. And they increasingly want assurance that they are being prepared for the future.

And, for so many reasons, there is a lot of change. HE can be slow to change… But we need to move away from a teaching model towards a learning model where the tutor supports that learning. It is about accepting responsibility for “future proofing” the whole person, and part of that is about ensuring that “digital literacy” is embedded in the curriculum, as well as the abstract skills.

So, three years ago we developed our future vision for a future curriculum. Some of the steps here look innocuous, but some will really radically upset academics – we wanted to design out passive learning. If a student can sleep through a lecture, hand in an essay, do an exam, and that’s them completed the course, that’s not good enough. We also wanted appropriate use of technology – there is no substitutive for the face to face experience. Each student are also required to use online learning in some form, to prepare them for the future, for elearning, for their ongoing development…

And that takes us to the SLICCS. This is a university-wide framework contextualised to the discipline by each student. And there is one framework, the student then contextualises their own course. Student creates, owns, manages and are formatively assessed. There is deliberately minimal input and supervision from academic staff – it’s a lot of work but for the student, not the staff. Inductions are done by Institute for Academic Development staff… the academic input is at the “front end” for induction and presentation of proposal. But students then reflect on their experience.

In order to do this our inductions are face to face – not online – to make sure students are able to take on the SLICC. They also cannot take on a SLICC if they have any fails – academically they have to be solid to go into this phase of their learning. So, the process is for the student to identify and select a learning experience – often a work placement related project; they develop a proposal and work plan; and then engage in ongoing reflection – sometimes once a day. Then there is formative self-assessment by the student, and summative assessment by staff. Staff don’t see the formative assessment until they have marked the work but in our pilots we had over 96% correlation between those assessments.

We are used to seeing staff responsibility for returning marked work etc. But we also make it clear what the student expectations are in terms of giving and receiving feedback (separate from the SLICC), with students needing to submit that self-graded assessment constructively aligned to the LOs. A critically-selective web folio is submitted along with an (up to 2000 word) report. Initially there was concern that SLICCs were 20 credits and students wouldn’t do the work… But they have done mountains of work and really produced fantastic engaged pieces. Students gave us feedback on the courses, but the technology is barely mentioned – the staff struggled more – as the students learned most from the self-management and self-direction. Students from pilot 1 immediately signed up for pilot 2… And now it is mainstream. As one student says “it made me take control of my own learning”. I can’t show you all the portfolios now but if you look at our website, you’ll find out much more: http://www.ed.ac.uk/employability/slicc. Contact Simon Riley and Gavin McGabe for more information.

Q&A

Q1) Coming back to the first speaker I was quite concerned about the phrase “early talent” as it implies all graduates are young.

A1 – DE) That’s fair. It is a collective term but employers tend to separate into apprenticeships and graduate programmes. But graduate programmes aren’t dependent on age.

Q2) On PebblePads and ePortfolios – do students use those with employers…. Are they effective tools for jobs

A2 – DE) From employers perspective we don’t see them in high volume. We follow it quite closely. We see more of universities encouraging students to use LinkedIn profiles instead.

A2 – IP) For many this approach is new to the students and staff. But in medicine the idea of portfolios is well embedded, and those courses have just adopted PebblePad for that purpose. But it’s discipline specific… And students thought about it before being asked and staff see enthusiastic.

Q3) About the neurological approach to learning… Isn’t there a real risk of thinking of learning being only for employment… What about motivation, what about changes in the market?

A3 – KM) We predominantly try to develop “whole brain” learners. We have electricians and plasterers taking that whole brain learning questionnaire – it’s interesting for them to look at that, to look back at their school experience and how their preference shapes that. The response from students has been quite positive.

Q4) We talked about this on Twitter already but I really hope that you use “left brain” and “right brain” and “learning styles” lightly – these have been debunked so perhaps give students a false sense of security… We are complex organisms… And maybe its just a way to articulate different potential… [Thank you to this person, it was a concern I had too!]

A4 – KM) We do try to address a lot of different learning styles… There is a wide variety of how that phrase is used… A real range of different skills that learners can have. It is important not to pigeon hole… But it is useful to raise awareness of how we can develop as people, regardless of how we label this. There are a range of approaches to this… This is the one that we are using.

Q5) There can be this sense of higher education as being to train the best people for employers – the best meat almost. What is the role and responsibility for employers to train graduates?

A5 – DE) There are training schemes, employers are aware of the need to train students and graduates – around 35% of students who complete a year long industrial placement will be offered a role with that employer in recognition of the training investment and and importance to employers.

Closing plenary and keynote from Lauren Sager Weinstein, chief data officer at Transport for London

The host for this session is Andy McGregor, deputy chief innovation officer, Jisc. He is introducing the session with the outcome of the start up competition that has been running over the last few days. The pitches took place last night. The winners will go into the Jisc Business Accelerator programme, providing support and some funding to take their ideas forward. And we are keen and happy to involve you in this programme so do get in touch… You’ll see us present the results digitally – an envelope seemed just too risky!

The winner of the public vote is Wildfire. And the further teams entering the project are Hubbub, Lumici Slate, Ublend, VineUp. We were hugely impressed with the quality of all of the entries – those who entered, those who were shortlisted, and the small cross section you’ve seen over the last two days.

And now… Lauren Seger Weinstein

I wanted to start by talking about the “why”… TfL has a diverse offering of transport across London – trains, buses, bikes… What are we trying to achieve? We want to deliver transport and mobility services, and to deliver for the mayor. We want to keep London working and growing. And when we think about my team and the work that we do… Our goal is to do things that help influence and contribute to the goals of the wider organisation – putting our customers and users at the core of all of our decision making; to drive improvement in reliability and safety; to be cost effective; to improve what we do.

Our customers want to understand what we stand for: excellent reliability and customer experience; value for money; and progress and innovation. And they want to know that we have a level of trust, that guides what we do and underpins how we use data. And I want to talk about how we use data that is personal, how we strip identifying data out. It is incredibly important that we respect our customers privacy. We tell our customers about how we collect data, we also have more information online. We work closely with our Privacy and Data protection team, and all new data initiatives undergo a Privacy Impact Assessment and have regular engagement with the ICO and rely on their guidance. When we do share any sensitive data we make use of Non-disclosure agreement.

So, our data – we are very lucky as we are data rich. We have 19 million smartcard ticketing transactions a dat from 12 million active cards. We know where our buses are – capturing 4.5 million bus locations a day using ibus geo-located events. We have 500k rows of train diagnostic data on the Central Line alone. We have 250l train locations. We have data from the TfL website. That is brilliant, but how do we make that useful? How do we translate that data into something we can use – that’s where my role comes in.

So we take this data and we use it to create a lot of integrated travel information that is used on our website, in tailored emails, in 600 travel apps powered by open data and created by third party app developers. We also provide advise to customers on travel options… This is where we use data to see which data is most useful… We use data on areas that are busy in terms of entrances and exists – and use that in posters in stations to help customers shift behaviours… If we tell them they have the ability to make a change, whether or not they do.

We also look at customer patterns – based on taps from cards. We anonymise the users but keep a (new) unique id to understand patterns of travel… Some users follow clear commuter patterns – Monday to Friday, we can see where home and work are, etc. But others do not fit clear patterns – part time workers, occasional attenders etc. But understanding that data lets us understand demand, peaks, and planning of shops for an area too. We also use data to help us put things right when they go wrong – paying for delays on the underground or overground. If things go *really* wrong we will look at pattern analysis and automatically refund them – that shows customers that we value them and their time, and means we have fewer forms to process.

We also use data to manage maintenance schedules, so that we can fix small things quickly to avoid bigger issues that would need fixing later on. We also use data to understand where our staff are deployed. If we know where hotspots for breakdowns are, we can deploy recovery teams more strategically. We also use data in real time operations so controllers can change the road network to manage the traffic flows most effectively.

We have also done work to consider the future and growth. We have created an algorithm to answer a question we used to have to do with surveys… With the underground you tap on and off… But on the buses  you only taps off… So we looked at inferring bus journeys… So we take our bus boarding entry taps, plus other modal taps, and iBus event data to work out where they likely exited the bus. We use it to plan busy parts of the network – where more buses may be required at busy times. To also plan out interchanges – we are changing our road layout considerably to make it better for vulnerable road users. We are also thinking about interchanges, and to understand at a granular level how customers use our network.

We are always looking to solve problems and do so in an innovative way… We are industry leaders in a number of areas. We have had wifi on the tube since 2012. We are currently looking to see if wifi data will enable us to plan better. In 2016 we ran a four week pilot to explore value of wifi connection data. When wifi tried to connect with routers in stations we grabbed timestamp, location and a (scrambled) device id. We are analysing that data… But the test was about easier use case. The cases we are currently looking at are about what we can learn about customer patterns from wifi data… And we were deliberately very transparent in that trial, with posters in situ, information online, and a real push to ensure that people were informed about what we were collecting, and how to opt out. 

Finally we have an open data policy. We support developers and the developer economy. this is delivered at very little cost. and our web presence is seen as industry leading. We also do work with universities around six key areas, and we then work with academics on proof of concept with TfL support. Then that can become TfL proof of concept and eventually end up being operational.

So, we are keen to engage with students to come and work with us. So we are planning for ways to support STEM/STEAM in schools activities, to create targeted interventions – it helps us develop the next generation and enables us to deliver the mayors education strategy. We’ve done coding events, work with the Science Museum, with local schools.

To finish my big data principles focus on protecting the privacy of our customers, that is paramount. focus on the right problems you face. Interesting or not enough and don’t start with data… Instead we think of an approach along the lines of… 

  • As a [my job title]
  • I need [big data insights]
  • So that I can [make a decision my job expects me to]

Operational infrastructure generates data… so it is crucial to interpret, translate and understand that data to make it useful. 

Q&A

Q1) What have you done in terms of data from disabled travellers

A1) We have users with freedom passes… but it depends on what the disability is… so data is hard to tease out. Need a combination of automatic data and talk to our users – so you can take patterns to small groups… Nad to test and discuss those.

Q2) You mentioned that you provide open data for others. Have you thought about student projects… can you provide databank of problems or projects that students could work on?

A2) We are just beginning this now. We have ongoing research projects that require in depth knowledge of work. We also have an opportunity for key questions and key samples – you can see that data today. It isn’t packagers for schools but there is an opportunity on air quality, travel patterns, whether students can find local stops, etc. there is real opportunity but still more to do

Q3) As cities become increasingly populated with self driving autonomous vehicles the data may inform those, but also uber and tesla already collect huge amounts of data…

A3) We have some data on cars but it’s high level. To understand our road customers though we are keen to work with the appropriate companies – some are more open than others – and to understand how we can work with our customers. Historical data is easier but real time analysis is really where we want to be. 

Q4) About information and data protection… you could argue that marginal impact is low for the individual… but compared to cost of security after a data breach… I was wondering how you decided on that balance, and the rights and expectations…

A4) Well we asked our customers and asked them if they were comfortable with the approach. They were asked tangible questions about how data could be used… when we focus on  what is tangible and will improve the network for Londoners, that helps. And that pseudonymous data means you have a hashed number, not full card number but it is still sensitive. Customers can opt into giving us more data – including with wifi where we advised customers to switch off wifi to be part of the study. it’s about customers to be comfortable to engage with us at the level that they want. 

Sincere apologies for the quality of my liveblogging for Laura’s talk – my computer decided to crash about two thirds of the way through and only part of the post was successfully autosaved, with remaining notes made on my phone. Look at the tweets and others write ups for further detail or check out the excellent TfL site where I know there is already a lot of good information on their open data and their recent wifi work. 

And with that Digifest is over for another year. Particular thanks to all who dropped by EDINA’s stand and chatted with Andrew and I – we were delighted to catch up with so many EDINA customers and people interested in our project work and possible opportunities to work together in the future. We are always delighted to meet and hear from our colleagues across the sector so do leave a comment here or drop us a line if you have any comments, questions or ideas you’d like to discuss.  

 March 15, 2017  Posted by at 10:10 am Digital Education, LiveBlogs Tagged with: , , ,  No Responses »
Mar 142017
 

Today and tomorrow I’m in Birmingham for the Jisc Digifest 2017 (#digifest17). I’m based on the EDINA stand (stand 9, Hall 3) for much of the time, along with my colleague Andrew – do come and say hello to us – but will also be blogging any sessions I attend. The event is also being livetweeted by Jisc and some sessions livestreamed – do take a look at the event website for more details. As usual this blog is live and may include typos, errors, etc. Please do let me know if you have any corrections, questions or comments. 

Plenary and Welcome

Liam Earney is introducing us to the day, with the hope that we all take some away from the event – some inspiration, an idea, the potential to do new things. Over the past three Digifest events we’ve taken a broad view. This year we focus on technology expanding, enabling learning and teaching.

LE: So we will be talking about questions we asked through Twitter and through our conference app with our panel:

  • Sarah Davies (SD), head of change implementation support – education/student, Jisc
  • Liam Earney (LE), director of Jisc Collections
  • Andy McGregor (AM), deputy chief innovation officer, Jisc
  • Paul McKean (PM), head of further education and skills, Jisc

Q1: Do you think that greater use of data and analytics will improve teaching, learning and the student experience?

  • Yes 72%
  • No 10%
  • Don’t Know 18%

AM: I’m relieved at that result as we think it will be important too. But that is backed up by evidence emerging in the US and Australia around data analytics use in retention and attainment. There is a much bigger debate around AI and robots, and around Learning Analytics there is that debate about human and data, and human and machine can work together. We have several sessions in that space.

SD: Learning Analytics has already been around it’s own hype cycle already… We had huge headlines about the potential about a year ago, but now we are seeing much more in-depth discussion, discussion around making sure that our decisions are data informed.. There is concern around the role of the human here but the tutors, the staff, are the people who access this data and work with students so it is about human and data together, and that’s why adoption is taking a while as they work out how best to do that.

Q2: How important is organisational culture in the successful adoption of education technology?

  • Total make or break 55%
  • Can significantly speed it up or slow it down 45%
  • It can help but not essential 0%
  • Not important 0%

PM: Where we see education technology adopted we do often see that organisational culture can drive technology adoption. An open culture – for instance Reading College’s open door policy around technology – can really produce innovation and creative adoption, as people share experience and ideas.

SD: It can also be about what is recognised and rewarded. About making sure that technology is more than what the innovators do – it’s something for the whole organisation. It’s not something that you can do in small pockets. It’s often about small actions – sharing across disciplines, across role groups, about how technology can make a real difference for staff and for students.

Q3: How important is good quality content in delivering an effective blended learning experience?

  • Very important 75%
  • It matters 24%
  • Neither 1%
  • It doesn’t really matter 0%
  • It is not an issue at all 0%

LE: That’s reassuring, but I guess we have to talk about what good quality content is…

SD: I think materials – good quality primary materials – make a huge difference, there are so many materials we simply wouldn’t have had (any) access to 20 years ago. But also about good online texts and how they can change things.

LE: My colleague Karen Colbon and I have been doing some work on making more effective use of technologies… Paul you have been involved in FELTAG…

PM: With FELTAG I was pleased when that came out 3 years ago, but I think only now we’ve moved from the myth of 10% online being blended learning… And moving towards a proper debate about what blended learning is, what is relevant not just what is described. And the need for good quality support to enable that.

LE: What’s the role for Jisc there?

PM: I think it’s about bringing the community together, about focusing on the learner and their experience, rather than the content, to ensure that overall the learner gets what they need.

SD: It’s also about supporting people to design effective curricula too. There are sessions here, talking through interesting things people are doing.

AM: There is a lot of room for innovation around the content. If you are walking around the stands there is a group of students from UCL who are finding innovative ways to visualise research, and we’ll be hearing pitches later with some fantastic ideas.

Q4: Billions of dollars are being invested in edtech startups. What impact do you think this will have on teaching and learning in universities and colleges?

  • No impact at all 1%
  • It may result in a few tools we can use 69%
  • We will come to rely on these companies in our learning and teaching 21%
  • It will completely transform learning and teaching 9%

AM: I am towards the 9% here, there are risks but there is huge reason for optimism here. There are some great companies coming out and working with them increases the chance that this investment will benefit the sector. Startups are keen to work with universities, to collaborate. They are really keen to work with us.

LE: It is difficult for universities to take that punt, to take that risk on new ideas. Procurement, governance, are all essential to facilitating that engagement.

AM: I think so. But I think if we don’t engage then we do risk these companies coming in and building businesses that don’t take account of our needs.

LE: Now that’s a big spend taking place for that small potential change that many who answered this question perceive…

PM: I think there are saving that will come out of those changes potentially…

AM: And in fact that potentially means saving money on tools we currently use by adopting new, and investing that into staff..

Q5: Where do you think the biggest benefits of technology are felt in education?

  • Enabling or enhancing learning and teaching activities 55%
  • In the broader student experience 30%
  • In administrative efficiencies 9%
  • It’s hard to identify clear benefits 6%

SD: I think many of the big benefits we’ve seen over the last 8 years has been around things like online timetables – wider student experience and administrative spaces. But we are also seeing that, when used effectively, technology can really enhance the learning experience. We have a few sessions here around that. Key here is digital capabilities of staff and students. Whether awareness, confidence, understanding fit with disciplinary practice. Lots here at Digifest around digital skills. [sidenote: see also our new Digital Footprint MOOC which is now live for registrations]

I’m quite surprised that 6% thought it was hard to identify clear benefits… There are still lots of questions there, and we have a session on evidence based practice tomorrow, and how evidence feeds into institutional decision making.

PM: There is something here around the Apprentice Levy which is about to come into place. A surprisingly high percentage of employers aren’t aware that they will be paying that actually! Technology has a really important role here for teaching, learning and assessment, but also tracking and monitoring around apprenticeships.

LE: So, with that, I encourage you to look around, chat to our exhibitors, craft the programme that is right for you. And to kick that off here is some of the brilliant work you have been up to. [we are watching a video – this should be shared on today’s hashtag #digifest17]
And with that, our session ended. For the next few hours I will mainly be on our stand but also sitting in on Martin Hamilton’s session “Loving the alien: robots and AI in education” – look out for a few tweets from me and many more from the official live tweeter for the session, @estherbarrett.

Plenary and keynote from Geoff Mulgan,chief executive and CEO, Nesta (host: Paul Feldman, chief executive, Jisc)

Paul Feldman: Welcome to Digifest 2017, and to our Stakeholder Meeting attendees who are joining us for this event. I am delighted to welcome Geoff Mulgan, chief executive of Nesta.

Geoff: Thank you all for being here. I work at Nesta. We are an investor for quite a few ed tech companies, we run a lot of experiments in schools and universities… And I want to share with you two frustrations. The whole area of ed tech is, I think, one of the most exciting, perhaps ever! But the whole field is frustrating… And in Britain we have phenomenal tech companies, and phenomenol universities high in the rankings… But too rarely we bring these together, and we don’t see that vision from ministers either.

So, I’m going to talk about the promise – some of the things that are emerging and developing. I’ll talk about some of the pitfalls – some of the things that are going wrong. And some of the possibilities of where things could go.

So, first of all, the promise. We are going through yet another wave – or series of waves – of Google Watson, Deepmind, Fitbits, sensors… We are at least 50 years into the “digital revolution” and yet the pace of change isn’t letting up – Moore’s Law still applies. So, finding the applications is as exciting and challenging as possible.

Last year Deep Mind defeated a champion of Go. People thought that it was impossible for a machine to win at Go, because of the intuition involved. That cutting edge technology is now being used in London with blood test data to predict who may be admitted to hospital in the next year.

We have also seen these free online bitesize platforms – Coursera, Udacity, etc. – these challenges to trditional courses. And we have Google Translate in November 2016 adopting a neural machine translation engine that can translate whole sentences… Google Translate may be a little clunky still but we are moving toward that Hitchikers Guide to the Galaxy idea of the Babelfish. In January 2017 a machine-learning powered poker bot outcompeted 20 of the world’s best. We are seeing more of these events… The Go contest was observed by 280 million people!

Much of this technology is feeding into this emerging Ed Tech market. There are MOOCs, there are learning analytics tools, there is a huge range of technologies. The UK does well here… When you talk about education you have to talk about technology, not just bricks and mortar. This is a golden age but there are also some things not going as they should be…

So, the pitfalls. There is a lack of understanding of what works. NESTA did a review 3 years ago of school technologies and that was quite negative in terms of return on investment. And the OECD similarly compared spend with learning outcomes and found a negative correlation. One of the odd things about this market is that it has invested very little in using control groups, and gathering the evidence.

And where is the learning about learning? When the first MOOCs appeared I thought it was extraordinary that they showed little interested in decades of knowledge and understanding about elearning, distance learning, online learning. They just shared materials. It’s not just the cognitive elements, you need peers, you need someone to talk to. There is a common finding over decades that you need that combination of peer and social elements and content – that’s one of the reasons I like FutureLearn as it combines that more directly.

The other thing that is missing is the business models. Few ed tech companies make money… They haven’t looked at who will pay, how much they should pay… And I think that reflects, to an extent, the world view of computer scientists…

And I think that business model wise some of the possibilities are quite alarming. Right now many of the digital tools we use are based on collecting our data – the advertisor is the customer, you are the product. And I think some of our ed tech providers, having failed to raise income from students, is somewhat moving in that direction. We are also seeing household data, the internet of things, and my guess is that the impact of these will raise much more awareness of privacy, security, use of data.

The other thing is jobs and future jobs. Some of you will have seen these analyses of jobs and the impact of computerisation. Looking over the last 15 years we’ve seen big shifts here… Technical and professional knowledge has been relatively well protected. But there is also a study (Frey, C and Osborne, M 2013) that looks at those at low risk of computerisation and automation – dentists are safe! – and those at high risk which includes estate agents, accountants, but also actors and performers. We see huge change here. In the US one of the most popular jobs in some areas is truck drivers – they are at high risk here.

We are doing work with Pearson to look at job market requirements – this will be published in a few months time – to help educators prepare students for this world. The jobs likely to grow are around creativity, social intelligence, also dexterity – walking over uneven ground, fine manual skills. If you combine those skills with deep knowledge of technology, or specialised fields, you should be well placed. But we don’t see schools and universities shaping their curricula to these types of needs. Is there a concious effort to look ahead and to think about what 16-22 year olds should be doing now to be well placed in the future?

In terms of more positive possibilities… Some of those I see coming into view… One of these, Skills Route, which was launched for teenagers. It’s an open data set which generates a data driven guide for teenagers about which subjects to study. Allowing teenagers to see what jobs they might get, what income they might attract, how happy they will be even, depending on their subject choices. These insights will be driven by data, including understanding of what jobs may be there in 10 years time. Students may have a better idea of what they need than many of their teachers, their lecturers etc.

We are also seeing a growth of adaptive learning. We are an investor in CogBooks which is a great example. This is a game changer in terms of how education happens. The way AI is built it makes it easier for students to have materials adapt to their needs, to their styles.

My colleagues are working with big cities in England, including Birmingham, to establish Offices of Data Analytics (and data marketplaces), which can enable understanding of e.g. buildings at risk of fire that can be mitigated before fire fighting is needed. I think there are, again, huge opportunities for education. Get into conversations with cities and towns, to use the data commons – which we have but aren’t (yet) using to the full extent of its potential.

We are doing a project called Arloesiadur in Wales which is turning big data into policy action. This allowed policy makers in Welsh Government to have a rich real time picture of what is taking place in the economy, including network analyses of investors, researchers, to help understand emerging fields, targets for new investment and support. This turns the hit and miss craft skill of investment into something more accurate, more data driven. Indeed work on the complexity of the economy shows that economic complexity maps to higher average annual earnings. This goes against some of the smart cities expectation – which wants to create more homogenous environments. Instead diversity and complexity is beneficial.

We host at NESTA the “Alliance for Useful Evidence” which includes a network of around 200 people trying to ensure evidence is used and useful. Out o fthat we have a serues of “What Works” centres – NiCE (health and care); Education Endowment Fund; Early Intervention Foundation; Centre for Ageing Better; College of Policing (crime reduction); Centre for Local Econoic Growth; What Works Well-being… But bizarrely we don’t have one of these for education and universities. These centres help organisations to understand where evidence for particular approaches exists.

To try and fill the gap a bit for universities we’ve worked internationally with the Innovation Growth Lab to understand investment in research, what works properly. This is applying scientific methods to areas on the boundaries of university. In many ways our current environment does very little of that.

The other side of this is the issue of creativity. In China the principal of one university felt it wasn’t enough for students to be strong in engineering, they needed to solve problems. So we worked with them to create programmes for students to create new work, addressing problems and questions without existing answers. There are comparable programmes elsewhere – students facing challenges and problems, not starting with the knowledge. It’s part of the solution… But some work like this can work really well. At Harvard students are working with local authorities and there is a lot of creative collaboration across ages, experience, approaches. In the UK there isn’t any uniersity doing this at serious scale, and I think this community can have a role here…

So, what to lobby for? I’ve worked a lot with government – we’ve worked with about 40 governments across the world – and I’ve seen vice chancellors and principles who have access to government and they usually lobby for something that looks like the present – small changes. I have never seen them lobby for substantial change, for more connection with industry, for investment and ambition at the very top. The leaders argue for the needs of the past, not the present. That is’t true in other industries they look ahead, and make that central to their case. I think that’s part of why we don’t see this coming together in an act of ambition like we saw in the 1960s when the Open University founded.

So, to end…

Tilt is one of the most interesting things to emerge in the last few years – a 3D virtual world that allows you to paint with a Tilt brush. It is exciting as no-one knows how to do this. It’s exciting because it is uncharted territory. It will be, I think, a powerful learning tool. It’s a way to experiment and learn…

But the other side of the coin… The British public’s favourite painting is The Fighting Temorare… An ugly steamboat pulls in a beautiful old sailing boat to be smashed up. It is about technological change… But also about why change is hard. The old boat is more beautiful, tied up with woodwork and carpentry skills, culture, songs… There is a real poetry… But it’s message is that if you don’t go through that, we don’t create space for the new. We are too attached to the old models to let them go – especially the leaders who came through those old models. We need to create those Google Tilts, but we also have to create space for the new to breath as well.

Q&A

Q1 – Amber Thomas, Warwick) Thinking about the use of technology in universities… There is research on technology in education and I think you point to a disconnect between the big challenges from research councils and how research is disseminated, a disconnect between policy and practice, and a lack of availability of information to practitioners. But also I wanted to say that BECTA used to have some of that role for experimentation and that went in the “bonfire of the quangos”. And what should Jisc’s role be here?

A1) There is all of this research taking place but it is often not used, That emphasis on “Useful Evidence” is important. Academics are not always good at this… What will enable a busy head teacher, a busy tutor, to actually understand and use that evidence. There are some spaces for education at schools level but there is a gap for universities. BECTA was a loss. There is a lack of Ed Tech strategy. There is real potential. To give an example… We have been working with finance, forcing banks to open up data, with banks required by the regulator to fund creative use of that data to help small firms understand their finance. That’s a very different role for the regulator… But I’d like to see institutions willing to do more of that.

A1 – PF) And I would say we are quietly activist.

Q2) To go back to the Hitchhikers Guide issue… Are we too timid in universities?

A2) There is a really interesting history of radical universities – some with no lectures, some no walls, in Paris a short-lived experiment handing out degrees to strangers on buses! Some were totally student driven. My feeling is that that won’t work, it’s like music and you need some structure, some grammars… I like challenge driven universities as they aren’t *that* groundbreaking… You have some structure and content, you have an interdisciplinary teams, you have assessment there… It is a space for experimentation. You need some systematic experimentation on the boundaries… Some creative laboritories on the edge to inform the centre, with some of that quite radical. And I think that we lack those… Things like the Coventry SONAR (?) course for photography which allowed input from the outside, a totally open course including discussion and community… But those sorts of experiments tend not to be in a structure… And I’d like to see systematic experimentation.

Q3 – David White, UAL) When you put up your ed tech slide, a lot of students wouldn’t recognise that as they use lots of free tools – Google etc. Maybe your old warship is actually the market…

A3) That’s a really difficult question. In any institution of any sense, students will make use of the cornucopia of free things – Google Hangouts and YouTube. That’s probably why the Ed Tech industry struggles so much – people are used to free things. Google isn’t free – you indirectly pay through sale of your data as with Facebook. Wikipedia is free but philanthropically funded. I don’t know if that model of Google etc. can continue as we become more aware of data and data use concerns. We don’t know where the future is going… We’ve just started a new project with Barcelona and Amsterdam around the idea of the Data Commons, which doesn’t depend on sale of data to advertisors etc. but that faces the issue of who will pay. My guess is that the free data-based model may last up to 10 years, but then something will change…

How can technology help us meet the needs of a wider range of learners

Pleasing Most of the People Most of the Time – Julia Taylor, subject specialist (accessibility and inclusion), Jisc.

I want to tell you a story about buying LEGO for a young child… My kids loved LEGO and it’s changed a lot since then… I brought a child this pack with lots of little LEGO people with lots of little hats… And this child just sort of left all the people on the carpet because they wanted the LEGO people to choose their own hats and toys… And that was disappointing… And I use that example is that there is an important role to help individuals find the right tools. The ultimate goal of digital skills and inclusion is about giving people the skills and confidence to use the appropriate tools. The idea is that the tools magically turn into tools…

We’ve never had more tools for giving people independence… But what is the potential of technology and how it can be selected and used. We’ll hear more about delivery and use of technology in this context. But I want to talk about what technology is capable of delivering…

Technology gives us the tools for digital diversity, allowing the student to be independent about how they access and engage with our content. That kind of collaboration can also be as meaningful in the context internationally, as it is for learners who have to fit studies around, say, shift work. It allows learners to do things the way they want to do it. That idea of independent study through digital technology is really important. So these tools afford digital skills, the tools remove barriers and/or enable students to overcome the. Technology allows learners with different needs to overcome challenges – perhaps of physical disability, perhaps remote location, perhaps learners with little free time. Technology can help people take those small steps to start or continue their education. It’s as much about that as those big global conversations.

It is also the case that technology can be a real motivator and attraction for some students. And the technology can be about overcoming a small step, to deal with potential intimidation at new technology, through to much more radical forms that keeps people engaged… So when you have tools aimed at the larger end of the scale, you also enable people at the smaller end of the scale. Students do have expectations, and some are involved in technology as a lifestyle, as a life line, that supports their independence… They are using apps and tools to run their life. That is the direction of travel with people, and with young people. Technology is an embedded part of their life. And we should work with that, perhaps even encouraged to use more technology, to depend on it more. Many of us in this room won’t have met a young visually impaired person who doesn’t have an iPhone as those devices allow them to read, to engage, to access their learning materials. Technology is a lifeline here. That’s one example, but there are others… Autistic students may be using an app like “Brain in Hand” to help them engage with travel, with people, with education. We should encourage this use, and we do encourage this use of technology.

We encourage learners to check if they can:

  • Personalise and customise the learning environment
  • Get text books in alternative formats – that they can adapt and adjust as they need
  • Find out about the access features of loan devices and platforms – and there are features built into devices and platforms you use and require students to use. How much do you know about the accessibility of learning platforms that you buy into.
  • Get accessible course notes in advance of lectures – notes that can be navigated and adapted easily, taking away unnecessary barriers. Ensuring documents are accessible for the maximum number of people.
  • Use productivity tools and personal devices everywhere – many people respond well to text to speech, it’s useful for visually impaired students, but also for dyslexic students too.

Now we encourage organisations to make their work accessible to the most people possible. For instance a free and available text to speech tool provides technology that we know works for some learners, for the wide range of learners. That helps those with real needs, but will also benefits other learners, including some who would never disclose a challenge or disability.

So, when you think about technology, think about how you can reach the widest possible range of learners. This should be part of course design, staff development… All areas should include accessible and inclusive technologies.

And I want you now to think about the people and infrastructure required and involved in these types of decisions…  So I have some examples here about change…

What would you need to do to enable a change in practice like this learner statement:

“Usually I hate fieldwork. I’m disorganised, make illegible notes, can’t make sense of the data because we’ve only got little bits of the picture until the evening write up…” 

This student isn’t benefitting from the fieldwork until the information is all brought together. The teacher dealt with this by combining data, information, etc. on the learner’s phone, including QR codes to help them learn… That had an impact and the student continues:

“But this was easy – Google forms. Twitter hashtags. Everything on the phone. To check a technique we scanned the QR code to watch videos. I felt like a proper biologist… not just a rubbish notetaker.”

In another example a student who didn’t want to speak in a group and was able to use a Text Wall to enable their participation in a way that worked for them.

In another case a student who didn’t want to blog but it was compulsory in their course. But then the student discovered they could use voice recognition in GoogleDocs and how to do podcasts and link them in… That option was available to everyone.

Comment: We are a sixth form college. We have a student who is severely dyslexic and he really struggled with classwork. Using voice recognition software has been transformative for that student and now they are achieving the grades and achievements they should have been.

So, what is needed to make this stuff happen. How can we make it easy for change to be made… Is inclusion part of your student induction? It’s hard to gauge from the room how much of this is endemic in your organisations. You need to think about how far down the road you are, and what else needs to be done so that the majority of learners can access podcasts, productivity tools, etc.

[And with that we are moving to discussion.]

Its great to hear you all talking and I thought it might be useful to finish by asking you to share some of the good things that are taking place…

Comment: We have an accessibility unit – a central unit – and that unit provides workshops on technologies for all of the institution, and we promote those heavily in all student inductions. Also I wanted to say that note taking sometimes is the skill that students need…

JT: I was thinking someone would say that! But I wanted to make the point that we should be providing these tools and communicating that they are available… There are things we can do but it requires us to understand what technology can do to lower the barrier, and to engage staff properly. Everyone needs to be able to use and promote technology for use…

The marker by which we are all judged is the success of our students. Technology must be inclusive for that to work.

You can find more resources here:

  • Chat at Todaysmeet.com/DF1734
  • Jisc A&I Offer: TinyURL.com/hw28e42
  • Survey: TinyURL.com/jd8tb5q

How can technology help us meet the needs of a wider range of learners? – Mike Sharples, Institute of Educational Technology, The Open University / FutureLearn

I wanted to start with the idea of accessibility and inclusion. As you may already know the Open University was established in the 1970s to open up university to a wider range of learners… In 1970 19% of our students hadn’t been to University before, now it’s 90%. We’re rather pleased with that! As a diverse and inclusive university accessibility and inclusivity is essential for that. As we move towards more interactive courses, we have to work hard to make fieldtrips accessible to people who are not mobile, to ensure all of our astronomy students access to telescopes, etc.

So, how do we do this? The learning has to be future orientated, and suited to what they will need in the future. I like the idea of the kinds of jobs you see on Careers 2030 – Organic Voltaics Engineer, Data Wrangler, Robot Counsellor – the kinds of work roles that may be there in the future. At the same time of looking to the future we need to also think about what it means to be in a “post truth era” – with accessibility of materials, and access to the educational process too. We need a global open education.

So, FutureLearn is a separate but wholly owned company of the Open University. There are 5.6 million learners, 400 free courses. We have 70 partner institutions, with 70% of learners from outside the UK, 61% are female, and 22% have had no other tertiary education.

When we came to build FutureLearn we had a pretty blank slate. We had EdX and similar but they weren’t based on any particular pedagogy – built around extending the lectures, and around personalised quizzes etc. And as we set up FutureLearn we wanted to encourage a social constructivist model, and the idea of “Learning as Conversation”, based on the idea that all learning is based on conversation – with oursleves, with our teachers and their expertise, and with other learners to try and reach shared understanding. And that’s the brief our software engineers took on. We wanted it to be scalable, for every piece of content to have conversation around it – so that rather than sending you to forums, the conversation sat with the content. And also the idea of peer review, of study groups, etc.

So, for example, the University of Auckland have a course on Logical and Critical thinking. Linked to a video introducing the course is a conversation, and that conversation includes facilitative mentors… And engagement there is throughout the conversation… Our participants have a huge range of backgrounds and locations and that’s part of the conversation you are joining.

Now 2012 was the year of the MOOC, but now they are becoming embedded, and MOOCs need to be taken seriously as part of campus activities, as part of blended learning. In 2009 the US DoE undertook a major meta-study of comparisons of online and face to face teaching in higher education. On average students in online learning conditions performed better than those receiving face to face online, but those undertaking a blend of campus and online did better.

So, we are starting to blend campus and online, with campus students accessing MOOCs, with projects and activities that follow up MOOCs, and we now have the idea of hybrid courses. For example FutureLearn has just offered its full post graduate course with Deakin University. MOOCs are no longer far away from campus learning, they are blending together in new ways of accessing content and accessing conversation. And it’s the flexibility of study that is so important here. There are also new modes of learning (e.g. flipped learning), as well as global access to higher education, including free coures, global conversation and knowledge sharing. The idea of credit transfer and a broader curriculum enabled by that. And the concept of disaggregation – affordable education, pay for use? At the OU only about a third of our students use the tutoring they are entitled to, so perhaps those that use tutoring should pay (only).

As Geoff Mulgan said we do lack evidence – though that is happening. But we also really need new learning platforms that will support free as well as accredited courses, that enables accreditation, credit transfer, badging, etc.

Q&A

Q1) How do you ensure the quality of the content on your platform?

A1) There are a couple of ways… One was in our selective choice of which universities (and other organisations) we work with. So that offers some credibility and assurance. The other way is through the content team who advise every partner, every course, who creates content for FutureLearn. And there are quite a few quality standards – quite a lot of people on FutureLearn came from the BBC and they come with a very clear idea of quality – there is diversity of the offer but the quality is good.

Q2) What percentage of FutureLearn learners “complete” the course?

A2) In general its about 15-20%. Those 15% ish have opportunities they wouldn’t have other have had. We’ve also done research on who drops out and why… Most (95%) say “it’s not you, it’s me”. Some of those are personal and quite emptional reasons. But mainly life has just gotten in the way and they want to return. Of those remaining 5% about half felt the course wasn’t at quite the right level for them, the other half just didn’t enjoy the platform, it wasn’t right for them.

So, now over to you to discuss…

  1. What pedagogy, ways of doing teaching and learning, would you bring in.
  2. What evidence? What would consitute success in terms of teaching and learning.

[Discussion]

Comments: MOOCs are quite different from modules and programmes of study.. Perhaps there is a branching off… More freestyle learning… The learner gets value from whatever paths they go through…

Comments: SLICCs at Edinburgh enable students to design their own module, reflecting and graded against core criteria, but in a project of their own shaping. [read more here]

Comments: Adaptive learning can be a solution to that freestyle learning process… That allows branching off, the algorithm to learn from the learners… There is also the possibility to break a course down to smallest components and build on that.

I want to focus a moment on technology… Is there something that we need.

Comments: We ran a survey of our students about technologies… Overwhelmingly our students wanted their course materials available, they weren’t that excited by e.g. social media.

Let me tell you a bit about what we do at the Open University… We run lots of courses, each looks difference, and we have a great idea of retention, student satisfaction, exam scores. We find that overwhelmingly students like content – video, text and a little bit of interactivity. But students are retained more if they engage in collaborative learning. In terms of student outcomes… The lowest outcomes are for courses that are content heavy… There is a big mismatch between what students like and what they do best with.

Comment: There is some research on learning games that also shows satisfaction at the time doesn’t always map to attainment… Stretching our students is effective, but it’s uncomfortable.

Julia Taylor: Please do get in touch if you more feedback or comments on this.

Feb 222017
 

This afternoon I am delighted to be at the Inaugeral Lecture of Prof. Jonathan Silvertown from the School of Biological Sciences here at the University of Edinburgh.

Vice Chancellor Tim O’Shea is introducing Jonathan, who is Professor of Evolutionary Ecology and Chair in Technology Enhanced Science Education, and who came to Edinburgh from the Open University.

Now to Jonathan:

Imagine an entire city turned into an interactive learning environment. Where you can learn about the birds in the trees, the rock beneath your feet. And not just learn about them, but contribute back to citizen science, to research taking place in and about the city. I refer to A City of Learning… As it happens Robert Louis Stevenson used to do something similar, carrying two books in their pocket: one for reading, one for writing. That’s the idea here. Why do this in Edinburgh? We have the most fantastic history, culture and place.

Edinburgh has an increadible history of enlightenment, and The Enlightenment. Indeed it was said that you could, at one point, stand on the High Street and shake the hands of 50 men of genius. On the High Street now you can shake Hume (his statue) by the toe and I shall risk quoting him: “There is nothing to be learned from a professor which is not to be met within books”. Others you might have met then include Joseph Black, and also James Hutton, known as the “father of modern geology” and he walked up along the crags and a section now known as “Huttons section” (an unconformity to geologists) where he noted sandstone, and above it volcanic rock. He interpreted this as showing that rocks accumulate by ongoing processes that can be observed now. That’s science. You can work out what happened in the past by understanding what is happening now. And from that he concluded that the earth was more than 6000 years old, as Bishop Usher had calculated. In his book The Theory of the Earth he coined this phrase “No vestige of a beginning, no prospect of an end”. And that supported the emerging idea of evolutionary biology which requires a long history to work. That all happened in Edinburgh.

Edinburgh also has a wealth of culture. It is (in the New Town) a UNESCO World Heritage site. Edinburgh has the Fringe Festival, the International Festival, the Book Festival, the Jazz Festival… And then there is the rich literary heritage of Edinburgh – as J.K. Rowling says “Its impossible to live in Edinburgh without sensing it’s literary heritage”. Indeed if you walk in the Meadows you will see a wall painting celebrating The Prime of Miss Jean Brodie. And you can explore this heritage yourself through the LitLong Website and App. He took thousands of books with textmining and a gazeteer of Edinburgh Places, extracting 40,000 snippets of text associated with pinpoints on the map. And you can do this on an app on your phone. Edinburgh is an extraordinary place for all sorts of reasons…

And a place has to be mapped. When you think of maps these days, you tend to think of Google. But I have something better… Open Street Map is to a map what Wikipedia is to the Encyclopedia Britannica. So, when my wife and I moved into a house in Edinburgh which wasn’t on Ordnance Survey, wasn’t on Google Maps, but was almost immediately on OpenStreetMap. It’s Open because there are no restrictions on use so we can use it in our work. Not all cities are so blessed… Geographic misconceptions are legion, if you look at one of th emaps in the British Library you will see the Cable and Wireless Great Circle Map – a map that is both out of date and prescient. It is old and outdated but does display the cable and wireless links across the world… The UK isn’t the centre of the globe as this map shows, wherever you are standing is the centre of the globe now. And Edinburgh is international. At least year’s Edinburgh festival the Deep Time event projected the words “Welcome, World” just after the EU Referendum. Edinburgh is a global city, University of Edinburgh is a global university.

Before we go any further I want to clarify what I mean by learning when I talk about making a city of learning… Kolb (1984) is “How we transform experience into knowledge”, it is learning by discovery. And, wearing my evolutionary hat, it’s a major process of human adaptation. Kolb’s learning cycle takes us from Experience, to Reflect (observe), Conceptualise (Ideas), Experiment (Test), and back to Experience. It is of course also the process of scientific discovery.

So, lets apply that cycle of learning to iSpot, to show how that experiential learning and discovery and what extraordinary things that can do. iSpot is designed to crowdsource the identification of organisms (see Silvertown, Harvey, Greenwood, Dodd, Rosewell, Rebelo, Ansine, McConway 2015). If I see “a white bird” it’s not that exciting, but if I know its a Kittywake then that’s interesting – has it been seen before? Are they nesting elsewhere? You can learn more from that. So you observe an orgnism, you reflect, you start to get comment from others.

So, we have over 60,000 registered users of iSpot, 685k observations, 1.3 million photos, and we have identified over 30,000 species. There are many many stories contained within that. But I will share one of these. So this observation came in from South Africa. It was a picture of some seeds with a note “some children in Zululand just ate some of these seeds and are really ill”. 35 seconds later someone thousands of miles away in Capetown, others agreed on the id. And the next day the doctor who posted the image replied to say that the children were ok, but that it happens a lot and knowing what plant they were from helps them to do something. It wasn’t what we set this up to do but that’s a great thing to happen…

So, I take forward to this city of learning, the lessons of a borderless community; the virtuous circle of learning which empowers and engages people to find out more; and encourage repurposing – use the space as they want and need (we have added extra functions to support that over time in iSpot).

Learning and discovery lends itself to research… So I will show you two projects demonstrating this which gives us lessons to take forward into Edinburgh City of Learning. Evolution Megalab.org was created at the Open University to mark Darwins double centenary in 2009, but we also wanted to show that evolution is happening right now in your own garden… So the snails in your garden have colours and banding patterns, and they have known genetic patterns… And we know about evolution in the field. We know what conditions favour which snails. So, we asked the public to help us test the hypothesis about the snails. So we had about 10,000 populations of snails captured, half of which was there already, half of which was contributed by citizens over a single year. We had seen, over the last 50 years, an increase in yellow shelled snails which do not warm up too quickly. We would expect brown snails further north, yellow snails further south. So was that correct? Yes and No. There was an increase in sanddunes, but not elsewhere. But we also saw a change in patterns of banding patterns, and we didn’t know why… So we went back to pre Megalab data and that issue was provable before, but hadn’t previously been looked for.

Lessons from Megalab included that all can contribute, that it must be about real science and real questions, and that data quality matters. If you are ingenious about how you design your project, then all people can engage and contribute.

Third project, briefly, this is Treezilla, the monster map of trees – which we started in 2014 just before I came here – and the idea is that we have a map of the identity, size and location of trees and, with that, we can start to look at ecosystem impact of these trees, they capture carbon, they can ameliorate floods… And luckily my colleague Mike Dodd spotted some software that could be used to make this happen. So one of the lessons here is that you should build on existing systems, building projects on top of projects, rather than having to happen at the same time.

So, this is the Edinburgh Living Lab, and this is a collaboration between schools and the kinds of projects they do include bike counters and traffic – visualised and analysed – which gives the Council information on traffic in a really immediate way that can allow them to take action. This set of projects around the Living Lab really highlighted the importance of students being let loose on data, on ideas around the city. The lessons here is that we should be addressing real world problems, public engagement is an important part of this, and we are no longer interdisiplinary, we are “post disciplinary” – as is much of the wider world of work and these skills will go with these students from the Living Lab for instance.

And so to Edinburgh Cityscope, a project with synergy across learning, research and engagement. Edinburgh Cityscope is NOT an app, it is an infrastructure. It is the stuff out of which other apps and projects will be built.

So, the first thing we had to do was made Cityscope futureproof. When we built iSpot the iPhone hadn’t been heard of, now maybe 40% of you here have one. And we’ve probably already had peak iPhone. We don’t know what will be used in 5 years time. But there are aspects they will always need… They will need Data. What kinds of data? For synergy and place we need maps. And maps can have layers – you can relate the nitrogen dioxide to traffic, you can compare the trees…. So Edinburgh Cityscope is mapable. And you need a way to bring these things together, you need a workbench. Right now that includes Jupyter, but we are not locked in, so we can change in future if we want to. And we have our data and our code open on Github. And then finally you need to have a presentation layer – a place to disseminate what we do to our students and colleagues, and what they have done.

So, in the last six months we’ve made progress in data – using Scottish Government open data portal we have Lung Cancer registrations that can be mapped and changes seen. We can compare and investigate and our students can do that. We have the SIMD (Scottish Index of Multiple Deprivation) map… I won’t show you a comparison as it has hardly changed in decades – one area has been in poverty since around 1900. My colleague Leslia McAra is working in public engagement, with colleagues here, to engage in ways that make this better, that makes changes.

The workbench has been built. It isn’t pretty yet… You can press a button to create a Notebook. You can send your data to a phone app – pulling data from Cityscope and show it in an app. You can start a new tour blog – which anybody can do. And you create a survey for used for new information…

So let me introduce one of these apps. Curious Edinburgh is an app that allows you to learn about the history of science in Edinburgh, to explore the city. The genius idea – and I can say genius because I didn’t build it, Niki and the folks at EDINA did – is that you can create this tour from a blog. You fill in forms essentially. And there is an app which you can download for iOS, and a test version for Android – full one coming for the Edinburgh International Science Festival in April. Because this is an Edinburgh Cityscope project I’ve been able to use the same technology to create a tour of the botanical gardens for use in my teaching. We used to give out paper, now we have this app we can use in teaching, in teaching in new ways… And I think this will be very popular.

And the other app we have is Fieldtrip, a survey tool borrowed from EDINA’s FieldTrip Open. And that allows anyone to set up a data collection form – for research, for social data, for whatever. It is already open, but we are integrating this all into Edinburgh Cityscope.

So, this seems a good moment to talk about the funding for this work. We have had sizable funding from Information Services. The AHRC has funded some of the Curious Edinburgh work, and ESRC have funded work which a small part of which Edinburgh Cityscope will be using in building the community.

So, what next? We are piloting Cityscope with students – in the Festival of Creative Learning this week, in Informatics. And then we want to reach out to form a community of practice, including schools, community groups and citizens. And we want to connect with cultural institutions and industry – already working with the National Museum of Scotland. And we want to interface with the Internet of Things – anything with a chip in it really. You can interact with your heating systems from anywhere in the world – that’s the internet of things, things connected to the web. And I’m keen on creating an Internet of Living Things. The Atlas of Living Scotland displays all the biological data of Scotland on the map. But data gets out of date. It would be better to updated in real time. So my friend Kate Jones from UCL is working with Intel creating real time data from bats – allowing real time data to be captured through connected sensors. And also in that space Graham Stone (Edinburgh) is working on a project called Edinburgh Living Landscape which is about connecting up green spaces, improve biodiversity…

So, I think what we should be going for is for recognition of Edinburgh as the First UNESCO City of Learning. Edinburgh was the first UNESCO City of Literature and the people who did that are around, we can make our case for our status as City of Learning in much the same way.

So that’s pretty much the end. Nothing like this happens without lots and lots of help. So a big thanks here to Edinburgh Cityscope’s steering group and the many people in Information Services who have been actually building it.

And the final words are written for me: Four Quartets, T.S. Eliot:

“We shall not cease from exploration

And the end of all our exploring 

Will be to arrive where we started

And know the place for the first time”

 February 22, 2017  Posted by at 6:17 pm LiveBlogs Tagged with: , ,  No Responses »
Nov 242016
 

This morning I’m at the Edinburgh Tourism Action Group‘s Digital Solutions for Tourism Conference 2016. Why am I along? Well EDINA has been doing some really interesting cultural heritage projects for years, particularly Curious Edinburgh – history of science tours app and our citizen science apps for COBWEBFieldTrip Open which are used by visitors to locations, not just residents. And of course services like Statistical Accounts of Scotland which have loads of interest from tourists and visitors to Scotand. We are also looking at new mobile, geospatial, and creative projects so this seems like a great chance to hear what else is going on around tourism and tech in Edinburgh.

Introduction James McVeigh, Head of Marketing and Innovation, Festivals Edinburgh

Welcome to our sixth Digital Solutions for Tourism Conference. In those last six years a huge amount has changed, and our programme reflects that, and will highlight much of the work in Edinburgh, but also picking up what is taking place in the wider world, and rolling out to the wider world.

So, we are in Edinburgh. The home of the world’s first commercially available mobile app – in 1999. And did you also know that Edinburgh is home to Europe’s largest tech incubator? Of course you do!

Welcome Robin Worsnop, Rabbie’s Travel, Chair, ETAG

We’ve been running these for six years, and it’s a headline event in the programme we run across the city. In the past six years we’ve seen technology move from business add on to fundamental to what we do – for efficiency, for reach, for increased revenue, and for disruption. Reflecting that change this event has grown in scope and popularity. In the last six years we’ve had about three and a half thousand people at these events. And we are always looking for new ideas for what you want to see here in future.

We are at the heart of the tech industry here too, with Codebase mentioned already, Sky Scanner, and the School of Informatics at the University of Edinburgh all of which attracts people to the city. As a city we have free wifi around key cultural venues, on the buses, etc. It is more and more ubiquitous for our tourists to have access to free wifi. And technology is becoming more and more about how those visitors enhance their visit and experience of the city.

So, we have lots of fantastic speakers today, and I hope that you enjoy them and you take back lots of ideas and inspiration to take back to your businesses.

What is new in digital and what are the opportunities for tourism Brian Corcoran, Director, Turing Festival

There’s some big news for the tech scene in Edinburgh today: SkyScanner have been brought by a Chinese company for 1.5bn. And FanDual just merged with its biggest rival last week. So huge things are happening.

So, I thought today technology trends and bigger trends – macro trends – might be useful today. So I’ll be looking at this through the lens of the companies shaping the world.

Before I do that, a bit about me, I have a background in marketing and especially digital marketing. And I am director of the Turing Festival – the biggest technology festival in Scotland which takes place every August.

So… There are really two drivers of technology… (1) tech companies and (2) users. I’m going to focus on the tech companies primarily.

The big tech companies right now include: Uber, disrupting the transport space; Netflix – for streaming and content commissioning; Tesla – dirupting transport and energy usage; Buzzfeed – influential with huge readership; Spotify – changing music and music payments; banking… No-one has yet dirupted banking but they will soon… Maybe just parts of banking… we shall see.

And no-one is influencing us more than the big five. Apple, mainly through the iPhone. I’ve been awaiting a new MacBook for five years… Apple are moving computing PCs for top end/power users, but also saying most users are not content producers, they are passive users – they want/expect us to move to iPads. It’s a mobile device (running iOS) and a real shift. iPhone 7 got coverage for headphones etc. but cameras didn’t get much discussion, but it is basically set up for augmented reality with two cameras. Air Pods – the cable-less headphones – is essentially a new wearable, like/after the iWatch. And we are also seeing Siri opening up.

Over at Google… Since Google’s inception the core has been search and the Google search index and ranking. And they are changing it for the first time ever really… And building a new one… They are building a Mobile-only search index. They aren’t just building that they are prioritising it. Mobile is really the big tech trend. And in line with that we have their Pixel phone – a phone they are manufacturing themselves… That’s getting them back into wearables after their Google Glass misstep. And Google Assistant is another part of the Pixel phone – a Siri competitor… Another part of us interacting with phones, devices, data, etc. in a new way.

Microsoft is one of the big five that some thing shouldn’t be there… They have made some missteps… They missed the internet. They missed – and have written off phones (and Nokia). But they have moved to Surface – another mobile device. They have abandoned Windows and moved to Microsoft 365. They brought LinkedIn for £26bn (in cash!). One way this could effect us… LinkedIn has all this amazing data… But it is terrible at monetising it. That will surely change. And then we have HoloLens – which means we may eventually have some mixed reality actually happening.

Next in the Big Five is Amazon. Some very interesting things there… We have Alexa – the digital assistant service here. They have, as a device, Echo – essentially a speaker and listening device for your home/hotel etc. Amazon will be in your home listening to you all the time… I’m not going to get there! And we have Amazon Prime… And also Prime Instant Video. Amazon moving into television. Netflix and Amazon compete with each other, but more with traditional TV. And moving from Ad income to subscriptions. Interesting to think where TV ad spend will go – it’s about half of all ad spend.

And Facebook. They are at ad saturation risk, and pushing towards video ads. With that in mind they may also become defacto TV platform. Do they have new editorial responsibility? With Fake News etc. are they a tech company? Are they a media company? At the same time they are caving completely to Chinese state surveillance requests. And Facebook are trying to diversify their ecosystem so they continue to outlast their competitors – with Instagram, WhatsApp, Oculus, etc.

So, that’s a quick look at tech companies and what they are pushing towards. For us, as users the big moves have been towards messaging – Line, Wiichat, Messaging, WhatsApp, etc. These are huge and there has been a big move towards messaging. And that’s important if we are trying to reach the fabled millennials as our audience.

And then we have Snapchat. It’s really impenetrable for those under 30. They have 150 Daily Active Users, they have 1 bn snaps daily, 10bn videos daily. They are the biggest competitor to Facebook, to ad revenue. They have also gone for wearables – in a cheeky cool upstart way.

So, we see 10 emergent patterns:

  1. Mobile is now *the* dominant consumer technology, eclipsing PCs. (Apple makes more from the iPhone than all their other products combined, it is the most successful single product in history).
  2. Voice is becoming in an increasingly important UI. (And interesting how answers there connect to advertising).
  3. Wearables bring tech into ever-closer physical and psychological proximity to us. It’s now on our wrist, or face… Maybe soon it will be inside you…
  4. IoT is getting closer, driven by the intersection of mobile, wearables, APIs and voice UI. Particularly seeing this in smart home tech – switching the heat on away from home is real (and important – it’s -3 today), but we may get to that promised fridge that re-orders…
  5. Bricks and mortar retail is under threat, and although we have some fulfillment challenges, they will be fixed.
  6. Messaging marks generational shift in communification preferences – asynchronous prferred
  7. AR and VR will soon be commonplace in entertainment – other use cases will follow… But things can take time. Apple watch went from unclear use case to clear health, sports, etc. use case.
  8. Visual cmmunications and replacing textural ones for millenials: Snapchat defines that.
  9. Media is increasingly in the hands of tech companies – TV ads will be disrupted (Netflix etc.)
  10. TV and ad revenue will move to Facebook, Snapchat etc.

What does this all mean?

Mobile is crucial:

  • Internet marketing in tourism now must be mobile-centric
  • Ignore Google mobile index at your peril
  • Local SEO is increasing in importance – that’s a big opportunity for small operators to get ahead.
  • Booking and payments must be designed for mobile – a hotel saying “please call us”, well Millennials will just say no.

It’s unclear where new opportunities will be, but they are coming. In Wearables we see things like twoee – wearable watches as key/bar tab etc. But we are moving to a more seamless place.

Augmented reality is enabling a whole new set of richer, previously unavailable interactive experiences. Pokemon Go has opened the door to location-based AR games. That means previously unexciting places can be made more engaging.

Connectivity though, that is also a threat. The more mobile and wearables become conduits to cloud services and IoT, the more the demand for free, flawless internet connectivity will grow.

Channels? Well we’ve always needed to go where the market it. It’s easier to identify where they are now… But we need to adapt to customers behaviours and habits, and their preferences.

Moore’s law: overall processing power for computers will double every two year (Gordon Moore, INTEL, 1965)… And I wonder if that may also be true for us too.

Shine the Light – Digital Sector

Each of these speakers have just five minutes…

Joshua Ryan-Saha, Skills Lead, The Data Lab – data for tourism

I am Skills Lead at The Data Lab, and I was previously looking at Smart Homes at Nesta. The Data Lab works to find ways that data can benefit business, can benefit Scotland, can benefit your work. So, what can data do for your organisation?

Well, personalised experiences… That means you could use shopping habits to predict, say, a hotel visitors preferences for snacks or cocktails etc. The best use I’ve seen of that is in a museum using heart rate monitors to track experience, and areas of high interest. And as an exhibitor you can use phone data to see how visitors move around, what do they see, etc.

You can also use data in successful marketing – Tripadvisor data being a big example here.

You can also use data in efficient operations – using data to ensure things are streamlined. Things like automatic ordering – my dentist did this.

What can data do for Tourism in Scotland? Well we did some work with Glasgow using SkyScanner data, footfall data, etc. to predict hotel occupancy rates and with machine learning and further data that has become quite accurate over time. And as you start to predict those patterns we can work towards seamless experience. At the moment our masters students are running a competition around business data and tourism – talk to me to be involved as I think a hack in that space would be excellent.

What can data lab do for you? Well we fund work – around £70k per project, also smaller funds. We do skills programmes, masters and Phd students. And we have expertise – data scientists who can come in and work with you to sort your organisation a bit. If you want to find out more, come and talk to me!

Brian Smillie, Beezer – app creation made affordable and easy

1 in 5 people own a smart phone, desktop is a secondary touchpoint. The time people spend using mobile app has increased 21% since last year. There are 1 bn websites, only 2 million apps. Why are business embracing mobile apps? Well speed and convenience are key – an app enables 1 click access. Users expect that. And they can also reduce staff time on transations, etc. It allows building connection, build loyalty… Wouldn’t it be great to be able to access that. But the cost can be £10k or more per single app. When I was running a digital agency in Australia I heard the same thing over and over again – that they had spent a small fortune then no-one downloaded it. Beezer enables you to build an app in a few hours, without an app store, and it works on any platforms. SMEs need a quick, cheap, accessible way to build apps and right now Beezer are the only ones who do this…

Ben Hutton, XDesign – is a mobile website enough?

I’m Ben from XDesign – we build those expensive apps Brian was just talking about… A few years ago I was working on analytics of purchasing and ads… I was working on that Crazy Frog ad… We found the way that people would download that ringtone was to batter people into submission, showing it again again again… And that approach has distorted mobile apps and their potential. But actually so has standardised paper… We are so used to A4 that it is the default digital size too… It was a good system for paper merchants in the C17th. It has corrupted the ideas we have about apps… We think that apps are extensions of those battering/paper skillsets.

A mobile phone is a piece of engineering, software that sits in your pocket. It requires software engineers, designers, that will ensure quality assurance, that is focused on that medium. We have this idea of the Gigabit Society… We have 4.5G, the rocket fuel for mobile… And it’s here in London, in Manchester, in Birmingham… It is coming… And to work with that we need to think about the app design. It isn’t meant to be easy. You have to know about how Google is changing, about in-app as well as app sales, you need to know deep linking. To build a successful app you need to understand that you don’t know what you are doing but you have to give it a try anyway… That’s how we got to the moon!

Chris Torres, Director, Senshi Digital – affordable video

We develop tourism brands online to get the most out of online, out of sales. And I’ve been asked today to talk specifically about video. Video has become one of the best tools you can use in tourism. One of the reasons is that on your website or social media if you use video your audience can learn about your offering 60k times faster than if they read your content.

The average user watches 32 videos per month; 79% of travellers search YouTube for travel ideas – and many of them don’t know where they are going. By 2018 video will be 84% of web traffic. And it can really engage people.

So what sort of video do we do? Well we do background video for homepages… That can get across the idea of a place, of what they will experience when they get to your tourism destination.

What else? Staff/tour guide videos is huge. We are doing this for Gray Line at the moment and that’s showing a big uptick in bookings. When people see a person in a video, then meet at your venue, that’s a huge connection, very exciting.

We also have itinerary videos, what a customer can experience on a tour (again my example is Gray Line).

A cute way to do this is to get customers to supply video – and give them a free tour, or a perk – but get them to share their experiences.

And destination videos – it’s about the destination, not neccassarily you, your brand, your work – just something that entices customers to your destination.

Video doesn’t need to be expensive. You can film on your iPhone. But also you can use stock supplies for video – you’ve no excuse not to use video!

Case Study – Global Treasure Apps and Historic Environment Scotland Lorraine Sommerville and Noelia Martinez, Global Treasure Apps

Noella: I am going to talk about the HES project with Edinburgh Castle, Edinburgh College, Young Scot. The project brought together young people and cultural heritage information. The process is a co-production process, collecting images, information, stories and histories of the space with the Global Treasure Apps, creating content. The students get an idea of how to create a real digital project for a real client. (Cue slick video on this project outlining how it worked).

Noella: So, the Global Treasure Apps are clue driven trails, guiding visitors around visitor attractions. For this Edinburgh Castle project we had 20 young people split into 5 groups. They researched at college and drafted trails around the space. Then they went to the castle and used their own mobile devices to gather those digital assets. And we ended up with 5 trails for the castle that can be used. Then, we went back to the college, uploaded content to our database, and then set the trails live. Then we go ESOL students to test the trails, give feedback and update it.

Lorraine: Historic Environment Scotland were delighted with the project, as were Edinburgh College. We are really keen to expand this to other destinations, especially as we enter The Year of Young People 2018, for your visitors and destinations.

Apps that improve your productivity and improve your service Gillian Jones, Qikserve

Before I start I’m going to talk a wee bit about SnapChat… SnapChat started as a sexting app… And I heard about it from my mum – but she was using it for sharing images of her house renovation! And if she can use that tech in new ways, we all can!

I am from Edinburgh and nothing makes me happier than seeing a really diverse array of visitors coming to this city, and I think that SkyScanner development will continue to see that boom.

A few months ago I was in Stockholm. I walked out of the airport and saw a fleet of Teslas as their taxis. It was a premium, innovative, thing to see. I’m not saying we should do that here, I’m saying the tourist experience starts from the moment they see the city, especially the moment that they arrive. And, in this day and age, if I was to guest coming to a restaurant, hotel, etc. what would I want? What would I see? It’s hard as a provider to put yourself in your customers shoes. How do we make tourists and guests feel welcome, feel able to find what they need. Where do we want to go and how to get there? There is a language barrier. There is unfamiliar cuisine – and big pictorial menus aren’t always the most appealing solution.

So, “Francesco” has just flown to Edinburgh from Rome. He speaks little English but has the QikServe app, he can see all the venues that uses that. He’s impatient as he has a show to get to. He is in a rush… So he looks at a menu, in his native language on his phone – and can actually find out what haggis or Cullen Skink is. And he is prompted there for wine, for other things he may want. He gets his food… And then he has trouble finding  a waiter to pay. He wants to pay by Amex – a good example of ways people want to pay, but operators don’t want to take – But in the app he can pay. And then he can share his experience too. So, you have that local level… If they have a good experience you can capitalise on it. If they have a bad experience, you can address it quickly.

What is the benefit of this sort of system? Well money for a start. Mobile is proven for driving up sales – I’ve ordered a steak, do I want a glass of red with that? Yeah, I probably do. So it can increase average transaction value. It can reduce pressure on staff during busy times, allowing them to concentrate on great service. That Starbucks app – the idea of ordering ahead and picking up – is normal now…  You can also drive footfall by providing information in tourists native language. And you can upsell, cross sell and use insights for more targeted campaigns – more sophisticated than freebies, and more enticing. It is about convenience tailored to me. And you can keen your branding at the centre of the conversation, across multiple channels.

There are benefits for tourists here through greater convenience with reduced wait-ties and queues; by identifying restaurant of choice and order in native language and currency; find and navigate to restaurant of choice with geo-location capabilities; order what you want, how you want it with modifiers, upsell and cross sell prompts in native language – we are doing projects in the US with a large burger chain who are doing brilliantly because of extra cheese ordered through the app!; and you can easily share and recommend experience through social media.

We work across the world but honestly nothing would make me happier than seeing us killing it in Edinburgh!

Virtual reality for tourism Alexander Cole, Peekabu Studios

Thank you for having me along, especially in light of recent US events (Alex is American).

We’ve talked about mobile. But mobile isn’t one thing… There are phones, there have been robot sneakers, electronic photo frames, all sorts of things before that are now mixed up and part of our phones. And that’s what we are dealing with with VR. Screens, accelerometers, buttons have all been there for a while! But if I show you what VR looks like… Well… It’s not like an app or a film or something, it’s hard to show. You look like a dork using it…

VR is abou

Right now VR is a $90m industry (2014) but by 2018 we expect it to be at least $5.2bn, and 171m users – and those are really conservative estimates.

So, VR involves some sort of headset… Like an HTC Vive, or Oculus Rift, etc. They include an accelorometer to see where you are looking, tilting, turning. Some include additional sensors. A lot of these systems have additional controllers, that detect orientation, presses, etc. that means the VR knows where I am, where I’m looking, what I’m doing with my hands. It’s great, but this is top end. This is about £1000 set up AND you need a PC to render and support all of this.

But this isn’t the only game in town… Google have the “Daydream” – a fabric covered mobile phone headset with lens. They also have the Google Cardboard. In both cases you have a phone, strap in, and you have VR. But there are limitations… It doesn’t track your movement… But it gives you visuals, it tracks how you turn, and you can create content from your phones – like making photospheres – image and audio – when on holiday.

Capture is getting better, not just on devices. 360 degree cameras are now just a few hundred pounds, you can take it anywhere, it’s small and portable and that makes for pretty cool experiences. So, if you want to climb a tower (Alex is showing a vertigo-inducing Moscow Tower video), you can capture that, you can look down! You can look around. For tourism uses it’s like usual production – you bring a camera, and you go to a space, and you show what you would like, you just do it with a 360 degree camera. And you can share it on YouTube’s 360 video channel…

And with all of this tech together you can set up spaces where sensors are all around that properly track where you are and give much more immersive emotional experiences… Conveying emotion is what VR does better than anything when it is done well.

So, you can do this two ways… You can create content so that someone not in a particular physical space, can feel they are there. OR you can create a new space and experience that. It requires similar investment of time and effort. It’s much like video creation with a little more stitching together that is required.

So, for example this forthcoing space game with VR is beautiful. But that’s expensive. But for tourism the production can be more about filming – putting a camera in a particular place. And, increasingly, that’s live. But, note…

You still look like a ninny taking place! That’s a real challenge and consideration in terms of distribution, an dhow many people engage at the same time… But you can use that too – hence YouTube videos all usually including both what’s on screen, and what’s going on (the ninny view).  And now you have drones and drone races with VR used by the controller… That’s a vantage point you cannot get any other way. That is magical and the cost is not extortionate… You can take it further than this… You can put someone in a rig with wings, with fans, with scents, and with VR, so you can fly around and experience a full sensory experience… This is stupid expensive… But it is the most awesome fun! It conveys a sense of doing that thing VR was always meant to do. When we talk about where VR is going… We have rollercoasters with VR – so you can see Superman flying around you. There are some on big elastic bands – NASA just launched one for Mars landing.

So, tourism and VR is a really interesting marriage. You can convey a sense of place, without someone being there. Even through 360 degree video, YouTube 360 degree video… And you can distribute it in more professional way for Vive, for Oculus Rift… And when you have a space set up, when you have all those sensors in a box… That’s a destination, that’s a thing you can get people too. There is a theme park destination like experiences. You can service thousands+ people with one set up and one application.

So, the three E’s of VR: experience, exploration – you drive this; and emotion – nothing compares to VR for emotion. Watching poeple use VR for the first time is amazing… They have an amazing time!

But we can’t ignore the three A’s of VR: access – no one platform, and lots of access issues; affordability – the biggest most complex units are expensive, your customers won’t have one, but you can put it in your own space; applicability – when you have new tech you can end up treating everything as a nail for your shiny new hammer. Don’t have your honeymoon in VR. Make sure what you do works for the tech, for the space, for the audience’s interest.

Using Data and Digital for Market Intelligence for Destinations and Businesses Michael Kessler, VP Global Sales, Review Pro

I’m going to be talking about leveraging guest intelligence to deliver better experiences and drive revenue. And this isn’t about looking for “likes”, it’s about using data to improve revenue, to develop business.

So, for an example of this, we analysed 207k online reviews in 2016 year to date for 339 3*, 4* and 5* hotels in Glasgow and Edinburgh. We used the Global Review Index (GRI) – which we developed and is an industry-standard reputation score based on review data collected from 175+ OTAs and review sites in over 45 languages. To do that we normalise scores – everyone uses their own scale. From that data we see Edinburgh’s 5* hotels have 90.2% satisfaction in Edinburgh (86.4% in Glasgow), and we can see the variance by * rating (Glasgow does better for satisfaction at 3*).

You can explore satisfaction by traveler types – solo, couples, families, business. The needs are very different. For any destination or hotel this lets you optimise your business, to understand and improve what we do.

We run sentiment analysis, using machine learning, across reviews. We do this by review but also aggregate it so that you can highlight strengths and weaknesses in the data. We show you trends… You will understand many of these but those trends allow you to respond and react to those trends (e.g. Edinburgh gets great scores on Location, Staff, Reception; poorer scores on Internet; Bathroom; Technology. Glasgow gets great Location, Staff, Reception, poorer scores for Internet, Bathroom; Room). We do this across 16 languages and this is really helpful.

We also highlight management response rates. So if guests post on TripAdvisor, you have to respond to them. You can respond and use as a marketing channel too. Looking across Edinburgh and Glasgow we can see a major variation between (high) response rates to TripAdvisor versus (low) response to Booking.com or Expedia.

The old focus of marketing was Product/Promotion/Price/Place. But that has changed forever. It’s all about experience now. That’s what we want. I think we have 4 Es instead of 4 Ps. So, those 4E’s are: Experience; Evangelism; Exchange; Everyplace. In the past I shared experience with friends and families, but now I evangelise, I share much more widely. And everyplace reflects sending reviews too – 60-70% of all reviews and feedback to accommodation is done via mobile. You can’t make better marketing than authentic feedback from guests, from customers.

And this need to measure traveller experience isn’t just about hotels/hostels/services apartments, it is also about restaurants; transportation; outdoor attractions; theme parks; museums; shopping. And those reviews have a solid impact on revenue – 92% of travelers indicate that their decisions are highly influenced by reviews and ratings.

So, how do we use all this data? Well there is a well refined cycle: Online reviews; we can have post-stay/event surveys; and in-stay surveys. Online reviews and post-stay surveys are a really good combination to understand what can be improved, where change can be made. And using that cycle you can get to a place of increased guest satisfaction, growth in review volume, improved online rankings (TripAdvisor privileges more frequently reviewed places for instance), and increased revenue.

And once you have this data, sharing it across the organisation has a huge positive value, to ensure the whole organisation is guest-centric in their thinking and practice.

So, we provide analytics and insights for each of your departments. So, for housekeeping, what happened in the room space in reviews; we can do semantic data checking for cleanliness, clean, etc.

In-stay reviews also helps reduce negative reviews – highlighting issues immediately, make the experience great whilst your guest is still there. And we have talked about travellers being mobile, but our solution is also mobile so that we can use it in all spaces.

How else can we use this? We can use it to increase economic development by better understanding our visitors. How do we do this? Well for instance in Star Ratings Australia we have been benchmarking hotel performances across 5000+ hotels across a range of core KPIs. Greece (SETE) is a client of ours and we help them to understand how they as a country, as cities, as islands, compete with other places and cities across the world.

So our system works for anyone with attractions, guests, reviews, clients, where we can help. Operators can know guests – but that’s opinion. We try to enable decisions based on real information. That allows understanding of weaknesses and drive change. There is evidence that increasing your Global Review Index level will help you raise revenue. It also lets you refine your marketing message based on what you perform best at in your reviews, make a virtue of your strengths on your website, on TripAdvisor, etc.

And with reviews, do also share reviews on your own site – don’t just encourage them to go to Tripadvisor. Publishing reviews and ratings means your performance is shown without automatically requiring an indirect/fee-occuring link, you keep them on your site. And you do need to increase review volume on key channels to keep your offering visible and well ranked.

So, what do we offer?

We have our guest intelligence system, with reputation management, guest surveys, revenue optimiser and data. All of these create actionable insights for a range of tourism providers – hotels, hostels, restaurants, businesses etc. We have webinars, content, and information that we share back with the community for free.

Tech Trends and the Tourism Sector

Two talks here…

Jo Paulson, Events and Experiences Manager, Edinburgh Zoo and Jon-Paul Orsi, Digital Manager, Edinburgh Zoo – Pokemon Go

Jon-Paul: As I think everyone knows Pokemon Go appeared and whether you liked it or not it was really popular. So we wanted to work out what we could do. We are spread over a large site and that was great – loads of pokestops – but an issue too: one was in our blacksmith shop, another in our lion enclosure! So we quickly mapped the safe stops and made that available – and we only had a few issues there. By happy accident we also had some press coverage as one of the best places to find Pokemon – because a visitor happened to have found a poketung on our site.

With that attention we also decided to do some playful things with social media – making our panda a poke-cake; sharing shots of penguins and pokemon. And they were really well received.

Jo: Like many great ideas we borrowed from other places for some of our events. Bristol zoos had run some events and we borrowed ideas – with pokestops, pokedex charging points, and we had themed foods, temporary tattoos etc. We wanted to capitalise on the excitement so we had about a week and a half to do this. As usual we checked with keepers first, closing off areas where the animals could be negatively impacted.

Jon-Paul: In terms of marketing this we asked staff to tell their friends… And we were blown away by how well that went. On August 4th we had 10k hits as they virally shared the details. We kind of marketed it by not marketing it publicly. It being a viral, secret, exciting thing worked well. We sold out in 2 hours and that took us hugely be surprise. Attendees found the event through social primarily – 69% through facebook, 19% by word of mouth.

We didn’t have a great picture of demographics etc. Normally we struggle to get late teens, twenties, early thirties unless they are there as a couple or date. But actually here we saw loads of people in those age ranges.

Jo: We had two events, both of which we kept the zoo opened later than usual. Enclosures weren’t open – though you could see the animals. But it was a surreal event – very chatty, very engaged, and yet a lot of heads down without animal access. For the first event we gave away free tickets, but asked for donations (£5k) and sold out in 2 hours; for the second event we charged £5 in advance (£6500) and sold in around a week. We are really pleased with that though, that all goes into our conservation work. If popularity of Pokemon continues then we will likely run more of these as we reach the better weather/longer light again.

Rob Cawston, Interim Head of Digital Media, National Museum of Scotland – New Galleries and Interactive Exhibitions

One of the advantages of having a 7 year old son is that you can go to Pokemon Go events and I actually went to the second Zoo event which was amazing, if a little Black Mirror.

Here at the NMS we’ve just completed a major project opening 4 new fashion and design galleries, 6 new science and technology galleries, and a new piazza (or expanded pavement if you like). Those ten new galleries allow us to show (75% of 3000+) items for the first time in generations, but we also wanted to work out how to engage visitors in these attractions. So, in the new galleries we have 150+ interactive exhibits in the new galleries – some are big things like a kid sized hamster wheel, hot air balloon, etc. But we also now have digital labels… This isn’t just having touch screens for the sake of it, it needed to add something new that enhances the visitor experience. We wanted to reveal new perspectives, to add fun and activity – including games in the gallery, and providing new knowledge and learning.

We have done research on our audiences and they don’t just want more information – they have phones, they can google stuff, so they want more. And in fact the National Museum of Flight opened 2 new hangers and 30 new digital labels that let us trial some of our approaches with visitors first.

So, on those digital labels and interactives we have single stories, multiple chapters, bespoke interactives. These are on different sorts of screens, formats, etc. Now we are using pretty safe tech. We are based on the umbraco platform, as is our main website. We set up a CMS with colours, text, video, etc. And that content is stored on particular PCs that send data to specific screens in the museums. There is so much content going into the museum, so we were able to prep all this stuff ahead of gallery opening, and without having to be in the gallery space whilst they finished installing items.

We didn’t just put these in the gallery – we put them on the website too. Our games are there, and we know they are a major driver of traffic to the website. That multiple platform digital content includes 3D digital views of fashion; we have a game built with Aardman…

We have learned a lot from this. I don’t think we realised how much would be involved in creating this content, and I think we have created a new atmosphere of engagement. After this session do go and explore our new galleries, our new interactives, etc.

Wrap Up James McVeigh, Festivals Edinburgh

I’m just going to do a few round ups. You’ve heard a lot today. We’ve got exhibitors who are right on your doorstep. We are trying to show you that digital is all around you, it’s right on your doorstep. I got a lot from this myself… I like that the zoo borrowed the ideas – we don’t always need to reinvent the wheel! The success of the Japanese economy is about adopting, not inventing.

Everything we have heard today is about UX, how audiences, share, engage, how they respond afterwards.

And as we finish I’d like to thank ETAG, to Digital Tourism Scotland, to Scottish Enterprise, and to the wider tourism industry in Edinburgh.

And finally, the next events are:

  • 29th November – Listening to our Visitors
  • 6th December – Running Social Media Campaigns
  • 26th January – ETAG Annual Conference

And with that we just have lunch, networking and demos of Bubbal and Hydra Research. Thanks to all from me for a really interesting event – lots of interesting insights into how tech is being used in Edinburgh tourism and where some of the most interesting potential is at the moment. 

Oct 082016
 

Today is the last day of the Association of Internet Researchers Conference 2016 – with a couple fewer sessions but I’ll be blogging throughout.

As usual this is a liveblog so corrections, additions, etc. are welcomed. 

PS-24: Rulemaking (Chair: Sandra Braman)

The DMCA Rulemaking and Digital Legal Vernaculars – Olivia G Conti, University of Wisconsin-Madison, United States of America

Apologies, I’ve joined this session late so you miss the first few minutes of what seems to have been an excellent presentation from Olivia. The work she was presenting on – the John Deere DMCA case – is part of her PhD work on how lay communities feed into lawmaking. You can see a quick overview of the case on NPR All Tech Considered and a piece on the ruling at IP Watchdog. The DMCA is the Digital Millennium Copyright Act (1998). My notes start about half-way through Olivia’s talk…

Property and ownership claims made of distinctly American values… Grounded in general ideals, evocations of the Bill of Rights. Or asking what Ben Franklin would say… Bringing the ideas of the DMCA as being contrary to the very foundations of the United Statements. Another them was the idea of once you buy something you should be able to edit as you like. Indeed a theme here is the idea of “tinkering and a liberatory endeavour”. And you see people claiming that it is a basic human right to make changes and tinker, to tweak your tractor (or whatever). Commentators are not trying to appeal to the nation state, they are trying to perform the state to make rights claims to enact the rights of the citizen in a digital world.

So, John Deere made a statement that tractro buyers have an “implied license” to their tractor, they don’t own it out right. And that raised controversies as well.

So, the final register rule was that the farmers won: they could repair their own tractors.

But the vernacular legal formations allow us to see the tensions that arise between citizens and the rights holders. And that also raises interesting issues of citizenship – and of citizenship of the state versus citizenship of the digital world.

The Case of the Missing Fair Use: A Multilingual History & Analysis of Twitter’s Policy Documentation – Amy Johnson, MIT, United States of America

This paper looks at the multilingual history and analysis of Twitter’s policy documentation. Or policies as uneven scalar tools of power alignment. And this comes from the idea of thinking of the Twitter as more than just the whole complete overarching platform. There is much research now on moderation, but understanding this type of policy allows you to understand some of the distributed nature of the platforms. Platforms draw lines when they decide which laws to tranform into policies, and then again when they think about which policies to translate.

If you look across at a list of Twitter policies, there is an English language version. Of this list it is only the Fair Use policy and the Twitter API limits that appear only in English. The API policy makes some sense, but the Fair Use policy does not. And Fair Use only appears really late – in 2014. It sets up in 2005, and many other policies come in in 2013… So what is going on?

So, here is the Twitter Fair Use Policy… Now, before I continue here, I want to say that this translation (and lack of) for this policy is unusual. Generally all companies – not just tech companies – translate into FIGS: French, Italian, German, Spanish languages. And Twitter does not do this. But this is in contrast to the translations of the platform itself. And I wanted to talk in particularly about translations into Japanese and Arabic. Now the Japanese translation came about through collaboration with a company that gave it opportunities to expand out into Japen. Arabic is not put in place until 2011, and around the Arab Spring. And the translation isn’t doen by Twitter itself but by another organisaton set up to do this. So you can see that there are other actors here playing into translations of platform and policies. So this iconic platforms are shaped in some unexpected ways.

So… I am not a lawyer but… Fair Use is a phenomenon that creates all sorts of internet lawyering. And typically there are four factors of fair use (Section 107 of US Copyright Act of 1976): purpose and character of use; nature of copyright work; amount and substantiality of portion used; effect of use on potential market for or value of copyright work. And this is very much an american law, from a legal-economic point of view. And the US is the only country that has Fair Use law.

Now there is a concept of “Fair Dealing” – mentioned in passing in Fair Use – which shares some characters. There are other countries with Fair Use law: Poland, Israel, South Korea… Well they point to the English language version. What about Japanese which has a rich reuse community on Twitter? It also points to the English policy.

So, policy are not equal in their policynesss. But why does this matter? Because this is where rule of law starts to break down… And we cannot assume that the same policies apply universally, that can’t be assumed.

But what about parody? Why bring this up? Well parody is tied up with the idea of Fair Use and creative transformation. Comedy is protected Fair Use category. And Twitter has a rich seam of parody. And indeed, if you Google for the fair use policy, the “People also ask” section has as the first question: “What is a parody account”.

Whilst Fair Use wasn’t there as a policy until 2014, parody unofficially had a policy in 2009, an official one in 2010, updates, another version in 2013 for the IPO. Biz Stone writes about, when at Google, lawyers saying about fake accounts “just say it is parody!” and the importance of parody. And indeed the parody policy has been translated much more widely than the Fair Use policy.

So, policies select bodies of law and align platforms to these bodies of law, in varying degree and depending on specific legitimation practices. Fair Use is strongly associated with US law, and embedding that in the translated policies aligns Twitter more to US law than they want to be. But parody has roots in free speech, and that is something that Twitter wishes to align itself with.

Visual Arts in Digital and Online Environments: Changing Copyright and Fair Use Practice among Institutions and Individuals Abstract – Patricia Aufderheide, Aram Sinnreich, American University, United States of America

Patricia: Aram and I have been working with the College Art Association and it brings together a wide range of professionals and practitioners in art across colleges in the US. They had a new code of conduct and we wanted to speak to them, a few months after that code of conduct was released, to see if that had changed practice and understanding. This is a group that use copyrighted work very widely. And indeed one-third of respondents avoid, abandon, or are delayed because of copyrighted work.

Aram: four-fifths of CAA members use copyrighted materials in their work, but only one fifth employ fair use to do that – most or always seek permission. And of those that use fair use there are some that always or usually use Fair Use. So there are real differences here. So, Fair Use are valued if you know about it and undestand it… but a quarter of this group aren’t sure if Fair Use is useful or not. Now there is that code of conduct. There is also some use of Creative Commons and open licenses.

Of those that use copyright materials… But 47% never use open licenses for their own work – there is a real reciprocity gap. Only 26% never use others openly licensed work. and only 10% never use others’ public domain work. Respondents value creative copying… 19 out of 20 CAA members think that creative appropriation can be “original”, and despite this group seeking permissions they also don’t feel that creative appropriation shouldn’t neccassarily require permission. This really points to an education gap within the community.

And 43% said that uncertainty about the law limits creativity. They think they would appropriate works more, they would public more, they would share work online… These mirror fair use usage!

Patricia: We surveyed this group twice in 2013 and in 2016. Much stays the same but there have been changes… In 2016, 2/3rd have heard about the code, and a third have shared that information – with peers, in teaching, with colleagues. Their associations with the concept of Fair Use are very positive.

Arem: The good news is that the code use does lead to change, even within 10 months of launch. This work was done to try and show how much impact a code of conduct has on understanding… And really there was a dramatic differences here. From the 2016 data, those who are not aware of the code, look a lot like those who are aware but have not used the code. But those who use the code, there is a real difference… And more are using fair use.

Patricia: There is one thing we did outside of the survey… There have been dramatic changes in the field. A number of universities have changed journal policies to be default Fair Use – Yale, Duke, etc. There has been a lot of change in the field. Several museums have internally changed how they create and use their materials. So, we have learned that education matters – behaviour changes with knowledge confidence. Peer support matters and validates new knowledge. Institutional action, well publicized, matters .The newest are most likely to change quickly, but the most veteran are in the best position – it is important to have those influencers on board… And teachers need to bring this into their teaching practice.

Panel Q&A

Q1) How many are artists versus other roles?

A1 – Patricia) About 15% are artists, and they tend to be more positive towards fair use.

Q2) I was curious about changes that took place…

A2 – Arem) We couldn’t ask whether the code made you change your practice… But we could ask whether they had used fair use before and after…

Q3) You’ve made this code for the US CAA, have you shared that more widely…

A3 – Patricia) Many of the CAA members work internationally, but the effectiveness of this code in the US context is that it is about interpreting US Fair Use law – it is not a legal document but it has been reviewed by lawyers. But copyright is territorial which makes this less useful internationally as a document. If copyright was more straightforward, that would be great. There are rights of quotation elsewhere, there is fair dealing… And Canadian law looks more like Fair Use. But the US is very litigious so if something passes Fair Use checking, that’s pretty good elsewhere… But otherwise it is all quite territorial.

A3 – Arem) You can see in data we hold that international practitioners have quite different attitudes to American CAA members.

Q4) You talked about the code, and changes in practice. When I talk to filmmakers and documentary makers in Germany they were aware of Fair Use rights but didn’t use them as they are dependent on TV companies buy them and want every part of rights cleared… They don’t want to hurt relationships.

A4 – Patricia) We always do studies before changes and it is always about reputation and relationship concerns… Fair Use only applies if you can obtain the materials independently… But then the question may be that will rights holders be pissed off next time you need to licence content. What everyone told me was that we can do this but it won’t make any difference…

Chair) I understand that, but that question is about use later on, and demonstration of rights clearance.

A4 – Patricia) This is where change in US errors and omissions insurance makes a difference – that protects them. The film and television makers code of conduct helped insurers engage and feel confident to provide that new type of insurance clause.

Q5) With US platforms, as someone in Norway, it can be hard to understand what you can and cannot access and use on, for instance, in YouTube. Also will algorithmic filtering processes of platforms take into account that they deal with content in different territories?

A5 – Arem) I have spoken to Google Council about that issue of filtering by law – there is no difference there… But monitoring

A5 – Amy) I have written about legal fictions before… They are useful for thinking about what a “reasonable person” – and that can be vulnerable by jury and location so writing that into policies helps to shape that.

A5 – Patricia) The jurisdiction is where you create, not where the work is from…

Q6) There is an indecency case in France which they want to try in French court, but Facebook wants it tried in US court. What might the impact on copyright be?

A6 – Arem) A great question but this type of jurisdictional law has been discussed for over 10 years without any clear conclusion.

A6 – Patricia) This is a European issue too – Germany has good exceptions and limitations, France has horrible exceptions and limitations. There is a real challenge for pan European law.

Q7) Did you look at all of impact on advocacy groups who encouraged writing in/completion of replies on DCMA. And was there any big difference between the farmers and car owners?

A7) There was a lot of discussion on the digital right to repair site, and that probably did have an impact. I did work on Net Neutrality before. But in any of those cases I take out boiler plate, and see what they add directly – but there is a whole other paper to be done on boiler plate texts and how they shape responses and terms of additional comments. It wasn’t that easy to distinguish between farmers and car owners, but it was interesting how individuals established credibility. For farmers they talked abot the value of fixing their own equipment, of being independent, of history of ownership. Car mechanics, by contrast, establish technical expertise.

Q8) As a follow up: farmers will have had a long debate over genetically modified seeds – and the right to tinker in different ways…

A8) I didn’t see that reflected in the comments, but there may well be a bigger issue around micromanagement of practices.

Q9) Olivia, I was wondering if you were considering not only the rhetorical arguements of users, what about the way the techniques and tactics they used are received on the other side… What are the effective tactics there, or locate the limits of the effectiveness of the layperson vernacular stategies?

A9) My goal was to see what frames of arguements looked most effective. I think in the case of the John Deere DCMA case that wasn’t that conclusive. It can be really hard to separate the NGO from the individual – especially when NGOs submit huge collections of individual responses. I did a case study on non-consensual pornography was more conclusive in terms of strategies that was effective. The discourses I look at don’t look like legal discourse but I look at the tone and content people use. So, on revenge porn, the law doesn’t really reflect user practice for instance.

Q10) For Amy, I was wondering… Is the problem that Fair Use isn’t translated… Or the law behind that?

A10 – Amy) I think Twitter in particular have found themselves in a weird middle space… Then the exceptions wouldn’t come up. But having it in English is the odd piece. That policy seems to speak specifically to Americans… But you could argue they are trying to impose (maybe that’s a bit too strong) on all English speaking territory. On YouTube all of the policies are translated into the same languages, including Fair Use.

Q11) I’m fascinated in vernacular understanding and then the experts who are in the round tables, who specialise in these areas. How do you see vernacular discourse use in more closed/smaller settings?

A11 – Olivia) I haven’t been able to take this up as so many of those spaces are opaque. But in the 2012 rule making there were some direct quotes from remixers. And there a suggestion around DVD use that people should videotape the TV screen… and that seemed unreasonably onorous…

Chair) Do you forsee a next stage where you get to be in those rooms and do more on that?

A11 – Olivia) I’d love to do some ethnographic studies, to get more involved.

A11 – Patricia) I was in Washington for the DMCA hearings and those are some of the most fun things I go to. I know that the documentary filmmakers have complained about cost of participating… But a technician from the industry gave 30 minutes of evidence on the 40 technical steps to handle analogue film pieces of information… And to show that it’s not actually broadcast quality. It made them gasp. It was devastating and very visual information, and they cited it in their ruling… And similarly in John Deere case the car technicians made impact. By contrast a teacher came in to explain why copying material was important for teaching, but she didn’t have either people or evidence of what the difference is in the classroom.

Q12) I have an interesting case if anyone wants to look at it, around Wikipedia’s Fair Use issues around multimedia. Volunteers take pre-emptively being stricter as they don’t want lawyers to come in on that… And the Wikipedia policies there. There is also automation through bots to delete content without clear Fair Use exception.

A12 – Arem) I’ve seen Fair Use misappropriated on Wikipedia… Copyright images used at low resolution and claimed as Fair Use…

A12- Patricia) Wikimania has all these people who don’t want to deal with law on copyright at all! Wikimedia lawyers are in an a really difficult position.

Intersections of Technology and Place (panel): Erika Polson, University of Denver, United States of America; Rowan Wilken, Swinburne Institute for Social Research, Australia; Germaine Halegoua,University of Kansas, United States of America; Bryce Renninger, Rutgers University, United States of America; Adrienne Russell, University of Denver, United States of America (Chair: Jessica Lingel)

Traces of our passage: Locative media and the capture of place data – Rowan Wilken

This is a small part of a book that I’m working on. And I am looking at how technologies are geolocating us… In space, in time, but moreso the ways that they reveal our complex socio-technical context through place. And I’m seeing this from an anthropological point of view of places as having particular

Josia Van Dyke in her work on social media business models talks about the use of “location intelligence” as part of the social media ecosystem and economic system.

I want to focus particular on FourSquare… It has changed significantly changed since repositioning in 2014 and those changes in their own and the Swarn app seek to generate real time and even predictive recommendations. They so this through combining social data/social graph and location/Places Graph data. They look to understand People as nodes with edges of proximity, co-location, etc. And in places the places are nodes, the edges are menus, recommendations, etc. So they have these two graphs, but the engineers seen to understand “What are the underlying properties and dynamics of these networks? How can we predict new connections? How do we measure influence?”. Their work now builds up this rich database of places and data around them.

And these changes have led to new repositioning… This has seen FourSquare selling advertising through predictive analysis… The second service called PinPoint, allowing marketers to target users of FourSquare… And for users beyond FourSquare. This is done through GPS locations, finding patterns and tracking shopping and dining routes…

In the last part of this talk I want to talk about Tim Ingol’s work in . For Ingol our perception of place is less about the birds eye view of maps, but of the walked and experienced route, based on the course of moving about in it, of ambulatory knowing. This is perceptual and way finding, less about co-ordinates, more about situating position in the context of moving, of what one knows about routing and moving.

So, my contention is that it’s way finding or mapping not map making or use that are primarily of use and interest to these social platforms going forward. Ingols talks about how new maps come from the replacement and changes over time… I think that is no longer the case, as what is of interest to companies like Foursquare is the digital trace of our passage, not the map itself.

“We know that right now we are not funky”: Placemaking practices in smart cities – Germaine Halegoua, University of Kansas

I am looking at attempts to use underused urban spaces, based on interviews with planners, architects, developers, about how they were developing these spaces – often on reclaimed land or infill – and about what makes them special and unique.

Placemaking is almost always defined as a bottom up process, often linked to home or making somewhere feel like home… But theories of placemaking are less thought of as strategic, thinking of KirkPatrick, or La Corbuisier. And the idea that these are spaces for dominant players – military, powerful people. So in these urban settings the strategic placemaking connects to powerful people, connected and valued around these international players.

I wanted to look at the differences between the planning behind these spaces and smart cities versus the lived experiences and processes. Smart cities are about urbanism imagines, with sustainable urbanism – everything is leaf certified!; technscientific ubranism – data capture is built in, data and technology are thought of as progressive and solutions to our problems; urban triumphalism (Brenner & Schmid 2015). These smart cities are purported as visionary designs, of this coming from the modern needs of people… Taking the best of global cities around the world, naming locations and designs coming in as fragments from other places. Digital media are used to show that this place works, as a place for ideas, a place to get things done… That they are like campus-based communities, like Silicon Valley, a better place than before…

There is this statistic that 70% of all people live in cities, and growing… But they are seen as dumb, problematic, in need of updating… They need order and smart cities are seen as a solution. There is an ordered view of the city as a lab – showroom and demonstration space as well as petri dish for transforming technology. And these are cities built of systems on top of systems – literally (Le Corbeusier-like but with a flowing soft aesthetic) and bringing of things together. So, in Songdu you see this range of services in the space. And in TechCity we see apps and connectedness within the home… Smart cities are monitoring traffic and centralised systems, to monitor biosigns, climate, etc… But in the green spaces or sustainable urban of getting you to live and linger… So you have this odd mixture of not spending the time in the streets, and these green spaces to linger…

But these are quite cold spaces… Vacancies are extremely high. They are seen as artificial. My talk quote is from a developer who feels that the solution is to bring in some funk… To programme serendipity into their lives… The answer is always more technology…

So a few themes here… There is the People Problem… attracting people to the place – not “funky”; placing people within the union of technology and physical design – claim that tech puts man first and needs of the end user… but there is also a sense of people as “bugs”. And I am producing all this data that aren’t about my experience of the city, but which shape that experience.

Geo-social media and the quest for place on-the-go – Erika Polson, University of Denver

This is coming out of my latest book, a multi-site ethnographic project. In the recent work I have developed an idea of digital place making… And this has been about how location technology can be used to shape the space of mobile people.

Expatriation was previously a post WWII experience, and a family affair… Often those assignments failed, sometimes as one partner (often female) couldn’t work. So, as corporations try to globalise there is a move to send younger, single assignees replacing families – they are cheaper and easier to relocate, they are more used to a global professional life as an idea and are enthusiastic.

And we don’t just see people moving once, we see serial global workers… The international experience can be seen as “a global lifestyle is seen as attractive and exciting” Anne Marie Fetcher 2009(?) but that may not reflects reality. There can be deep feelings of loneliness, the experience does’t match experience, they miss out on families, they lack social connections and possibilities to socialise. Margaret Malewski writes in Generation Expatriot (2005) about how there can be an increasing dependency on friends at home, and the need for these extratiots to get out and meet people…

So, my work is based on a range of meetup apps, from Grindr and Tinder, to MeetUp, InterNations and (less of my focus) Couch Surfing… Tools to build connections and find each other. I have studied use of apps in Paris, Bangalore and Singapore. So this image is of a cafe in Paris full of people – the first meetup that I went to and it was intimidating to walk into but immediately someone approached… And I started to think about Digital Place-making about two months into the Paris experience when a friend wanted to meet for dinner and I was at a MeetUp, and he was super floored by his discomfort with talking to a bar full of strangers in Paris – he’s a local guy, he speaks perfect English, he’s very sociable… On any other night he would have owned the space but he was thrown by these expats making the space their own, through Meetup, through their profiles, through discourse of “who we are” and pre-articulation of some of the expectations and norms.

This made me think about the idea of Place and the feelings of belonging and place attachment (Coulthard and Ledema 2009), about shared meanings of place. We’ve seen lots of work on online world and how to create that sense of place, of attachment, or shared meaning.

So, if everyone is able to drop in and feel part of a place… And if professionals can do this, who else can? So, I’m excited to hear the next paper on Grindr. But it’s interesting to think about who is out-of-place, of the quality of place and place relations. And the fact that even as these people maintain this positive narrative of working globally, but also a feeling of following a common template or script. And problems with place-on-the-go for social commitments, community building… Willingness to meet up again, to drop in rather than create anything.

Grindr – Bryce Renninger, Rutgers University, United States of America

I work on open government issues and the site of my work is Grindr – a location based, mainly male, mainly gay and bi casual dating space. And where I am starting from is the idea that Grindr is killing the gay bar (or gayborhood or the gay resort town), which is part of the gay press, for instance articles on the Pines neighbourhood of Fire Island, from New York Magazine. And quotes Ghaziani, author of There Goes the Gaybourhood, that having the app means they don’t need Boystown any more… And I think this narrative comes from concerns of valuing or not valuing these gay towns, resorts, bars, and of the willingness to defend those spaces. Bumgarner (2013) argues that the app does the same thing as the bar… But that assumes that the bar/place is only there to introduce people to each other for narrow range of purposes…

And my way of thinking about this is to think of technologies in democratic ways… Sclove talks about design criteria for democratic technologies, mainly to do with local labour and contribution but this can also be overlaid on social factors as well. And I think there is a space for democratically deliberating as sex publics. Michael Warner respoonds to Andrew Sullivan by problematizing his idea that “normal” is the place for queer people to exist. There are also authors writing on design in public sex spaces as a way to improve health outcomes.

The founder of Grindr says it isn’t killing the gay bar, and indeed provides a platform for the m to advertise on. And showing a quote here of how it is used shows the wide range of use of Grindr (beyond the obvious). I don’t think that Ghaziani’s writing doesn’t talk enough about what the gayborgoods and LGBT spaces are, how they can be class and race exclusive, fitting into gentrification of public spaces… And therefore I recommend Christina Lagazzi’s book.

One of the things I want to do with this work is to think about narratives in which platforms play a part can be written about, spoken about, that allow challenges to popular discourses of technological disruption. The idea that technological disruption is exciting is prevelant, and we aren’t doing enough to challenge that. This AirBnB billboard campaign – a kind of “Fuck You” to the San Francisco authorities and the legal changes to limit their business – are a reminder that we can respond to disruption…

I’m out of time but I think we need to think critically, about social roles of technology and how technological organisations figure into that… And to acknowledge ethnography and press.

Defining space through activism (and journalism): the Paris climate summit – Adrienne Russell, University of Denver

I’ve been working with researchers around the world on the G8 Climate Summits for around ten years, and coverage around it. I’ve been looking at activists and how they kind of spunk up the sapces where meeting take place…

But let me start with an image of Black Lives Matter protestors from the Daily Mail commenting on protestors using mobile phones. It exemplifies the idea that being on your phone means that you are not fully present… If they are on their phone, that arent that serious. This fits a long term type of coverage of protests that seems to suggest that in-person protests are more effective and authentic than social media. Although our literature shows that it is both approaches in combination that is most effective. And then the issue of official versus unofficial action. Activists in the 2014 Paris protestors were especially reliant on online work as protests were banned, public spaces were closed, activists were placed under house arrests… So they had been preparing for years but their action was restricted.

So, the ways that protestors took action was through tools like Climate Games, a real time game which enable you to see real time photography, but also you could highlight surveillance… It was non-violent but called police and law enforcement “team blue”, and lobbyists and greenwashers were “team grey”!

Probably many of you saw the posters across Paris – mocking corporate ad campaigns – e.g. a VW ad saying “we are sorry we got caught”. So you saw these really interesting alternative narratives and interpretations. There was also a hostel called Place to B which became a defacto media centres for protestors, with interviews being given throughout the event. There was a hub of artists who raised issues faced in their own countries. And outside the city there was a venue where they held a mock trial of Exxon vs the People with prominent campaigners from across the globe, this was on the heals of releases showing Exxon had evidence of climate change twenty years back and ignored it. This mock trial made a real media event.

So all these events helped create an alternative narrative. And that crackdown on protest reflects how we are coming to understand this type of top-down event… And resistance through media and counter narratives to mainstream media running predictable official lines.

Panel Q&A
Q1) I have a question, maybe a pushback to you Germaine… Or maybe not… Who are the “they” you are talking about… You talk about city planners… I admire the critique so I want to know who “they” are, and should we problematise that, especially in contemporary smart cities discourses…
A1 – Germaine) It’s CISCO, Seimans, IBM… Those with smart cities labs… Those are the “they”. And I’ve seen the networking of the expert – it is always the same people… The language is really specific and consistent. Everyone is using this term “solutions”… This is the language to talk about the problems… So “they” are transnational, often US based tech corporation with in-house smart cities labs.
Q1) But “they” are also in meetings across the world with lots of different stakeholders, including those people, but others are there. It looks like you are pulling from corporate discourses… Have you traced how that is translating into everyday city planners who host conferences and events they all meet at… And how that plays out and adopt it…
A1 – Germaine) The most I’ve gone with this is to CIOs and City Planners… But it’s a really interesting questions…
Q1) I think it would be interesting and a direction we need to take… How discourses played out and adopted.
Q2) So I was wanting to follow up that question by asking about the role of governments and funders. In the UK right now there is a big push from Government to engage in smart cities, and that offers local authorities a source of capital income that they are keen to take, but then they need providers to deliver that work and are turning to these private sector players…
A2) With cities I have looked at show no vacancy rates, or very low vacancy rates… Of the need to build more units because all are already sold. Some are dormitories for international schools… That lack of join up between ownership and real estate narrative really differs from lived experience. In Kansas they are retrofitting as a smart cities, and taking on that discourse of efficiencies and costs effectiveness…
Q3) How do narratives here fit versus what we used to have as the Cultural Cities narrative…. Who is pushing this? It’s not the same people from civil society perhaps?
A3 – Erika) When I was in Singapore I had this sense of an almost sterile environment. And I learned that the red light district was cleaned up, moved the transvestities and sex workers out… People thought it was too boring… And they started hiring women to dress as men dressed as women to liven it up…
Q4 – Germaine) I wanted to ask about the discourse around the gaybourhood and where they come from…
A4 – Bryce) I think there are particular stakeholders… So one of the articles I showed was about closure of one of the oldest gay bars in New York, and the idea that Grindr caused that, but someone pointed out in the comments that actually real estate prices is the issue. And there is also this change that came from Mayor Giuliani wanting Christopher Street to be more consistent with the rest of New York…
Q5) I was wondering how that location data and tracking data from Rowan’s paper connects with Smart Cities work…
A5 – Germaine) That idea of tracing is common, but the idea of relational space, whilst there, doesn’t really work as it isn’t made yet… There isn’t sufficient density of people to do that… They need the people for that data. In the social media layer it’s relatively invisible, it’s there… But there really is something connected there.
A5 – Rowan) The move to pinpoint technology at FourSquare, they may be interested in Smart Cities… But quite a lot of the critiques I’ve read is that its just about consumption… I’m tired of that… I think they are trying to do something more interesting, to get at the complexity of everyday life… In Melbourne there was a planned development called Docklands… There is nothing there on Foursquare…
A5 – Erika) I am surprised that they aren’t hiring people to be people…
A5 – Rowan) I was thinking about that William Gibson comment about street signs. One of the things about Docklands was that it had high technology and good connections but low population so it did become a centre for crime.
Q6) I work with low income/low socio-economic groups, and how are people ensuring that those communities are part of smart cities, or how their interests are voiced.
A6 – Germaine) In Kansas Cities Google wired neighbourhoods, but that also raised issues around neighbourhoods that were not reached… And that came from activists. Cable wasn’t fitted for poor and middle income communities, but data centres were also located in them. You also see small MESH and Line of Sight networks emerging as a counter measure in some neighbourhoods. I that place it was activists and the press… But in Kansas City it is being picked up as a story.
A6 -Rowan) In my field Jordan Frick does great work on this area, particularly on issues of monolingualism and how that excludes communities.
A6 – Erika) Tim Cresswell does really interesting work in this space… As I’ve thought about place and whose place a particular space it, I’ve been thinking about activists and police in the US. Would be interesting to look at.
A6 – Adreinne) People who have Tor, who resist surveillance, are well off and tech savvy, almost exclusively…
PS-32: Power (chair: Lina Dencik)
Lina: We have another #allfemalepanel for you! On power. 
The Terms Of Service Of Online Protest – Stefania Milan, University of Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
This is part of a bigger project which is slowly approaching book stage, so I won’t sum everything up here but I will give an overview of the theoretical position.
So, one of our starting points is the materiality and broker role of semiotechnologies, and particularly about mediation of social media and the ways that materiality contributes here. I am a sociologist and I’m looking at change. I have been accursed of being a techno-determinist… Yes, to an extent. I play with this. And I am working from the perspective that algorithmically mediated environment of social media has the ability to create change.
I look at a micro level and meso level, looking at interactions between individuals and how that makes differences. Collective action is a social construct – the result of interactions between social actors (Melucci 1996) – not a huge surprise. Organisation is a communicative and expressive activity. And centrality of sense-making activities (ie how people make sense of what they do) Meaning construction is embedded here. That shouldn’t be a surprise either here. Mediata tech and internet are not just tools but as both metaphors and enablers of a new configuration of collective action: cloud protesting. That’s a term I stick with – despite much criticism – as I like the contradiction that it captures… the direct, on the ground, individual, and the large, opaque, inaccessible.
So, features of “cloud protesting” is about the cloud as an “imagined online space” where resources are stored. In social movements there is something important there around shared resources. In this case resources are soft resources – information and meaning making resources. Resources are the “ingredients” of mobilisation. Cyberspaces gives these soft resources and (immaterial) body.

The cloud is a metaphor for organisational forms… And I relate that back to organisational forms of the 1960s, and to later movements, and now the idea of the cloud protest.  The cloud is also an analogy for individualisation – many of the nodes are individuals, who reject pre-packaged non-negotiable identities and organisations. The cloud is a platform for the movements resources can be… But a cloud movement does not require commitment and can be quite hard to activate and mobilise.

Collective identity, in these spaces, has some particular aspects. The “cloud” is an enabler, and you can identify “we” and “them”. But social media spaces overly emphasise visibility over collective identity.

The consequences of the materiality of social media are seen in four mechanisms: centrality of performance; interpellation to fellows and opponents; expansion of the temporality of the protest; reproducability of social action. Now much of that enables new forms of collective action… But there are both positive and negative aspects. Something I won’t mention here is surveillance and consequences of that on collective action.

So, what’s the role of social media? Social media act as intermediaries, enabling speed in protest organisation and diffusion – shaping and constraining collective action too. The cloud is grounded on everyday technology, everyone has the right in his/her pockets. The cloud has the power to deeply influence not only the nature of the protest but also the tactics. Social media enables the creation of a customisable narrative.

Hate Speech and Social Media Platforms – Eugenia Siapera, Paloma Viejo Otero, Dublin City University, Ireland

Eugenia: My narrative is also not hugely positive. We wanted to look at how social media platforms themselves understand, regulate and manage hate speech on their platforms. We did this through an analysis of terms of service. And we did in-depth interviews with key informants – Facebook, Twitter, and YouTube. These platforms are happy to talk to researchers but not to be quoted. We have permission from Facebook and Twitter. YouTube have told us to re-record interviews with lawyers and PR people present.

So, we had three analytical steps – looking at what constitutes hate speech means.

We found that there is no use of definitions of hate speech based on law. Instead they put in reporting mechanisms and use that to determine what is/is not hate speech.

Now, we spoke to people from Twitter and Facebook (indeed there are a number of staff members who move from one to another). The tactic at Facebook was to make rules, what will be taken down (and what won’t), hiring teams to work to apply then, and then help ensure rules are are appropriate. Twitter took a similar approach. So, the definition largely comes from what users report as hate speech rather than from external definitions or understandings.

We had assumed that the content would be manually and algorithmically assessed, but actually reports are reviewed by real people. Facebook have four teams across the world. There are native speakers – to ensure that they understand context – and they prioritise self-/harm and some other categories.

Platforms are reactively rather than proactively positioned. Take downs are not based on number of reports. Hate speech is considered in context – a compromising selfie of a young woman in the UK isn’t hates speech… Unless in India where that may impact on marriage (See Hot Girls of Mumbai – in that case they didn’t take down on that basis but did remove it directly with the ). And if in doubt they keep the content on.

Twitter talk about reluctance to share information with law enforcement, protective of users, protective of freedom of speech. They are not keen to remove someone, would prefer counter arguments. And there are also tensions created by different local regulations and the global operations of the platforms – tension is resolved by compromise (not the case for YouTube).

A Twitter employee talked about the challenges of meeting with representatives from government, where there is tension between legislation and commercial needs, and the need for consistent handling.

There is also a tension between the principled stance assumed by social media corporations that sends the user to block and protect themselves first – a focus on safety and security and personal responsibility. And they want users to feel happy and secure.

Some conclusions… Social media corporations are increasingly acquiring state-like powers. Users are conditioned to behave in ways conforming to social media corporations’ liberal ideology. Posts are “rewarded” by staying online but only if they conform to social media corporations’ version of what constitutes acceptable hate speech.

#YesAllWomen (have a collective story to tell): Feminist hashtags and the intersection of personal narratives, networked publics, and intimate citizenship – Jacqueline Ryan Vickery, University of North Texas, United States of America

The original idea here was to think about second wave feminism and the idea of sharing personal stories and make the personal political. And how that looks online. Working on Plummer’s work (2003) in this areas. All was well… And then I got stuck down the rabbit hole of publics and public discourses that are created when people share personal stories in public spaces… So I have tried to map these aspects. Thinking about the goals of hashtags and who started them as well… not something non-academics tend to look at. I also will be talking about hashtags themselves.

So I tried to think about and mapping goals, political, affective aspects, and affordances and relationships around these. The affordances of hashtags include: Curational – immediacy, reciprocity and conversationality (Papacharissi 2015); they are Polysemic – plurality, open signifiers, diverse meanings (Fiske 1987); Memetic – replicable, ever-evolving, remix, spreadable cultural information (Knobel and Lankshear 2007); Duality in communities of practice – opposing forces that drive change and creativity, local and broader for instance (Wenger 1988); Articulated subjectivities – momentarily jumping in and out of hashtags without really engaging beyond brief usage.

And how can I understand political hashtags on Twitter and their impact? Are we just sharing amongst ourselves, or can we measure that? So I want to think about agenda setting and re-framing – the hashtags I am looking at speak to a public event, or speak back to a media event that is taking place another way. We have op-option by organisations etc. And we see (strategic) essentialism. Awareness/mobilisation. Amplification/silencing of (privileged/marganlisation narratives). So #Yesallwomen is adopted by many privileged white feminists but was started by a biracial muslim women. Indeed all of the hashtags I study were started by non-white women.

So, looking at #Yesallwomen was in response to a terrible shooting and wrote a diatribe about women denying him. The person who created that hashtags left Twitter for a while but has now returned. So we do see lots of tweets that use that hashtag, responding with appropriate experiences and comments.  But it became problematic, too open… This memetic affordance – a controversial male monologist used it as a title for his show, using it abusively and trolling, and beauty brands being there.

The #WhyIStayed hashtag was started by Beverley Gooden in response to commentary that a woman should have left her partner, and that media wasn’t asking why they didn’t ask why that man had beaten and abused his partner. So people shared real stories… But also a pizza company used it – though they apologised and admitted not researching first. Some found the hashtag traumatic… But others shared resources for other women here…

So, I wanted to talk about how these spaces are creating these networked publics, and they do have power to deal with changes. I also think that idea of openness, of lack of control, and the consequences of that openness. #Yesallwomen has lost its meaning to an extent, and is now a very white hashtag. But if we look at these and think of them with social theories we can think about what this means for future movements and publicness.

Internet Rules, Media Logics and Media Grammar: New Perspectives on the Relation between Technology, Organization and Power – Caja Thimm, University of Bonn, Germany

I’m going to report briefly on a long term project on Twitter funded by a range of agencies. There is also a book coming on Twitter and the European Election. So, where do we start… We have Twitter. And we have tweets in French – e.g. from Marine Le Pen – but we see Tweets in other languages too – emoticons, standard structures, but also visual storytelling – images from events.

We have politicians, witnesses, and we see other players, e.g. the police. So first of all we wanted a model for Tweets and how we can understand them. So we used the Functional Operator Model (Thimm et al 2014) – but thats descriptive – great for organising data but not for analysing and understanding platforms.

So, we started with a conference on Media Logic, an old concept from the 1970s. Media Logic offers an approach to develop parameters for a better analysis of such new forms of “media”. It defines players, objectives and power. And how players interact and what do they do (e.g. how do others conquer a hashtag for instance). Consequently you can consider media logics that are to be considered as a network of parameters.

So, what are the parameters of Media Logics that we should understand?

  1. Media Logic and communication cultures. For instance how politicians and political parties take into account media logic of television – production routines, presentation formats (Schulz 2004)
  2. Media Logic and media institutions – institutional and technological modus operandi (Hjarvard 2014)
  3. Media Grammar – a concept drawn from analogy of language.

So, lets think about constituents of “Media Grammar”? Periscope came out of a need, a gap… So you have Surface Grammar – visible and accessible to the user (language, semiotic signs, sounds etc). Surface Grammar is (sometimes) open to the creativity of users. It guides use through media.

(Constitutive) Property Grammar is difference. They are constitutive for the medium itself, determines the rules the functional level of the surface power. Constitutes of algorithms (not exclusively). Not accessible but for the platform itself. And surface grammar and property grammar form a reflexive feedback loop.

We also see van Dijk and Poell (2013) talking about social media as powerful institutions, so the idea of connecting social media grammar here to understand that… This opens up the focus on the open and hidden properties of social media and its interplay with communicative practices. Social media are differentiated, segmented and diverse to such a degree that it seems necessary to focus in more to gain a better idea of how we understand them as technology and society…

Panel Q&A

Q1) A general question to start off. You presented a real range of methodologies, but I didn’t hear a lot about practices and what people actually do, and how that fits into your models.

A1 – Caja) We have a six year project, millions of tweets, and we are trying to find patterns of what they do, and who does what.  There are real differences in usage but still working on what those means.

A1 – Jacqueline) I think that when you look at very large hashtags, even #blacklivesmatter, you do see community participation. But the tags I’m looking at are really personal, not “Political”, these are using hashtags as a momentary act in some way, but is not really a community of practice in a sustainable movements, but some are triggering bigger movements and engagement though…

A1 – Eugenia) We see hate speech being gamed… People put outrageous posts out there to see what will happen, if they will be taen down…

Q2) I’ve been trying to find an appropriate framework… The field is so multidisciplinary… For a study I did on native american activists. We saw interest groups – discursive groups – were loosely stitched together with #indigenous. I’m sort of using the phrase “translator” to capture this. I was wondering if you had any thoughts on how we navigate this…

A2 – Caja) It’s a good question… This conference is very varied, there are so many fields… Socio-linguistics has some interesting frameworks for accommodations in Twitter. No-one seems to have published on that.

A2 – Jacqueline) I think understanding the network, the echo chamber effects, mapping of that network and how the hashtag moves, might be the way in there…

Q2) That’s what we did, but that’s also a problem… But hashtag seems to have a transformative impact too…

Q3) I wonder if we say Social Media Logic, do we loose sight of the overarching issue…

A3 – Caja) I think that Media Logic is in really early stages… It was founded in the 1970s when media was so different. But there are real power symmetries… And I hope we find a real way to bridge the two.

Q4) Many of these arguments come down to how much we trust the idea of the structure in action. Eugenia talks about creating rules iteratively around the issue. Jacqueline talked about the contested rules of play… It’s not clear of who defines those terms in the end…

A4 – Eugenia) There are certain media logics in place now… But they are fast moving as social media move to monetise, to develop, to change. Twitter launches Periscope, Facebook then launches Facebook Live! The grammar keeps on moving, aimed towards the users… Everything keeps moving…

A4 – Caja) But that’s the model. The dynamics are at the core. I do believe that media grammar on the level of small nitpicks that are magic – like the hashtag which has transgressed the platform and even the written form. But it’s about how they work, and whether there are logics inscribed.

A4 – Stefania) There is, of course, attempts made by the platform to hide the logic, and to hide the dynamics of the logic… Even at a radical activist conference who cannot imagine their activism without the platform – and that statement also comes from a belief that they understand the platform.

Q5) I study hate speech too… I came with my top five criticisms but you covered them all in your presentation! You talked about location (IP address) as a factor in hate speech, rather than jurisdiction.

A5 – Eugenia) I think they (nameless social platform) take this approach in the same way that they do for take down notices… But they only do that for France and Germany where hate speech law is very different.

A5 – Caja) There is a study that has been taking place about take downs and the impact of pressure, politics, and effect across platforms when dealing with issues in different countries.

A5 – Eugenia) Twitter has a relationship with NGOs. and have a priority to deal with their requests, sometimes automatically. But they give guidance on how to do that, but they are outsourcing that process to these users…

Q6) I was thinking about platform logics and business logics… And how the business models are part of these logics. And I was wondering if you could talk to some of the methodological issues there… And the issue of the growing powers of governments – for instance Benjamin Netanahu meeting Mark Zuckerberg and talking to him about taking down arabic journalists.

A6 – Eugenia) This is challenging… We want to research them and we want to critique them… But we don’t want to find ourselves blacklisted for doing this. Some of the people I spoke to are very sensitive about, for instance, Palestinian content and when they can take it down. Sometimes though platforms are keen to show they have the power to take down content…

Q7) For Eugenia, you had very good access to people at these platforms. Not surprised they are reluctant to be quoted… But that access is quite difficult in our experience – how did you do it.

A7) These people live in Dublin so you meet them at conferences, there are cross overs through shared interests. Once you get in it’s easier to meet and speak to them… Speaking is ok, quoting and identifying names in our work is different. But it’s not just in social media

Comment) These people really are restricted in who they can talk to… There are PR people at one platform… You ask for comparative roles and use that as a way in… You can start to sidle inside. But mainly it’s the PR people you can access… I’ve had some luck referring to role area at a given company, rather than by name.

Q8 – Stefania) I was wondering about our own roles, in this room, and the issue of agency and publics…

A8 – Jacqueline) I don’t think publics take agency away, in the communities I look at these women benefit from the publics, and of sharing… But actually what we understand as publics varies… So in some publics some talk about exclusion of, e.g. women or people of public, but there are counter publics…

A8 – Caja) Like you were saying there are mini publics and they can be public, and extend out into media and coverage. I think we have to look beyond the idea of the bubble… It’s really fragmented and we shouldn’t overlook that…

And with that, the conference is finished. 

You can read the rest of my posts from this week here:

Thanks to all at AoIR for a really excellent week. I have much to think about, lots of contacts to follow up with, and lots of ideas for taking forward my own work, particularly our new YikYak project