Jun 302017

Today I’m at ReCon 2017, giving a presentation later (flying the flag for the unconference sessions!) today but also looking forward to a day full of interesting presentations on publishing for early careers researchers.

I’ll be liveblogging (except for my session) and, as usual, comments, additions, corrections, etc. are welcomed. 

Jo Young, Director of the Scientific Editing Company, is introducing the day and thanking the various ReCon sponsors. She notes: ReCon started about five years ago (with a slightly different name). We’ve had really successful events – and you can explore them all online. We have had a really stellar list of speakers over the years! And on that note…

Graham Steel: We wanted to cover publishing at all stages, from preparing for publication, submission, journals, open journals, metrics, alt metrics, etc. So our first speakers are really from the mid point in that process.

SESSION ONE: Publishing’s future: Disruption and Evolution within the Industry

100% Open Access by 2020 or disrupting the present scholarly comms landscape: you can’t have both? A mid-way update – Pablo De Castro, Open Access Advocacy Librarian, University of Strathclyde

It is an honour to be at this well attended event today. Thank you for the invitation. It’s a long title but I will be talking about how are things are progressing towards this goal of full open access by 2020, and to what extent institutions, funders, etc. are being able to introduce disruption into the industry…

So, a quick introduction to me. I am currently at the University of Strathclyde library, having joined in January. It’s quite an old university (founded 1796) and a medium size university. Previous to that I was working at the Hague working on the EC FP7 Post-Grant Open Access Pilot (Open Aire) providing funding to cover OA publishing fees for publications arising from completed FP7 projects. Maybe not the most popular topic in the UK right now but… The main point of explaining my context is that this EU work was more of a funders perspective, and now I’m able to compare that to more of an institutional perspective. As a result o of this pilot there was a report commissioned b a British consultant: “Towards a competitive and sustainable open access publishing market in Europe”.

One key element in this open access EU pilot was the OA policy guidelines which acted as key drivers, and made eligibility criteria very clear. Notable here: publications to hybrid journals would not be funded, only fully open access; and a cap of no more than €2000 for research articles, €6000 for monographs. That was an attempt to shape the costs and ensure accessibility of research publications.

So, now I’m back at the institutional open access coalface. Lots had changed in two years. And it’s great to be back in this spaces. It is allowing me to explore ways to better align institutional and funder positions on open access.

So, why open access? Well in part this is about more exposure for your work, higher citation rates, compliant with grant rules. But also it’s about use and reuse including researchers in developing countries, practitioners who can apply your work, policy makers, and the public and tax payers can access your work. In terms of the wider open access picture in Europe, there was a meeting in Brussels last May where European leaders call for immediate open access to all scientific papers by 2020. It’s not easy to achieve that but it does provide a major driver… However, across these countries we have EU member states with different levels of open access. The UK, Netherlands, Sweden and others prefer “gold” access, whilst Belgium, Cyprus, Denmark, Greece, etc. prefer “green” access, partly because the cost of gold open access is prohibitive.

Funders policies are a really significant driver towards open access. Funders including Arthritis Research UK, Bloodwise, Cancer Research UK, Breast Cancer Now, British Heard Foundation, Parkinsons UK, Wellcome Trust, Research Councils UK, HEFCE, European Commission, etc. Most support green and gold, and will pay APCs (Article Processing Charges) but it’s fair to say that early career researchers are not always at the front of the queue for getting those paid. HEFCE in particular have a green open access policy, requiring research outputs from any part of the university to be made open access, you will not be eligible for the REF (Research Excellence Framework) and, as a result, compliance levels are high – probably top of Europe at the moment. The European Commission supports green and gold open access, but typically green as this is more affordable.

So, there is a need for quick progress at the same time as ongoing pressure on library budgets – we pay both for subscriptions and for APCs. Offsetting agreements are one way to do this, discounting subscriptions by APC charges, could be a good solutions. There are pros and cons here. In principal it will allow quicker progress towards OA goals, but it will disproportionately benefit legacy publishers. It brings publishers into APC reporting – right now sometimes invisible to the library as paid by researchers, so this is a shift and a challenge. It’s supposed to be a temporary stage towards full open access. And it’s a very expensive intermediate stage: not every country can or will afford it.

So how can disruption happen? Well one way to deal with this would be the policies – suggesting not to fund hybrid journals (as done in OpenAire). And disruption is happening (legal or otherwise) as we can see in Sci-Hub usage which are from all around the world, not just developing countries. Legal routes are possible in licensing negotiations. In Germany there is a Projekt Deal being negotiated. And this follows similar negotiations by open access.nl. At the moment Elsevier is the only publisher not willing to include open access journals.

In terms of tools… The EU has just announced plans to launch it’s own platform for funded research to be published. And Wellcome Trust already has a space like this.

So, some conclusions… Open access is unstoppable now, but still needs to generate sustainable and competitive implementation mechanisms. But it is getting more complex and difficult to disseminate to research – that’s a serious risk. Open Access will happen via a combination of strategies and routes – internal fights just aren’t useful (e.g. green vs gold). The temporary stage towards full open access needs to benefit library budgets sooner rather than later. And the power here really lies with researchers, which OA advocates aren’t always able to get informed. It is important that you know which are open and which are hybrid journals, and why that matters. And we need to think if informing authors on where it would make economic sense to publish beyond the remit of institutional libraries?

To finish, some recommended reading:

  • “Early Career Researchers: the Harbingers of Change” – Final report from Ciber, August 2016
  • “My Top 9 Reasons to Publish Open Access” – a great set of slides.


Q1) It was interesting to hear about offsetting. Are those agreements one-off? continuous? renewed?

A1) At the moment they are one-off and intended to be a temporary measure. But they will probably mostly get renewed… National governments and consortia want to understand how useful they are, how they work.

Q2) Can you explain green open access and gold open access and the difference?

A2) In Gold Open Access, the author pays to make your paper open on the journal website. If that’s a hybrid – so subscription – journal you essentially pay twice, once to subscribe, once to make open. Green Open Access means that your article goes into your repository (after any embargo), into the world wide repository landscape (see: https://www.jisc.ac.uk/guides/an-introduction-to-open-access).

Q3) As much as I agree that choices of where to publish are for researchers, but there are other factors. The REF pressures you to publish in particular ways. Where can you find more on the relationships between different types of open access and impact? I think that can help?

A3) Quite a number of studies. For instance is APC related to Impact factor – several studies there. In terms of REF, funders like Wellcome are desperate to move away from the impact factor. It is hard but evolving.

Inputs, Outputs and emergent properties: The new Scientometrics – Phill Jones, Director of Publishing Innovation, Digital Science

Scientometrics is essentially the study of science metrics and evaluation of these. As Graham mentioned in his introduction, there is a whole complicated lifecycle and process of publishing. And what I will talk about spans that whole process.

But, to start, a bit about me and Digital Science. We were founded in 2011 and we are wholly owned by Holtzbrink Publishing Group, they owned Nature group. Being privately funded we are able to invest in innovation by researchers, for researchers, trying to create change from the ground up. Things like labguru – a lab notebook (like rspace); Altmetric; Figshare; readcube; Peerwith; transcriptic – IoT company, etc.

So, I’m going to introduce a concept: The Evaluation Gap. This is the difference between the metrics and indicators currently or traditionally available, and the information that those evaluating your research might actually want to know? Funders might. Tenure panels – hiring and promotion panels. Universities – your institution, your office of research management. Government, funders, policy organisations, all want to achieve something with your research…

So, how do we close the evaluation gap? Introducing altmetrics. It adds to academic impact with other types of societal impact – policy documents, grey literature, mentions in blogs, peer review mentions, social media, etc. What else can you look at? Well you can look at grants being awarded… When you see a grant awarded for a new idea, then publishes… someone else picks up and publishers… That can take a long time so grants can tell us before publications. You can also look at patents – a measure of commercialisation and potential economic impact further down the link.

So you see an idea germinate in one place, work with collaborators at the institution, spreading out to researchers at other institutions, and gradually out into the big wide world… As that idea travels outward it gathers more metadata, more impact, more associated materials, ideas, etc.

And at Digital Science we have innovators working across that landscape, along that scholarly lifecycle… But there is no point having that much data if you can’t understand and analyse it. You have to classify that data first to do that… Historically we did that was done by subject area, but increasingly research is interdisciplinary, it crosses different fields. So single tags/subjects are not useful, you need a proper taxonomy to apply here. And there are various ways to do that. You need keywords and semantic modeling and you can choose to:

  1. Use an existing one if available, e.g. MeSH (Medical Subject Headings).
  2. Consult with subject matter experts (the traditional way to do this, could be editors, researchers, faculty, librarians who you’d just ask “what are the keywords that describe computational social science”).
  3. Text mining abstracts or full text article (using the content to create a list from your corpus with bag of words/frequency of words approaches, for instance, to help you cluster and find the ideas with a taxonomy emerging

Now, we are starting to take that text mining approach. But to use that data needs to be cleaned and curated to be of use. So we hand curated a list of institutions to go into GRID: Global Research Identifier Database, to understand organisations and their relationships. Once you have that all mapped you can look at Isni, CrossRef databases etc. And when you have that organisational information you can include georeferences to visualise where organisations are…

An example that we built for HEFCE was the Digital Science BrainScan. The UK has a dual funding model where there is both direct funding and block funding, with the latter awarded by HEFCE and it is distributed according to the most impactful research as understood by the REF. So, our BrainScan, we mapped research areas, connectors, etc. to visualise subject areas, their impact, and clusters of strong collaboration, to see where there are good opportunities for funding…

Similarly we visualised text mined impact statements across the whole corpus. Each impact is captured as a coloured dot. Clusters show similarity… Where things are far apart, there is less similarity. And that can highlight where there is a lot of work on, for instance, management of rivers and waterways… And these weren’t obvious as across disciplines…


Q1) Who do you think benefits the most from this kind of information?

A1) In the consultancy we have clients across the spectrum. In the past we have mainly worked for funders and policy makers to track effectiveness. Increasingly we are talking to institutions wanting to understand strengths, to predict trends… And by publishers wanting to understand if journals should be split, consolidated, are there opportunities we are missing… Each can benefit enormously. And it makes the whole system more efficient.

Against capital – Stuart Lawson, Birkbeck University of London

So, my talk will be a bit different. The arguements I will be making are not in opposition to any of the other speakers here, but is about critically addressing our current ways we are working, and how publishing works. I have chosen to speak on this topic today as I think it is important to make visible the political positions that underly our assumptions and the systems we have in place today. There are calls to become more efficient but I disagree… Ownership and governance matter at least as much as the outcome.

I am an advocate for open access and I am currently undertaking a PhD looking at open access and how our discourse around this has been coopted by neoliberal capitalism. And I believe these issues aren’t technical but social and reflect inequalities in our society, and any company claiming to benefit society but operating as commercial companies should raise questions for us.

Neoliberalism is a political project to reshape all social relations to conform to the logic of capital (this is the only slide, apparently a written and referenced copy will be posted on Stuart’s blog). This system turns us all into capital, entrepreneurs of our selves – quantification, metricification whether through tuition fees that put a price on education, turn students into consumers selecting based on rational indicators of future income; or through pitting universities against each other rather than collaboratively. It isn’t just overtly commercial, but about applying ideas of the market in all elements of our work – high impact factor journals, metrics, etc. in the service of proving our worth. If we do need metrics, they should be open and nuanced, but if we only do metrics for people’s own careers and perform for careers and promotion, then these play into neoliberal ideas of control. I fully understand the pressure to live and do research without engaging and playing the game. It is easier to choose not to do this if you are in a position of privelege, and that reflects and maintains inequalities in our organisations.

Since power relations are often about labour and worth, this is inevitably part of work, and the value of labour. When we hear about disruption in the context of Uber, it is about disrupting rights of works, labour unions, it ignores the needs of the people who do the work, it is a neo-liberal idea. I would recommend seeing Audrey Watters’ recent presentation for University of Edinburgh on the “Uberisation of Education”.

The power of capital in scholarly publishing, and neoliberal values in our scholarly processes… When disruptors align with the political forces that need to be dismantled, I don’t see that as useful or properly disruptive. Open Access is a good thing in terms of open access. But there are two main strands of policy… Research Councils have spent over £80m to researchers to pay APCs. Publishing open access do not require payment of fees, there are OA journals who are funded other ways. But if you want the high end visible journals they are often hybrid journals and 80% of that RCUK has been on hybrid journals. So work is being made open access, but right now this money flows from public funds to a small group of publishers – who take a 30-40% profit – and that system was set up to continue benefitting publishers. You can share or publish to repositories… Those are free to deposit and use. The concern of OA policy is the connection to the REF, it constrains where you can publish and what they mean, and they must always be measured in this restricted structure. It can be seen as compliance rather than a progressive movement toward social justice. But open access is having a really positive impact on the accessibility of research.

If you are angry at Elsevier, then you should also be angry at Oxford University and Cambridge University, and others for their relationships to the power elite. Harvard made a loud statement about journal pricing… It sounded good, and they have a progressive open access policy… But it is also bullshit – they have huge amounts of money… There are huge inequalities here in academia and in relationship to publishing.

And I would recommend strongly reading some history on the inequalities, and the racism and capitalism that was inherent to the founding of higher education so that we can critically reflect on what type of system we really want to discover and share scholarly work. Things have evolved over time – somewhat inevitably – but we need to be more deliberative so that universities are more accountable in their work.

To end on a more positive note, technology is enabling all sorts of new and inexpensive ways to publish and share. But we don’t need to depend on venture capital. Collective and cooperative running of organisations in these spaces – such as the cooperative centres for research… There are small scale examples show the principles, and that this can work. Writing, reviewing and editing is already being done by the academic community, lets build governance and process models to continue that, to make it work, to ensure work is rewarded but that the driver isn’t commercial.


Comment) That was awesome. A lot of us here will be to learn how to play the game. But the game sucks. I am a professor, I get to do a lot of fun things now, because I played the game… We need a way to have people able to do their work that way without that game. But we need something more specific than socialism… Libraries used to publish academic data… Lots of these metrics are there and useful… And I work with them… But I am conscious that we will be fucked by them. We need a way to react to that.

Redesigning Science for the Internet Generation – Gemma Milne, Co-Founder, Science Disrupt

Science Disrupt run regular podcasts, events, a Slack channel for scientists, start ups, VCs, etc. Check out our website. We talk about five focus areas of science. Today I wanted to talk about redesigning science for the internet age. My day job is in journalism and I think a lot about start ups, and to think about how we can influence academia, how success is manifests itself in the internet age.

So, what am I talking about? Things like Pavegen – power generating paving stones. They are all over the news! The press love them! BUT the science does not work, the physics does not work…

I don’t know if you heard about Theranos which promised all sorts of medical testing from one drop of blood, millions of investments, and it all fell apart. But she too had tons of coverage…

I really like science start ups, I like talking about science in a different way… But how can I convince the press, the wider audience what is good stuff, and what is just hype, not real… One of the problems we face is that if you are not engaged in research you either can’t access the science, and can’t read it even if they can access the science… This problem is really big and it influences where money goes and what sort of stuff gets done!

So, how can we change this? There are amazing tools to help (Authorea, overleaf, protocol.io, figshare, publons, labworm) and this is great and exciting. But I feel it is very short term… Trying to change something that doesn’t work anyway… Doing collaborative lab notes a bit better, publishing a bit faster… OK… But is it good for sharing science? Thinking about journalists and corporates, they don’t care about academic publishing, it’s not where they go for scientific information. How do we rethink that… What if we were to rethink how we share science?

AirBnB and Amazon are on my slide here to make the point of the difference between incremental change vs. real change. AirBnB addressed issues with hotels, issues of hotels being samey… They didn’t build a hotel, instead they thought about what people want when they traveled, what mattered for them… Similarly Amazon didn’t try to incrementally improve supermarkets.. They did something different. They dug to the bottom of why something exists and rethought it…

Imagine science was “invented” today (ignore all the realities of why that’s impossible). But imagine we think of this thing, we have to design it… How do we start? How will I ask questions, find others who ask questions…

So, a bit of a thought experiment here… Maybe I’d post a question on reddit, set up my own sub-reddit. I’d ask questions, ask why they are interested… Create a big thread. And if I have a lot of people, maybe I’ll have a Slack with various channels about all the facets around a question, invite people in… Use the group to project manage this project… OK, I have a team… Maybe I create a Meet Up Group for that same question… Get people to join… Maybe 200 people are now gathered and interested… You gather all these folk into one place. Now we want to analyse ideas. Maybe I share my question and initial code on GitHub, find collaborators… And share the code, make it open… Maybe it can be reused… It has been collaborative at every stage of the journey… Then maybe I want to build a microscope or something… I’d find the right people, I’d ask them to join my Autodesk 360 to collaboratively build engineering drawings for fabrication… So maybe we’ve answered our initial question… So maybe I blog that, and then I tweet that…

The point I’m trying to make is, there are so many tools out there for collaboration, for sharing… Why aren’t more researchers using these tools that are already there? Rather than designing new tools… These are all ways to engage and share what you do, rather than just publishing those articles in those journals…

So, maybe publishing isn’t the way at all? I get the “game” but I am frustrated about how we properly engage, and really get your work out there. Getting industry to understand what is going on. There are lots of people inventing in new ways.. YOu can use stuff in papers that isn’t being picked up… But see what else you can do!

So, what now? I know people are starved for time… But if you want to really make that impact, that you think is more interested… I undesrtand there is a concern around scooping… But there are ways to do that… And if you want to know about all these tools, do come talk to me!


Q1) I think you are spot on with vision. We want faster more collaborative production. But what is missing from those tools is that they are not designed for researchers, they are not designed for publishing. Those systems are ephemeral… They don’t have DOIs and they aren’t persistent. For me it’s a bench to web pipeline…

A1) Then why not create a persistent archived URI – a webpage where all of a project’s content is shared. 50% of all academic papers are only read by the person that published them… These stumbling blocks in the way of sharing… It is crazy… We shouldn’t just stop and not share.

Q2) Thank you, that has given me a lot of food for thought. The issue of work not being read, I’ve been told that by funders so very relevant to me. So, how do we influence the professors… As a PhD student I haven’t heard about many of those online things…

A2) My co-founder of Science Disrupt is a computational biologist and PhD student… My response would be about not asking, just doing… Find networks, find people doing what you want. Benefit from collaboration. Sign an NDA if needed. Find the opportunity, then come back…

Q3) I had a comment and a question. Code repositories like GitHub are persistent and you can find a great list of code repositories and meta-articles around those on the Journal of Open Research Software. My question was about AirBnB and Amazon… Those have made huge changes but I think the narrative they use now is different from where they started – and they started more as incremental change… And they stumbled on bigger things, which looks a lot like research… So… How do you make that case for the potential long term impact of your work in a really engaging way?

A3) It is the golden question. Need to find case studies, to find interesting examples… a way to showcase similar examples… and how that led to things… Forget big pictures, jump the hurdles… Show that bigger picture that’s there but reduce the friction of those hurdles. Sure those companies were somewhat incremental but I think there is genuinely a really different mindset there that matters.

And we now move to lunch. Coming up…

UNCONFERENCE SESSION 1: Best Footprint Forward – Nicola Osborne, EDINA

This will be me – talking about managing a digital footprint and how robust web links are part of that lasting digital legacy- so no post from me but you can view my slides on Managing Your Digital Footprint and our Reference Rot in Theses: A HiberActive Pilot here.

SESSION TWO: The Early Career Researcher Perspective: Publishing & Research Communication

Getting recognition for all your research outputs – Michael Markie, F1000

I’m going to talk about things you do as researchers that you should get credit for, not just traditional publications. This week in fact there was a very interesting article on the history of science publishing “Is the staggering profitable business of scientific publishing bad for science?”. Publishers came out of that poorly… And I think others are at fault here too, including the research community… But we do have to take some blame.

There’s no getting away from the fact that the journal is the coin of the realm, for career progression, institutional reporting, grant applications. For the REF, will there be impact factors? REF says maybe not, but institutions will be tempted to use that to prioritise. Publishing is being looked at by impact factor…

And it’s not just where you publish. There are other things that you do in your work and which you should get ore credit for. Data; software/code – in bioinformatics there are new softwares and tools that are part of the research, are they getting the recognition they should; all results – not just the successes but also the negative results… Publishers want cool and sexy stuff but realistically we are funded for this, we should be able to publish and be recognised for it; peer review – there is no credit for it, peer reviews often improve articles and warrant credit; expertise – all the authors who added expertise, including non-research staff, everyone should know who contributed what…

So I see research as being more than a journal article. Right now we just package it all up into one tidy thing, but we should be fitting into that bigger picture. So, I’m suggesting that we need to disrupt it a bit more and pubis in a different way… Publishing introduces delays – of up to a year. Journals don’t really care about data… That’s a real issue for reproducibility.  And there is bias involved in publishing, there is a real lack of transparency in publishing decisions. All of the above means there is real research waster. At the same time there is demand for results, for quicker action, for wider access to work.

So, at F1000 we have been working on ways to address these issues. We launched Wellcome Open Research, and after launching that the Bill & Melinda Gated Foundation contacted us to build a similar platform. And we have also built an open research model for UCL Child Health (at St Ormond’s Street).

The process involves sending a paper in, checking there is plagiarism and that ethics are appropriate. But no other filtering. That can take up to 7 days. Then we ask for your data – no data then no publication. Then once the publication and data deposition is made, the work is published and an open peer review and user commenting process begins, they are names and credited, and they contribute to improve that article and contribute to the article revision. Those reviewers have three options: approved, approved with reservations, or not approved as it stands. So yo get to PMC and indexed in PubMed you need two “approved” status of two “approved with reservations” and an “approved”.

So this connects to lots of stuff… For Data thats with DataCite, DigShare, Plotly, Resource Identification Initiative. For Software/code we work with code ocean, Zenodo, GitHub. For All results we work with PubMed, you can publish other formats… etc.

Why are funders doing this? Wellcome Trust spent £7m on APCs last year… So this platform is partly as a service to stakeholders with a complementary capacity for all research findings. We are testing new approach to improve science and its impact – to accelerate access and sharing of findings and data; efficiency to reduce waste and support reproducibility; alternative OA model, etc.

Make an impact, know your impact, show your impact – Anna Ritchie, Mendeley, Elsevier

A theme across the day is that there is increasing pressure and challenges for researchers. It’s never been easier to get your work out – new technology, media, platforms. And yet, it’s never been harder to get your work seen: more researchers, producing more outputs, dealing with competition. So how do you ensure you and your work make an impact? Options mean opportunities, but also choices. Traditional publishing is still important – but not enough. And there are both older and newer ways to help make your research stand out.

Publishing campus is a big thing here. These are free resources to support you in publishing. There are online lectures, interactive training courses, and expert advice. And things happen – live webinars, online lectures (e.g. Top 10 Tips for Writing a Really Terrible Journal Article!), interactive course. There are suits of materials around publishing, around developing your profile.

At some point you will want to look at choosing a journal. Metrics may be part of what you use to choose a journal – but use both quantitative and qualitative (e.g. ask colleagues and experts). You can also use Elsevier Journal Finder – you can search for your title and abstract and subject areas to suggest journals to target. But always check the journal guidance before submitting.

There is also the opportunity for article enrichments which will be part of your research story – 2D radiological data viewer, R code Viewer, Virtual Microscope, Genome Viewer, Audioslides, etc.

There are also less traditional journals: Heliyon is all disciplines so you report your original and technically sound results of primary research, regardless of perceived impact. Methodsx is entirely about methods work. Data in Brief allows you to describe your data to facilitate reproducibility, make it easier to cite, etc. And an alternative to a data article is to add datasets on Mendeley.

And you can also use Mendeley to understand your impact through Mendeley Stats. There is a very detailed dashboard for each publication – this is powered by Scopus so works for all articles indexed in Scopus. Stats like users, Mendeley users with that article in their library, citations, related works… And you can see how your article is being shared. You can also show your impact on Mendeley, with a research profile that is as comprehensive as possible –  not just your publications but with wider impacts, press mentions…. And enabling you to connect to other researchers, to other articles and opportunities. This is what we are trying to do to make Mendeley help you build your online profile as a researcher. We intend to grow those profiles to give a more comprehensive picture of you as a researcher.

And we want to hear from you. Every journal, platform, and product is co-developed with ongoing community input. So do get in touch!

How to share science with hard to reach groups and why you should bother – Becky Douglas

My background is physics, high energy gravitational waves, etc… As I was doing my PhD I got very involved in science engagement. Hopefully most of you think about science communication and public outreach as being a good thing. It does seem to be something that arise in job interviews and performance reviews. I’m not convinced that everyone should do this – not everyone enjoys or is good at it – but there is huge potential if you are enthusiastic. And there is more expectation on scientists to do this to gain recognition, to help bring trust back to scientists, and right some misunderstanding. And by the way talks and teaching don’t count here.

And not everyone goes to science festivals. It is up to us to provide alternative and interesting things for those people. There are a few people who won’t be interested in science… But there are many more people who don’t have time or don’t see the appeal to them. These people deserve access to new research… And there are many ways to communicate that research. New ideas are always worth doing, and can attract new people and get dialogue you’d never expect.

So, article writing is a great way to reach out… Not just in science magazines (or on personal blogs). Newspapers and magazines will often print science articles – reach out to them. And you can pitch other places too – Cosmo prints science. Mainstream publications are desperate for people who understand science to write about it in engaging ways – sometimes you’ll be paid for your work as well.

Schools are obvious, but they are great ways to access people from all backgrounds. You’ll do extra well if you can connect it to the current curriculum! Put the effort in to build a memorable activity or event. Send them home with something fun and you may well reach parents as well…

More unusual events would be things like theatre, for instance Lady Scientists Stitch and Bitch. Stitch and Bitch is an international thing where you get together and sew and craft and chat. So this show was a play which was about travelling back in time to gather all the key lady scientists, and they sit down to discuss science over some knitting and sewing. Because it was theatre it was an extremely diverse group, not people who usually go to science events. When you work with non scientists you get access to a whole new crowd.

Something a bit more unusual… Soapbox Science, I brought to Glasgow in 2015. It’s science busking where you talk about your cutting edge research. Often attached to science festivals but out in public, to draw a crowd from those shopping, or visiting museums, etc. It’s highly interactive. Most had not been to a science event before, they didn’t go out to see science, but they enjoyed it…

And finally, interact with local communities. WI have science events, Scouts and Guides, meet up groups… You can just contact and reach out to those groups. They have questions in their own effort. It allows you to speak to really interesting groups. But it does require lots of time. But I was based in Glasgow, now in Falkirk, and I’ve just done some of this with schools in the Goebbels where we knew that the kids rarely go on to science subjects…

So, this is really worth doing. You work, if it is tax-payer funded, should be accessible to the public. Some people don’t think they have an interest in science – some are right but others just remember dusty chalkboards and bland text books. You have to show them it’s something more than that.

What helps or hinders science communication by early career researchers? – Lewis MacKenzie

I’m a postdoc at the University of Leeds. I’m a keen science communicator and I try to get out there as much as possible… I want to talk about what helps or hinders science communication by early career researchers.

So, who are early career researchers? Well undergraduates are a huge pool of early career researchers and scientists which tend to be untapped; also PhDs; also postdocs. There are some shared barriers here: travel costs, time… That is especially the case in inaccessible parts of Scotland. There is a real issue that science communication is work (or training). And not all supervisors have a positive attitude to science communication. As well as all the other barriers to careers in science of course.

Let’s start with science communication training. I’ve been through the system as an undergraduate, PhD students and postdocs. A lot of training are (rightly) targeted at PhD students, often around writing, conferences, elevator pitches, etc. But there are issues/barriers for ECRs include… Pro-active sci comm is often not formally recognized as training/CPD/workload – especially at evenings and weekends. I also think undergraduate sci comm modules are minimal/non-existent. You get dedicated sci comm masters now, there is lots to explore. And there are relatively poor sci comm training opportunities for post docs. But across the board media skills training pretty much limited – how do you make youtube videos, podcasts, web comics, writing in a magazine – and that’s where a lot of science communication takes place!

Sci Comm in Schools includes some great stuff. STEMNET is an excellent way for ECRs, industry, retirees, etc as volunteers, some basic training, background checks, and a contact hub with schools and volunteers. However it is a confusing school system (especially in England) and curricula. How do you do age-appropriate communication. And just getting to the schools can be tricky – most PhDs and Sci Comm people won’t have a car. It’s basic but important as a barrier.

Science Communication Competitions are quite widespread. They tend to be aimed at PhD students, incentives being experience, training and prizes. But there are issues/barriers for ECRs – often conventional “stand and talk” format; not usually collaborative – even though team work can be brilliant, the big famous science communicators work with a team to put their shows and work together; intense pressure of competitions can be off putting… Some alternative formats would help with that.

Conferences… Now there was a tweet earlier this week from @LizyLowe suggesting that every conference should have a public engagement strand – how good would that be?!

Research Grant “Impact Plans”: major funders now require “impact plans” revolving around science communication. That makes time and money for science communication which is great. But there are issues. The grant writer often designate activities before ECRs are recruited. These prescriptive impact plans aren’t very inspiring for ECRS. Money may be inefficiently spent on things like expensive web design. I think we need a more agile approach to include input from ECRs once recruited.

Finally I wanted to finish with Science Communication Fellowships. These are run by people like Wellcome Trust Engagement Fellowships and the STFC. These are for the Olympic gold medallists of Sci Comm. But they are not great for ECRs. The dates are annual and inflexible – and the process is over 6 months – it is a slow decision making process. And they are intensively competitive so not very ECR friendly, which is a shame as many sci comm people are ECRs. So perhaps more institutions or agencies should offer sci comm fellowships? And  a continuous application process with shorter spells?

To sum up… ECRs at different career stages require different training and organisational support to enable science communication. And science communication needs to be recognised as formal work/training/education – not an out of hours hobby! There are good initiatives out there but there could be many more.

PANEL DISCUSSION – Michael Markie, F1000 (MM); Anna Ritchie, Mendeley, Elsevier (AR); Becky Douglas (BD); Lewis MacKenzie (LW) – chaired by Joanna Young (JY)

Q1 (JY): Picking up on what you said about Pathways to Impact statements… What advice would you give to ECRs if they are completing one of these? What should they do?

A1 (LM): It’s quite a weird thing to do… Two strands… This research will make loads of money and commercialise it; and the science communication strand. It’s easier to say you’ll do a science festival event, harder to say you’ll do press release… Can say you will blog you work once a month, or tweet a day in the lab… You can do that. In my fellowship application I proposed a podcast on biophysics that I’d like to do. You can be creative with your science communication… But there is a danger that people aren’t imaginative and make it a box-ticking thing. Just doing a science festival event and a webpage isn’t that exciting. And those plans are written once… But projects run for three years maybe… Things change, skills change, people on the team change…

A1 (BD): As an ECR you can ask for help – ask supervisors, peers, ask online, ask colleagues… You can always ask for advice!

A1 (MM): I would echo that you should ask experienced people for help. And think tactically as different funders have their own priorities and areas of interest here too.

Q2: I totally agree with the importance of communicating your science… But showing impact of that is hard. And not all research is of interest to the public – playing devil’s advocate – so what do you do? Do you broaden it? Do you find another way in?

A2 (LM): Taking a step back and talking about broader areas is good… I talk a fair bit about undergraduates as science communicators… They have really good broad knowledge and interest. They can be excellent. And this is where things like Science Soapbox can be so effective. There are other formats too.. Things like Bright Club which communicates research through comedy… That’s really different.

A2 (BD) I would agree with all of that. I would add that if you want to measure impact then you have to think about it from the outset – will you count people, some sort of voting or questionnaires. YOu have to plan this stuff in. The other thing is that you have to pitch things carefully to your audience. If I run events on gravitational waves I will talk about space and black holes… Whereas with a 5 year old I ask about gravity and we jump up and down so they understand what is relevant to them in their lives.

A2 (LM): In terms of metrics for science communication… At the British Science Association conference a few years back and this was a major theme… Becky mentioned getting kids to post notes in boxes at sessions… Professional science communicators think a great deal about this… Maybe not as much us “Sunday Fun Run” type people but we should engage more.

Comment (AR): When you prepare an impact statement are you asked for metrics?

A2 (LM): Not usually… They want impact but don’t ask about that…

A2 (BD): Whether or not you are asked for details of how something went you do want to know how you did… And even if you just ask “Did you learn something new today?” that can be really helpful for understanding how it went.

Q3: I think there are too many metrics… As a microbiologist… which ones should I worry about? Should there be a module at the beginning of my PhD to tell me?

A3 (AR): There is no one metric… We don’t want a single number to sum us up. There are so many metrics as one number isn’t enough, one isn’t enough… There is experimentation going on with what works and what works for you… So be part of the conversation, and be part of the change.

A3 (MM): I think there are too many metrics too… We are experimenting. Altmetrics are indicators, there are citations, that’s tangible… We just have to live with a lot of them all at once at the moment!

UNCONFERENCE SESSION 2: Preprints: A journey through time – Graham Steel

This will be a quick talk plus plenty of discussion space… From the onset of thinking about this conference I was very keen to talk about preprints…

So, who knows what a preprint is? There are plenty of different definitions out there – see Neylon et al 2017. But we’ll take the Wikipedia definition for now. I thought preprints dates to the 1990s. But I found a paper that referenced a pre-print from 1922!

Lets start there… Preprints were ticking along fine… But then a fightback began, In 1966 preprinte were made outlaws when Nature wanted to take “lethal steps” to end preprints. In 1969 we had a thing called the “Inglefinger Rule” – we’ll come back to that later… Technology wise various technologies ticked along… In 1989 Tim Berners Lee came along, In 1991 Cern set up, also ArXiv set up and grew swiftly… About 8k prepreints per month are uploaded to ArXiv each month as of 2016. Then, in 2007-12 we had Nature Preprints…

But in 2007, the fightback began… In 2012 the Ingelfinger rule was creating stress… There are almost 35k journals, only 37 still use the Ingelfinger rule… But they include key journals like Cell.

But we also saw the launch of BioaXiv in 2013. And we’ve had an explosion of preprints since then… Also 2013 there was a £5m Centre for Open Science set up. This is a central place for preprints… That is a central space, with over 2m preprints so far. There are now a LOT of new …Xiv preprint sites. In 2015 we saw the launch of the ASAPbio movement.

Earlier this year Mark Zuckerberg invested billions in boiXiv… But everything comes at a price…

Scottish spends on average £11m per year to access research through journals. The best average for APCs I could find is $906. Per pre-print it’s $10. If you want to post a pre-print you have to check the terms of your journal – usually extremely clear. Best to check in SHERPA/ROMEO.

If you want to find out more about preprints there is a great Twitter list, also some recommended preprints reading. Find these slides: slideshare.net/steelgraham and osf.io/zjps6/.


Q1: I found Sherpa/Romeo by accident…. But really useful. Who runs it?

A1: It’s funded by Jisc

Q2: How about findability…

A2: ArXiv usually points to where this work has been submitted. And you can go back and add the DOI once published.

Q2: It’s acting as a static archive then? To hold the green copy

A2: And there is collaborative activity across that… And there is work to make those findable, to share them, they are shared on PubMed…

Q2: One of the problems I see is purely discoverability… Getting it easy to find on Google. And integration into knowledgebases, can be found in libraries, in portals… Hard for a researcher looking for a piece of research… They look for a subject, a topic, to search an aggregated platform and link out to it… To find the repository… So people know they have legal access to preprint copies.

A2: You have COAR at OU which aggregates preprints, suggests additional items when you search. There is ongoing work to integrate with CRIS systems, frequently commercial so interoperability here.

Comment: ArXiv is still the place for high energy physics so that is worth researchers going directly too…

Q3: Can I ask about preprints and research evaluation in the US?

A3: It’s an important way to get the work out… But the lack of peer review is an issue there so emerging stuff there…

GS: My last paper was taking forever to come out, we thought it wasn’t going to happen… We posted to PeerJ but discovered that that journal did use the Inglefinger Rule which scuppered us…

Comment: There are some publishers that want to put preprints on their own platform, so everything stays within their space… How does that sit/conflict with what libraries do…

GS: It’s a bit “us! us! us!”

Comment: You could see all submitted to that journal, which is interesting… Maybe not health… What happens if not accepted… Do you get to pull it out? Do you see what else has been rejected? Could get dodgy… Some potential conflict…

Comment: I believe it is positioned as a separate entity but with a path of least resistance… It’s a question… The thing is.. If we want preprints to be more in academia as opposed to publishers… That means academia has to have the infrastructure to do that, to connect repositories discoverable and aggregated… It’s a potential competitive relationship… Interesting to see how it plays out…

Comment: For Scopus and Web of Science… Those won’t take preprints… Takes ages… And do you want to give up more rights to the journals… ?

Comment: Can see why people would want multiple copies held… That seems healthy… My fear is it requires a lot of community based organisation to be a sustainable and competitive workflow…

Comment: Worth noting the radical “platinum” open access… Lots of preprints out there… Why not get authors to submit them, organise into free, open journal without a publisher… That’s Tim Garrow’s thing… It’s not hard to put together a team to peer review thematically and put out issues of a journal with no charges…

GS: That’s very similar to open library of humanities… And the Wellcome Trust & Gates Foundation stuff, and big EU platform. But the Gates one could be huge. Wellcome Trust is relatively small so far… But EU-wide will be major ramifications…

Comment: Platinum is more about overlay journals… Also like Scope3 and they do metrics on citations etc. to compare use…

GS: In open access we know about green, gold and with platinum it’s free to author and reader… But use of words different in different contexts…

Q4: What do you think the future is for pre-prints?

A4 – GS: There is a huge boom… There’s currently some duplication of central open preprints platform. But information is clear on use and uptake is on the rise… It will plateau at some point like PLoSOne. They launched 2006 and they probably plateaued around 2015. But it is number 2 in the charts of mega-journals, behind Scientific Reports. They increased APCs (around $1450) and that didn’t help (especially as they were profitable)…

SESSION THREE: Raising your research profile: online engagement & metrics

Green, Gold, and Getting out there: How your choice of publisher services can affect your research profile and engagement – Laura Henderson, Editorial Program Manager, Frontiers

We are based in Lausanne in Switzerland. We are fully digital, fully open access publisher. All of 58 journals are published under CC-BY licenses. And the organisation was set up scientists that wanted to change the landscape. So I wanted to talk today about how this can change your work.

What is traditional academic publishing?

Typically readers pay – journal subscriptions via institution/library or pay per view. Given the costs and number of articles they are expensive – ¢14B journals revenue in 2014 works out at $7k per article. It’s slow too.. Journal rejection cascade can take 6 months to a year each time. Up to 1 million papers – valid papers – are rejected every year. And these limit access to research around 80% of research papers are behind subscription paywalls. So knowledge gets out very slowly and inaccessibly.

By comparison open access… Well Green OA allows you to publish an dthen self-archive your paper in a repository where it can be accessed for free. you can use an institutional or central repository, or I’d suggest both. And there can be a delay due to embargo. Gold OA makes research output immediately available from th epublisher and you retain the copyright so no embargoes. It is fully discoverable via indexing and professional promotion services to relevant readers. No subscription fee to reader but usually involves APCs to the institution.

How does Open Access publishing compare? Well it inverts the funding – institution/grant funder supports authors directly, not pay huge subscrition fees for packages dictates by publishers. It’s cheaper – Green OA is usually free. Gold OA average fee is c. $1000 – $3000 – actually that’s half what is paid for subscription publishing. We do see projections of open access overtaking subscription publishing by 2020.

So, what benefits does open access bring? Well there is peer-review; scalable publishing platforms; impact metrics; author discoverability and reputation.

And I’d now like to show you what you should look for from any publisher – open access or others.

Firstly, you should expect basic services: quality assurance and indexing. Peter Suber suggests checking the DOAJ – Directory of Open Access Journals. You can also see if the publisher is part of OASPA which excludes publishers who fail to meet their standards. What else? Look for peer review nad good editors – you can find the joint COPE/OASPA/DOAJ Principles of Transaparancy and Best Practice in Scholarly Publishing. So you need to have clear peer review proceses. And you need a governing board and editors.

At Frontiers we have an impact-neutral peer review oricess. We don’t screen for papers with highest impact. Authors, reviewers and handling Associate Editor interact directly with each other in the online forum. Names of editors and reviewers publishhed on final version of paper. And this leads to an average of 89 days from submission to acceptance – and that’s an industry leading timing… And that’s what won an ASPLP Innovation Award.

So, what are the extraordinary services a top OA publisher can provide? Well altmetrics are more readily available now. Digital articles are accessible and trackable. In Frontiers our metrics are built into every paper… You can see views, downloads, and reader demographics. And that’s post-publication analytics that doesn’t rely on impact factor. And it is community-led imapact – your peers decide the impact and importance.

How discoverable are you? We launched a bespoke built-in networking profile for every author and user: Loop. Scrapes all major index databases to find youe work – constatly updating. It’s linked to Orchid and is included in peer review process. When people look at your profile you can truly see your impact in the world.

In terms of how peers find your work we have article alerts going to 1 million people, and a newsletter that goes to 300k readers. And our articles have 250 million article views and downloads, with hotspots in Mountain View California, and in Shendeng, and areas of development in the “Global South”.

So when you look for a publisher, look for a publisher with global impact.

What are all these dots and what can linking them tell me? – Rachel Lammey, Crossref

Crossref are a not for profit organisation. So… We have articles out there, datasets, blogs, tweets, Wikipedia pages… We are really interested to understand these links. We are doing that through Crossref Event Data, tracking the conversation, mainly around objects with a DOI. The main way we use and mention publications is in the citations of articles. That’s the traditional way to discuss research and understand news. But research is being used in lots of different ways now – Twitter and Reddit…

So, where does Crossref fit in? It is the DOI registration agency for scholarly content. Publishers register their content with us. URLs do change and do break… And that means you need something ore persistent so it can still be used in their research… Last year at ReCon we tried to find DOI gaps in reference lists – hard to do. Even within journals publications move around… And switch publishers… The DOI fixes that reference. We are sort of a switchboard for that information.

I talked about citations and references… Now we are looking beyong that. It is about capturing data and relationships so that understanding and new services (by others) can be built… As such it’s an API (Application Programming Interface) – it’s lots of data rather than an interface. SO it captures subject, relation, object, tweet, mentions, etc. We are generating this data (As of yesterday we’ve seen 14 m events), we are not doing anything with it so this is a clear set of data to do further work on.

We’ve been doing work with NISO Working Group on altmetrics, but again, providing the data not the analysis. So, what can this data show? We see citation rings/friends gaming the machine; potential peer review scams; citation patterns. How can you use this data? Almost any way. Come talk to us about Linked Data; Article Level Metrics; general discoverability, etc.

We’ve done some work ourselves… For instant the Live Data from all sources – including Wikipedia citing various pages… We have lots of members in Korea, and started looking just at citations on Korean Wikipedia. It’s free under a CC0 license. If you are interested, go make something cool… Come ask me questions… And we have a beta testing group and we welcome you feedback and experiments with our data!

The wonderful world of altmetrics: why researchers’ voices matter – Jean Liu, Product Development Manager, Altmetric

I’m actually five years out of graduate school, so I have some empathy with PhD students and ECRs. I really want to go through what Altmetrics is and what measures there are. It’s not controversial to say that altmetrics have been experiencing a meteoric rise over the last few years… That is partly because we have so much more to draw upon than the traditional journal impact factors, citation counts, etc.

So, who are altmetrics.com? We have about 20 employees, founded in 2011 and all based in London. And we’ve started to see that people re receptive to altmetrics, partly because of the (near) instant feedback… We tune into the Twitter firehose – that phrase is apt! Altmetrics also showcase many “flavours” of attention and impact that research can have – and not just articles. And the signals we tracked are highly varies: policy documents, news, blogs, Twitter, post-publication peer review, Facebook, Wikipedia, LinkedIn, Reddit, etc.

Altmetrics also have limitations. They are not a replacement for peer review or citation-based metrics. They can be gamed – but data providers have measures in place to guard against this. We’ve seen interesting attempts at gamification – but often caught…

Researchers are not only the ones who receive attention in altmetrics, but they are also the ones generating attention that make up altmetrics – but not all attention is high quality or trustworthy. We don’t want to suggest that researchers should be judged just on altmetrics…

Meanwhile Universities are asking interesting questions: how an our researchers change policy? Which conference can I send people to which will be most useful, etc.

So, lets see the topic of “diabetic neuropathy”. Looking around we can see a blog, an NHS/Nice guidance document, and a The Conversation. A whole range of items here. And you can track attention over time… Both by volume, but also you can look at influencers across e.g. News Outlets, Policy Outlets, Blogs and Tweeters. And you can understand where researcher voices feature (all are blogs). And I can then compare news and policy and see the difference. The profile for News and Blogs are quite different…

How can researchers voices be heard? Well you can write for a different audience, you can raise the profile of your work… You can become that “go-to” person. You also want to be really effective when you are active – altmetrics can help you to understand where your audience is and how they respond, to understand what is working well.

And you can find out more by trying the altmetric bookmarking browser plugin, by exploring these tools on publishing platforms (where available), or by taking a look.

How to help more people find and understand your work – Charlie Rapple, Kudos

I’m sorry to be the last person on the agenda, you’ll all be overwhelmed as there has been so much information!

I’m one of the founders of Kudos and we are an organisation dedicated to helping you increase the reach and impact of your work. There is such competition for funding, a huge growth in outputs, there is a huge fight for visibility and usage, a drive for accountability and a real cult of impact. You are expected to find and broaden the audience for your work, to engage with the public. And that is the context in which we set up Kudos. We want to help you navigate this new world.

Part of the challenge is knowing where to engage. We did a survey last year with around 3000 participants to ask how they share their work – conferences, academic networking, conversations with colleagues all ranked highly; whilst YouTube, slideshare, etc. are less used.

Impact is built on readership – impacts cross a variety of areas… But essentially it comes down to getting people to find and read your work. So, for me it starts with making sure you increase the number of people reaching and engaging with your work. Hence the publication is at the centre – for now. That may well be changing as other material is shared.

We’ve talked a lot about metrics, there are very different ones and some will matter more to you than others. Citations have high value, but so do mentions, clicks, shares, downloads… Do take the time to think about these. And think about how your own actions and behaviours contribute back to those metrics… So if you email people about your work, track that to see if it works… Make those connections… Everyone has their own way and, as Nicola was saying in the Digital Footprint session, communities exist already, you have to get work out there… And your metrics have to be about correlating what happens – readership and citations. Kudos is a management tool for that.

In terms of justifying time here is that communications do increase impact. We have been building up data on how that takes place. A team from Nanyang Technological Institute did a study of our data in 2016 and they saw that the Kudos tools – promoting their work – they had 23% higher growth in downloads of full text on publisher sites. And that really shows the value of doing that engagement. It will actually lead to meaningful results.

So a quick look at how Kudos works… It’s free for researchers (www.growkudos.com) and it takes about 15 minutes to set up, about 10 minutes each time you publish something new. You can find a publication, you can use your ORCID if you have one… It’s easy to find your publication and once you have then you have page for that where you can create a plain language explanation of your work and why it is important – that is grounded in talking to researchers about what they need. For example: http://bit.ly/plantsdance. That plain text is separate from the abstract. It’s that first quick overview. The advantage of this is that it is easier for people within the field to skim and scam your work; people outside your field in academia can skip terminology of your field and understand what you’ve said. There are also people outside academia to get a handle on research and apply it in non-academic ways. People can actually access your work and actually understand it. There is a lot of research to back that up.

Also on publication page you can add all the resources around your work – code, data, videos, interviews, etc. So for instance Claudia Sick does work on baboons and why they groom where they groom – that includes an article and all of that press coverage together. That publication page gives you a URL, you can post to social media from within Kudos. You can copy the trackable link and paste wherever you like. The advantage to doing this in Kudos is that we can connect that up to all of your metrics and your work. You can get them all in one place, and map it against what you have done to communicate. And we map those actions to show which communications are more effective for sharing… You can really start to refine your efforts… You might have built networks in one space but the value might all be in another space.

Sign up now and we are about to launch a game on building up your profile and impact, and scores your research impact and lets you compare to others.

PANEL DISCUSSION – Laura Henderson, Editorial Program Manager, Frontiers (LH); Rachel Lammey, Crossref (RL); Jean Liu, Product Development Manager, Altmetric (JL); Charlie Rapple, Kudos (CR). 

Q1: Really interesting but how will the community decide which spaces we should use?

A1 (CR): Yes, in the Nangyang work we found that most work was shared on Facebook, but more links were engaged with on Twitter. There is more to be done, and more to filter through… But we have to keep building up the data…

A1 (LH): We are coming from the same sort of place as Jean there, altmetrics are built into Frontiers, connected to ORCID, Loop built to connect to institutional plugins (totally open plugin). But it is such a challenge… Facebook, Twitter, LinkedIn, SnapChat… Usually personal choice really, we just want to make it easier…

A1 (JL): It’s about interoperability. We are all working in it together. You will find certain stats on certain pages…

A1 (RL): It’s personal choice, it’s interoperability… But it is about options. Part of the issue with impact factor is the issue of being judged by something you don’t have any choice or impact upon… And I think that we need to give new tools, ways to select what is right for them.

Q2: These seem like great tools, but how do we persuade funders?

A2 (JL): We have found funders being interested independently, particularly in the US. There is this feeling across the scholarly community that things have to change… And funders want to look at what might work, they are already interested.

A2 (LH): We have an office in Brussels which lobbies to the European Commission, we are trying to get our voice for Open Science heard, to make difference to policies and mandates… The impact factor has been convenient, it’s well embedded, it was designed by an institutional librarian, so we are out lobbying for change.

A2 (CR): Convenience is key. Nothing has changed because nothing has been convenient enough to replace the impact factor. There is a lot of work and innovation in this area, and it is not only on researchers to make that change happen, it’s on all of us to make that change happen now.

Jo Young (JY): To finish a few thank yous… Thank you all for coming a lot today, to all of our speakers, and a huge thank you for Peter and Radic (our cameramen), to Anders, Graham and Jan for work in planning this. And to Nicola and Amy who have been liveblogging, and to all who have been tweeting. Huge thanks to CrossRef, Frontiers, F1000, JYMedia, and PLoS.

And with that we are done. Thanks to all for a really interesting and busy day!


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